Constitution of the Netherlands
The Constitution of the Netherlands is one of two fundamental documents governing the Kingdom of the Netherlands as well as the fundamental law of the European territory of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The present constitution is generally seen as directly derived from the one issued in 1815, constituting a constitutional monarchy. A revision in 1848 instituted a system of parliamentary democracy. In 1983 a major revision of the constitution was undertaken in which the text of the constitution was modernized and new civil rights were added, along with a number of other changes (e.g. abolishing the death penalty under all circumstances and officially naming Amsterdam as the capital). The text is very sober, devoid of legal or political doctrine. It includes a bill of rights. The constitution prohibits the judiciary to test laws and treaties against the constitution, as this is considered a prerogative of the legislature. Thus there is no constitutional court in the Netherlands. The Kingdom of the Netherlands also includes Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten: there is an overarching constitution of the entire kingdom: the Statute of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.