Jewish Party (Romania)
The Jewish Party, in full Jewish Party of Romania (Romanian: Partidul Evreiesc din România, PER; Hebrew: המפלגה היהודית הרומנית) or Jewish National Party (Partidul Național Evreiesc or Evreesc, PNE; Hungarian: Országos Zsidó Párt), was a right-wing political party in Romania, representing Jewish community interests. It originally followed an undercurrent of Zionism, promoting communitarianism as a prerequisite of resettlement in Palestine, and later progressed toward Religious Zionism and Revisionism. Founded by the Tivadar Fischer, József Fischer, and Adolphe Stern, it had particularly strong sections in Transylvania and Bessarabia. In the Old Kingdom, where it registered least support, it was mainly represented by A. L. Zissu and Renașterea Noastră newspaper.The PER was strongly opposed to the liberal and assimilationist program of Wilhelm Filderman and his Union of Romanian Jews (UER). It managed to undermine the UER's spread into Transylvania and other regions, presenting its own candidates in elections for Parliament during the 1930s, when it also became a vocal opponent of antisemitism. Effectively pushed out of national politics in unfavorable circumstances during the elections of 1933, it formed alliances with the UER, before being ultimately banned in 1938. Its support basis was scattered by territorial changes during World War II, and decimated by the Holocaust.The PER reemerged soon after the anti-Nazi coup of 1944, clashing with the Romanian Communist Party and its satellite Jewish Democratic Committee, but also with Ihud-type Zionism. Failing to obtain recognition for its communitarian platform, the party was split between two camps. One was anti-communist, supported Zissu's platform of mass emigration into Palestine, and stood by the Revisionists in their conflict with Britain. The other, led by Mișu Benvenisti, was more open to cooperation with the communists, and was in control of the PER by 1946. Within two years, the communist regime dissolved all the Zionist organizations, imprisoning both Zissu and Benvenisti.