The family planning policy, known as the one-child policy in the West, is a population control policy of the People's Republic of China. The term ""one-child"" is inexact as the policy allows many exceptions and ethnic minorities in China are exempt. In 2007, 36% of China's population was subject to a strict one-child restriction. An additional 53% were allowed to have a second child if the first child was a girl.The policy is enforced at the provincial level through fines that are imposed based on the income of the family and other factors. ""Population and Family Planning Commissions"" exist at every level of government to raise awareness and carry out registration and inspection work.The policy was introduced in 1978 and enacted/implemented on September 18, 1980 to alleviate social, economic and environmental problems in China. Demographers are not clear how much reduction has happened solely because of the policy. A 2008 survey undertaken by the Pew Research Center reported that 76% of the Chinese population supports the policy; however, it is controversial outside China for many reasons, including accusations of human rights abuses in the implementation of the policy, as well as concerns about negative social consequences.