The American University in Cairo
... courts apply the legal consequences of apostasy on the apostate’s personal status.
Egyptian penal codes criminalize the act of apostasy through blasphemy and Egyptian
Courts have even acknowledged on occasion that blasphemy is an automatic
commitment of apostasy. The Egyptian Courts and authorities ...
Apostasy in Islam
Apostasy in Islam (Arabic: ردة riddah or ارتداد irtidād) is commonly defined as the conscious abandonment of Islam by a Muslim in word or through deed. It includes the act of converting to another religion, by a person who was born in a Muslim family or who had previously accepted Islam.Apostasy in Islam includes in its scope not only former Muslims who have renounced Islam to join another religion or become non-religious, but Muslims who have questioned or denied any ""fundamental tenet or creed"" of Islam such as the divinity of Allah, prophethood of Muhammad, or who have mocked Allah, worshipped one or more idols, reject Sharia courts, or knowingly believed in an interpretation of Sharia that is contrary to the consensus of ummah (Islamic community). The term has also been used for people of religions that trace their origins to Islam, such as the Bahá'ís in Iran. Apostasy in Islam does not include acts against Islam or conversion to another religion that is involuntary, forced or done as concealment out of fear of persecution or during war (Taqiyya or Kitman).Ahmet Albayrak explains in The Qur'an: An Encyclopedia that regarding apostasy as a wrongdoing is not a sign of intolerance of other religions, and is not aimed at one’s freedom to choose a religion or to leave Islam and embrace another faith, but that on the contrary, it is more correct to say that the punishment is enforced as a safety precaution when warranted if apostasy becomes a mechanism of public disobedience and disorder (fitna).The definition of apostasy from Islam and its appropriate punishment are controversial, and they vary among Islamic scholars. In Islam’s history, the vast majority of scholars have held that apostasy in Islam is a crime punishable with the death penalty, typically after a waiting period to allow the apostate time to repent and return to Islam. Some contemporary Muslim scholars also hold the traditional view that the death penalty for apostasy is required by the two primary sources of Sharia - the Quran and the Hadiths - while others argue that the death penalty is an inappropriate punishment. A majority considers apostasy in Islam to be some form of religious crime, although a minority does not.Under current laws in Islamic countries, the actual punishment for the apostate (or murtadd مرتد) ranges from execution to prison term to no punishment. Islamic nations with sharia courts use civil code to void the Muslim apostate’s marriage and deny child custody rights, as well as his or her inheritance rights for apostasy. Twenty-three Muslim-majority countries, as of 2013, additionally covered apostasy in Islam through their criminal laws.According to critics, punishment for apostasy in Islam is a violation of universal human rights, and an issue of freedom of faith and conscience. However moderate Muslims do not accept the death penalty for apostasy since it is inconsistent with the Qur'an.