class five october 6, 2008
... Often overlooked in the study of criminal law are
those crimes that involve children, the elderly, and
spouses. Traditionally, criminal acts against these
groups are lumped into the crimes we have already
discussed; but recently, more jurisdictions have been
protecting the aforementioned groups by d ...
Campus Security Authority Training
... CSA reporting materials and resources. Notified
individuals are directed to advise persons in their
area of responsibility, who they believe have
“significant responsibility for student and campus
activities”, of the availability of these materials and
their related responsibilities.
If someone tell ...
Rind et al. controversy
The Rind et al. controversy was a debate in the scientific literature, public media, and government legislatures in the United States regarding a 1998 peer reviewed meta-analysis of the self-reported harm caused by child sexual abuse (CSA). The debate resulted in the unprecedented condemnation of the paper by both Houses of the United States Congress. The social science research community was concerned that the condemnation by government legislatures might have a chilling effect on the future publication of controversial research results.The study's lead author is psychologist Bruce Rind, and it expanded on a 1997 meta-analysis for which Rind is also lead author. The authors stated their goal was to determine whether CSA caused pervasive, significant psychological harm for both males and females, controversially concluding that the harm caused by child sexual abuse was not necessarily intense or pervasive, that the prevailing construct of CSA was not scientifically valid, as it failed empirical verification, and that the psychological damage caused by the abusive encounters depends on other factors such as the degree of coercion or force involved. The authors concluded that even though CSA may not result in lifelong, significant harm to all victims, this does not mean it is not morally wrong and indicated that their findings did not imply current moral and legal prohibitions against CSA should be changed.The Rind et al. study has been criticized by various scientists and researchers, notably Stephanie Dallam (2001; 2002), on the grounds that its methodology and conclusions are poorly designed and statistically flawed. Its definition of harm, for example, has been subject to debate because it only examined long-term psychological effects, and harm can result in a number of ways, including short-term or medical harm (for example, sexually transmitted infections or injuries), a likelihood of revictimization, and the amount of time the victim spent attending therapy for the abuse. Seven years after the publication of the Rind et al. study, however, Heather Marie Ulrich, with two colleagues, replicated it in The Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice and confirmed its main findings, but did not endorse its authors' conclusions.The Rind paper has been quoted by people and organizations advocating age of consent reform, pedophile or pederasty groups in support of their efforts to change attitudes towards pedophilia and to decriminalize sexual activity between adults and minors (children or adolescents), and by defense attorneys who have used the study to minimize harm in child sexual abuse cases.