INST 275 – Administrative Processes in Government
... A bond issue in which a portion of the outstanding bonds matures at
regular intervals until eventually all of the bonds have matured. As
they mature gradually over a period of years, these bonds are used to
finance a project providing regular, level or predictable income
streams. Serial bonds are al ...
A municipal bond is a bond issued by a local government, or their agencies. The term municipal bond is commonly used in the United States, which has the largest market of such trade-able securities in the world estimated at $3.7 Trillion in 2011. Potential issuers of municipal bonds include states, cities, counties, redevelopment agencies, special-purpose districts, school districts, public utility districts, publicly owned airports and seaports, and any other governmental entity (or group of governments) at or below the state level. Municipal bonds may be general obligations of the issuer or secured by specified revenues.Many other countries in the world also issue municipal bonds, sometimes called local authority bonds or other names. The key defining feature of this type of bond is that it is issued by a public-use entity at a lower level of government than the sovereign. A default of the local bond should not automatically trigger a default on the sovereign bonds. This article exclusively covers municipal bonds issued in U.S. dollars in the 50 states, Puerto Rico and U.S. territories. The U.S. municipal bond market is unique in the world for its size, liquidity, legal and tax structure and bankruptcy protection afforded by the U.S. Constitution.In the United States, interest income received by holders of municipal bonds is often exempt from the federal income tax, and may be exempt from state income tax, although municipal bonds issued for certain purposes may not be tax exempt.Unlike new issue stocks that are brought to market with price restrictions until the deal is sold, municipal bonds are free to trade at any time once they are purchased by the investor. Professional traders regularly trade and re-trade the same bonds several times a week. A feature of this market is a larger proportion of smaller retail investors compared to other sectors of the U.S. securities markets.