War, space, and the evolution of Old World complex
... translates these theoretical principles into quantitative predictions. Our approach is therefore somewhat different from the
traditional method of inquiry that historians use. Mathematical
models are an important part of any mature science and serve
a number of useful purposes. First, by testing the ...
EX Update April 06
... Teamwork: working together and
recognizing that teams accomplish more
Efficiency: recognizing that budgets and
equipment are not limitless; making do with
what we have
Big Picture Vision: knowing how your
role affects the team and CAP as a whole;
acting in a way that supports the ov ...
... Fight for your opinions but do not believe that they contain the whole truth or the only truth.
Ethics Quiz Review - East Richland Christian Schools
... Bioethics is right conduct in the area of
biotechnology. Many believe that this area is
around thirty years behind biotechnology in
general, because we have only recently begun
considering the moral implications of this field.
Clandestine cell system
A clandestine cell structure is a method for organizing a group of people ranging from resistance fighters or terrorists in such a way that it can more effectively resist penetration by an opposing organization (e.g., a law enforcement organization). In a cell structure, each small group of people in the cell only know the identities of the people in their cell; as such, if a cell member is apprehended and interrogated, he or she will not know the identities of the higher-ranking individuals in the organization. Depending on the group's philosophy, its operational area, the communications technologies available, and the nature of the mission, it can range from a strict hierarchy to an extremely distributed organization. It is also a method used by criminal organizations, undercover operatives, and unconventional warfare (UW) units led by special forces. Historically, clandestine organizations have avoided electronic communications, because signals intelligence is a strength of conventional militaries and counterintelligence organizations.In the context of tradecraft, covert and clandestine are not synonymous. As noted in the definition (which has been used by the United States and NATO since World War II) in a covert operation the identity of the sponsor is concealed, while in a clandestine operation the operation itself is concealed. Put differently, clandestine means ""hidden"", while covert means ""deniable"". The adversary is aware that a covert activity is happening, but does not know who is doing it, and certainly not their sponsorship. Clandestine activities, however, if successful, are completely unknown to the adversary, and their function, such as espionage, would be neutralized if there was any awareness of the activity. Saying a ""covert cell structure"" is tantamount to tautology, because the point of the cell structure is that its details are completely hidden from the opposition.A sleeper cell refers to a cell, or isolated grouping of sleeper agents that lies dormant until it receives orders or decides to act.