Machismo (/məˈtʃiːzmoʊ, mɑː-, -ˈtʃɪ-/; Spanish: [maˈtʃizmo] (from Spanish ""macho"", male); Portuguese: [mɐˈʃiʒmu]) is the sense of being manly, the concept associated with ""a strong sense of masculine pride...[with] the supreme valuation of characteristics culturally associated with the masculine and a denigration of characteristics associated with the feminine."" It is associated with ""a man’s responsibility to provide for, protect, and defend his family."" In American political usage, William Safire says it refers to the ""condescension of the swaggering male; the trappings of manliness used to dominate women and keep them 'in their place.'""The word macho has a long history in both Spain and Portugal as well as in Spanish and Portuguese languages. It was originally associated with the ideal societal role men were expected to play in their communities, most particularly, Iberian language-speaking societies and countries. Macho in Portuguese and Spanish is a strictly masculine term, derived from the Latin mascŭlus meaning male (today hombre or varón, c.f. Portuguese homem and now-obsolete for humans varão; macho and varão, in their most common sense, are used for males of non-human animal species). Machos in Iberian-descended cultures are expected to possess and display bravery, courage and strength as well as wisdom and leadership, and ser macho (literally, ""to be a macho"") was an aspiration for all boys.During the women's liberation movement of the 1960s and 70s, the term began to be used by Latin American feminists to describe male aggression and violence. The term was used by Latina feminists and scholars to criticize the patriarchal structure of gendered relations in Latino communities. Their goal was to describe a particular Latin American brand of patriarchy.The English word ""machismo"" derives from the identical Spanish and Portuguese word. Portuguese and Spanish machismo refers to the assumption that masculinity is superior to femininity, a concept similar to R. W Connell's hegemonic masculinity, Presently in the sense that supposed feminine traits among males (or traits historically viewed as non-feminine among females, see marianismo) are to be deemed undesirable, socially reprovable or deviations. Gender roles make an important part of human identity as we conduct our identities through our historical and current social actions. Machismo's attitudes and behaviours may be frowned upon or encouraged at various degrees in various societies or subcultures – albeit it is frequently associated with more patriarchial undertones, primarily in present views on the past.