... 1. In America and England, there are regular differences between men’s speech and women’s
speech that cut across sub-cultural boundaries.
2. The fact that women in these populations tend to speak a more standard dialect and use fewer
power words is attributed to women’s lack of socioeconomic power.
Ottenheimer 6 - Cynthia Clarke
... Dialects are mutually intelligibility means that the speakers are using dialects of a language.
Lack of mutual intelligibility means that the speakers are using different languages.
2. The ethnography of speaking and the structure of conversation
... The study of language must deal with the ‘real’ texts that form human communication and the social
situations they are used in.
The speech event is constituted by seven distinct factors, each associated with a different function:
- speaker / writer,
- hearer / reader,
- message form (passed between ...
... express abstract
ideas every bit as
effectively as native
Perception of tone contrasts in Cantonese as a heritage
... Ventureyra, V.A., Pallier, C., Yoo, H. (2004). The loss of first language phonetic perception in adopted
Koreans. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 17, 79-91.
Yeung, H. H., Chen, K. H., & Werker, J. F. (2013). When does native language input affect phonetic
perception? The precocious case of lexical tone ...
linguistic varieties multiligual nations
... standard. They point out that purely linguistic considerations are rarely
important. Though linguists may be involved in codification, their
recommendations are generally guided by cultural or social factors such
as prestige and usage, rather than by the intrinsic linguistic features of
Strong Positions and Laryngeal Features in Yukatek Maya
... (onsets, stressed σs, initial syllables, root-initial σs, and others) allow marked forms that are not
permitted in other positions by virtue of the existence of faithfulness constraints relativized to each
of these positions.
We present novel data from two phonological processes in Yukatek Maya whic ...
Language Contact and Morphosyntactic - Phil.
... learners’ varieties on the other. It was acquired by both young and adult
speakers through contact with German colonists (see Deumert 2003:577
and 2009:374–379). Some of the most important morphosyntactic characteristics of Black Namibian German include the missing case and
gender marking of nouns, ...
What Is the Sapir?Whorf Hypothesis? - Name
... A direct test of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis I will involve the following: for the linguistic variable, we select subjects from two languages that differ in color terminology. For
example, English makes a basic lexical distinction (Berlin and Kay 1969:5ff) between the
color categories ‘green’ and ‘bl ...
Language-Independent Socio-Emotional Role
... from a 10 seconds long windows are used for this purpose.
Later in , the use of the influence model, coupled HMMs
generatively trained on audio and video activity features, was
shown superior to the SVM. In this case, features were extracted from one minute long window during which the role
of e ...
melanesian pidgin and second language acquisition
... These most fluent speakers of the prevailing pidgin interacted with English-speakers
much more than did the laborers they recruited and supervised; many of them seem
to have commanded a register closer to standard English as well as a pidgin that had
come by the 1870s to incorporate many syntactic a ...
The Creativity of Malaysian Netizens in using Curse Words M. K.
... who contribute to the dynamic speech context. As a result of their interactions with local users,
the language is also going through some changes; inadvertently contributing to how English in
Malaysia has evolved, mostly through the process of appropriation - “the process of capturing
and remolding ...
The scope of linguistic anthropology - Assets
... goal of providing an understanding of the multifarious aspects of language as a
set of cultural practices, that is, as a system of communication that allows for
interpsychological (between individuals) and intrapsychological (in the same
individual) representations of the social order and helps peop ...
chapter two - UM Students` Repository
... Morocco where the traditional and international Classic Arabic is spoken alongside
Moroccan Arabic. He does not deal with analogous situations, where two distinct (related
or unrelated) languages are used side by side throughout a speech community, each with
its clearly defined role, such as Spanish ...
Spanish prepositions in Media Lengua
... restrictions to the borrowing of prepositions. These facts suggest that syntactic features like word order characteristics are not detachable from the
lexical entry of a word in the process of borrowing, contrary to what Muysken (1997; 2000) predicts. The presence of prenominally (instead of postnom ...
Intuitions and Competence in Formal Semantics
... this approach needs to be consistent with the actual manifestations of
what it tries to capture. The point is, rather, that such constraints are
global since such analyses do not make any empirical claims regarding
the actual process underlying language acquisition and language use,
both in producti ...
Brighter than Gold: Figurative Language in User
... to determine whether a displayed sentence is indeed a comparison between the highlighted words
(T OPIC and V EHICLE). Sentences qualified by
two out of three annotators as comparisons are
used in the second round, where the task is to
rate how metaphorical a comparison is. We use
a scale of 1 to 4 f ...
grammatical variation and change in spoken ontario
... reduction in verbal morphology can be ascribed to the progressive loss of or breakdown
in the conditioning contexts most favourable to its maintenance.
The present study contributes not only to our understanding of grammatical
variation and change in Canadian varieties of French, but also to the gro ...
A diaphoneme is an abstract phonological unit that identifies a correspondence between related sounds of two or more varieties of a language or language cluster. For example, the vowel that constitutes the English word eye is pronounced differently depending on dialect ([aɪ̯] or [ʌɪ̯] in RP and General American, [ae̯] or [əi̯] in Scottish English, [ɑɪ̯] in Australian English, [ɔɪ̯] in Irish English, [aː] in South African English, and [aː] or [əi̯] in Southern American English, etc.) but, in the appropriate context, all of these variants are perceived by speakers as equivalent, and thus constitute a single diaphoneme. The word diaphone was originally used with the same meaning, but was later repurposed to refer to any of the particular variants, making the relationship between diaphoneme and diaphone analogous to that between phoneme and allophone.Diaphonology studies the realization of diaphones across dialects, and is important if an orthography is to be adequate for more than one dialect of a language. In historical linguistics, it is concerned with the reflexes of an ancestral phoneme as a language splits into dialects, such as the modern realizations of Old English /oː/.