Introduction to International Relations Name: Zhang Shubo Student
... In international society, when civils in some countries are trapped into severe
catastrophe, or their human rights are violated, it is other countries’
responsibility to do humanitarian intervention to terminate the genocide or
mass murder and deliver humanitarian aid to civilians trapped in war zon ...
Genocide Information Questions
... destroy" separates it from other crimes of humanity such as ethnic cleansing, which aims at
forcibly expelling a group from a geographic area (by killing, forced deportation and other
The convention entered into force in 1951 and has since been ratified by more than 130
countries. Though t ...
Doha Development Round - Schmidt
... The most recent round of negotiations, July 23-29 2008, broke down after
failing to reach a compromise on agricultural import rules.
After the breakdown, major negotiations were not expected to resume
until 2009. Nevertheless, intense negotiations, mostly between the USA,
China and India, were ...
Resolution on - Inter
... underscoring the need to maintain support for democracy in times of economic hardship,
Reaffirming the vital role of women in the prevention and settlement of conflicts, and the
importance of women’s full and equal participation in all efforts to preserve and promote peace and
security, and the need ...
Managing Diversity: the ICC
... events, but are part either of a government policy …. Murder; extermination;
torture; rape; political, racial, or religious persecution and other inhumane
acts reach the threshold of crimes against humanity only if they are part of a
widespread or systematic practice.’ (Rome Satute)
Responsibility to protect
The Responsibility to Protect (R2P or RtoP) is a proposed norm that sovereignty is not an absolute right, and that states forfeit aspects of their sovereignty when they fail to protect their populations from mass atrocity crimes and human rights violations (namely genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and ethnic cleansing). The R2P has three pillars: A state has a responsibility to protect its population from genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and ethnic cleansing. The international community has a responsibility to assist the state to fulfill its primary responsibility. If the state manifestly fails to protect its citizens from the four above mass atrocities and peaceful measures have failed, the international community has the responsibility to intervene through coercive measures such as economic sanctions. Military intervention is considered the last resort.While R2P is a proposed norm and not a law, its proponents maintain that it is based on a respect for the principles that underly international law, especially the underlying principles of law relating to sovereignty, peace and security, human rights, and armed conflict.R2P provides a framework for using tools that already exist (i.e., mediation, early warning mechanisms, economic sanctions, and chapter VII powers) to prevent mass atrocities. Civil society organizations, states, regional organizations, and international institutions all have a role to play in the R2P process. The authority to employ the last resort and intervene militarily rests solely with United Nations Security Council (UNSC).