Roman Cyprus was a key spot for important political and religious functions. It was also a strategic base for trade in the Mediterranean. Consistently occupied throughout history, Cyprus has been home to several strong and competing powers such as the Assyrians, Egyptians, Macedonians, and in particular the Romans. Cyprus was annexed by the Romans in 58 B.C., but until 22 B.C. when Cyprus became an official senatorial province, control over the island fluctuated between the Romans and the Ptolemaic Empire. Yet, from the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C. to the Byzantine Empire in the 4th century, Cyprus was controlled by the Romans. And in 293 AD, Cyprus officially became part of the Eastern Roman Empire.Under Roman rule, Cyprus was divided into four main districts, Salamis, Pafos, Amathous, and Lapethos. Pafos was the capital of the island throughout the Roman period until Salamis was re-founded as Constantia in 346 AD. The geographer Ptolemy recorded the following Roman cities: Pafos, Salamis, Amathous, Lapethos, Kition, Kourion, Arsinoe, Kyrenia, Chytri, Karpasia, Soli, and Tamassos, as well as some smaller cities scattered throughout the island. Detailed below is a chronological outline of Roman Cyprus, its political history, economy and trade, religion, social history, art and culture and the natural disasters that plagued Cyprus. Information about Cyprus during Roman rule is based primarily on archaeological findings and epigraphy. There is sparse literary evidence and very infrequent texts of which to base our knowledge. In this article the spelling convention of the Department of Antiquities Cyprus is followed.