As an extension of the fluidized bed family of separation processes, the flash reactor (FR) (or transport reactor) employs turbulent fluid introduced at high velocities to encourage chemical reactions with feeds and subsequently achieve separation through the chemical conversion of desired substances to different phases and streams. A flash reactor consists of a main reaction chamber and an outlet for separated products to enter downstream processes.FR vessels facilitate a low gas and solid retention (and hence reactant contact time) for industrial applications which give rise to a high throughput, pure product and less than ideal thermal distribution when compared to other fluidized bed reactors. Due to these properties as well as its relative simplicity FRs have the potential for use for pre-treatment and post-treatment processes where these strengths of the FR are prioritized the most.Various designs of a FR (e.g. pipeline FR, centrifugal FR, vessel FR) exist and are currently used in pilot industrial plants for further development. These designs allow for a wide range of current and future applications, including water treatment sterilization, recovery and recycling of steel mill dust, pre-treatment and roasting of metals, chemical looping combustion as well as hydrogen production from biomass.