Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI)
... answer correctly when given a similar test. Group averages of CTT scores
also have a clear interpretation: they are the proportion of questions the
group as a whole would be expected to answer correctly. We could thus
conclude that CTT scores are of ratio level, and we would be right to do so,
if th ...
Glossary of Standardized Testing Terms
... A statistic that is used to estimate the reliability of scores on a test. What alpha actually
measures is internal consistency — the extent to which the test takers performed similarly on
all the items. Under some assumptions that are usually reasonable, alpha also indicates the
extent to which thos ...
As the author of your texts states, “Balance is traditionally defined as
... is loosely termed a frontal lobe test on the basis that patients with any sort of frontal lobe
lesion generally do poorly at the test.
Experimenter shuffles one deck of card several times. Subject sits or stands in front of
the card-sorting box. Experimenter instructs the subject, “On the signal, “R ...
EEG Alpha Oscillations The inhibition
... Your brain alpha power might increase during reading each color in order
to block the interference from the semantic processing of each word
The Army Alpha is a group-administered test developed by Robert Yerkes and six others in order to evaluate the many U.S. military recruits during World War I. It was first introduced in 1917 due to a demand for a systematic method of evaluating the intellectual and emotional functioning of soldiers. The test measured ""verbal ability, numerical ability, ability to follow directions, and knowledge of information"". Scores on the Army Alpha were used to determine a soldier's capability of serving, his job classification, and his potential for a leadership position. Soldiers who were illiterate or foreign speaking would take the Army Beta, the nonverbal equivalent of the exam.Army BetaThe Development of the beta test and of the performance test for the examination of the foreign speaking and illiterate presented special problems. The use of demonstration charts and mime to convey the instructions to the persons being examined proved successful. The new type of the test in the beta, using geometrical designs, mutilated pictures, etc., required different principles in its construction. The individual performance tests also involved additional and peculiar standards of construction and evaluation.The important purpose of these supplementary tests was, of course, to give to those handicapped by language difficulties a real opportunity to show their ability. In addition, two definite aims were planned in the use of all forms of testing: first, to point out the feeble-minded and those incapable of military service because of mental deficiency; and second, to find those of unusual or special ability. The arrangement of each test, in both group and individual examinations, was therefore checked against the sources of men in institutions for the feeble-minded. If no score had meant low mentality, the first task would have been solved; but it had been shown that literacy was an important factor in the alpha test. The beta test practically eliminated this factor and was thus a step further in selecting those of low intelligence. To prove conclusively that a man was weak-minded and not merely indifferent or malingering, the performance test was added.The individual examinations as finally used in the U.S. Army were, therefore, primarily checks on the group examinations. No person was reported as feeble-minded until a detailed individual psychological examination had been made. Many cases of mental disorder were discovered and referred to the psychiatrists for examination. Disciplinary cases referred to the psychologists were always given individual examinations, as were referred cases of men having difficulty with drill or those who failed to improve in the YMCA schools and elsewhere. Both the Army Alpha and Army Beta tests were discontinued after World War I.Relationship of Scores and ErrorsIn any psychological aptitude test, the person scoring the test has to take into consideration any error that the examinee will possibly make while taking the test. C. R. Atwell did a small study on the relationship of scores and errors based on the results of administration of the ""Army Alpha"".C. R. Atwell (1937, p. 451) wrote, ""The number of errors made by a subject on a test should be indicative of his approach to the test, whether he works in a hurriedly and rashly or slowly and cautiously. Considered alone, however, the number of errors is a relatively meaningless figure, since more errors would be expected with lower scores. If for a given score wide deviations occur in the number of errors, the error score of a subject should be of value in giving additional information about him"".