E - OHCHR
... the Child and other instruments of international humanitarian law, including the Geneva Conventions of 12
August 1949 and the Additional Protocols thereto of 1977,
Maternal Mortality and FGM - Hale
... Female genital mutilation is defined by
the WHO as "all procedures that involve
partial or total removal of the external female
genitalia or other injury to the female genital
organs for non-medical reasons”
It is practiced as a cultural ritual primarily
in sub-Saharan and Northeast Africa (to a
Better HAG Uganda ToR CoP Training
... combating all forms of gender based violence (VAW/G) and its effects.
Ultimately, the project aims to build a protective environment for women and
girls to be free from violence, including negative traditional practices in
Manafwa district of Uganda. It seeks to do this by focusing on social change, ...
... blindly obey their husbands. Among such discriminatory measures is right to divorce. According
to articles 1130 and 1133 of Iran’s Civil Code, a man is entitled to divorce his wife void of any
justification and by simply paying a woman’s financial due. A woman must, however, prove that
she is enduri ...
Rape and the Feminine Response in Early Modern England and
... In the previous scenes considered, conventional societal conceptions of gender
restrict the wills of both Lucrece and Lavinia to the point of stagnation. This trend is
challenged by differing circumstances for Desdemona, the object of rape in the tragedy
Othello. As is the case with the female chara ...
FGM:Religious, Cultural and Legal Myths
... The main purpose of this paper is to provide a discussion of the myths and
confusion that exist around the issue of FGM and to outline the definition of FGM.
It will also cover the different types of FGM, the common justifications, the health
complications, and the Islamic Fatwa on FGM. The paper ...
In India, patriarchal perceptions of women are often the
... Stereotyping is an inherent part of the way we interact with or view each other –
pigeonholing people, often not maliciously, into certain groups or types.4 Often, this mode of
categorising people establishes certain generalisations or biases that presume the particular
individualities or roles of p ...
Male Victims of Intimate Partner Violence in the United States
... abuse from their female partners, and a substantial minority feared their wives’ violence
and stalking. Hines, Brown, and Dunning also noted that 90% experienced controlling
behaviors, and several men reported frustrating experiences with the criminal justice
system. The men within the study reporte ...
2. Access to justice for women in gender-based violence
... 2012), 5, 12, http://www.aifs.gov.au/acssa/pubs/wrap/wrap12/w12.pdf (viewed 24 May 2014); Denise A.
Donnelly & Stacy Kenyon, ‘“Honey, We Don’t Do Men”: Gender Stereotypes and Provision of Services to
Sexually Assaulted Males’ (1996) 11(3) Journal of Interpersonal Violence 441.
Prosecution of gender-targeted crimes
Prosecution of gender-targeted crimes refers to the legal proceedings of crimes such as rape and domestic violence. The earliest documented prosecution of gender-based/targeted crimes is from 1474 when Sir Peter von Hagenbach was convicted for rapes committed by his troops. However, the trial was unsuccessful in indicting Sir von Hagenbach with the charge of rape because the war in which the rapes occurred was ""undeclared"" and thus the rapes were only considered illegal. Gender-targeted crimes continued to be prosecuted, but it was not until after World War II when an international criminal tribunal- the International Military Tribunal for the Far East (Tokyo Tribunal)- were officers charged for being responsible of the gender-targeted crimes (particularly rape) and other crimes against humanity. Despite the various rape charges, the Charter of the Tokyo Tribunal did not make references to rape, and rape was considered as subordinate to other war crimes. This is also the situation for other tribunals that followed, but with the establishments of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), there was more attention to the prosecution of gender-targeted crimes with each of the statutes explicitly referring to rape and other forms of gender-targeted violence.