References - The University of Auckland
... Piaget used his theory of biological adaptation as the cornerstone of his research. He
had realized from his studies of biology, that whatever knowledge was, it was not a
copy of reality. The concept of a relationship of viable organisms adapting to their
environment provided a means to reconstruct ...
Teaching the Scientific Method in the Active Learning Classroom
... phenomena by means of generating falsifiable hypotheses and testing them
against data. The tendency of faculty,
however understandable, to convert the
presentation into an abstract discussion of
the philosophy of science often obscures
the basic issues for students. I present
here a simple, active l ...
1 - contentextra
... There are criticisms of the Piagetian view of this stage. Piaget himself was interested in the preoperational characteristic of symbol use in play: children often use a single object (e.g. a broom
handle) for many different roles (e.g. a horse, a sword). This suggests a more sophisticated
Sociocultural Perspectives on Foreign Language Learning
... followers of a naturalistic approach focused on the naturalistic endowments, the biological endowments that humans
share with primates, which were largely involuntary and reflexive in the presence of stimuli. Vygotsky‘s concern was
mainly focused on higher mental thinking, rational thought, problem- ...
INQUIRY COMMUNITY IN AN ACTIVITY THEORY FRAME
... act” which “permits humans … to control their behaviour from the outside. The use
of signs leads humans to a specific structure of behaviour that breaks away from
biological development and creates new forms of a culturally-based psychological
process” (1978, p. 40, italics in original). Through con ...
Social Situatedness: Vygotsky and Beyond
... taught to solve a variety of more
advanced problems independently. For
this reason animals are incapable of
learning in the human sense of the term;
human learning presupposes a specific
social nature and a process by which
children grow into the intellectual life of
those around them. (Vygotsky, 19 ...
semiotic mediation, language and society: three exotripic theories
... ‘elementary mental functions’ or sometimes simply as ‘natural’ mental functions.
These represent the initial levels of mental development in human beings, and
act as the biogenetic foundation on which more advanced mental activity can be
built. Vygotsky argued that in their own make up the natural ...
Leading activity is a concept used within the tradition of Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), to describe the activity, or cooperative human action, which plays the essential role in child development during a given developmental period. Although many activities may play a role in a child's development at any given time, the leading activity is theorized to be the type of social interaction that is most beneficial in terms of producing major developmental accomplishments, and preparing the child for the next period of development. Through engaging in leading activities, a child develops a wide range of capabilities, including emotional connection with others, motivation to engage in more complex social activities, the creation of new cognitive abilities, and the restructuring of old ones (Bodrova & Leong 2007: 98).The term ""leading activity"" was first used by Lev Vygotsky(1967: 15-17) in describing sociodramatic play as the leading activity and source of development of preschoolers, but it was not systematically incorporated into Vygotsky's theory of child development. Later, however, Alexei Leontiev and other ""neo-Vygotskians"" such as Alexander Zaporozhets and Daniel Elkonin (Zaporozhets 1997; Zaporozhets & Elkonin 1971) made the concept a fundamental element of their activity theory of child development. The concept has now been extended to several stages or periods in human development.The notion of a leading activity is part of a broader theory of activity that attempts to integrate cognitive, motivational, and social aspects of development. Despite many detailed descriptive accounts of the developmental forms of memory, perception, and cognition in various phases of childhood (e.g. Piaget's work), often missing is an explanation for how or why the child develops these psychological processes (Karpov 2003: 138). The exploration of leading activities seeks to illuminate these questions. Rather than biological maturation or stimulus-response learning, specific types of social activity are seen as generating human development. Because of its attention to causal dynamics, the neo-Vygotskian theory has been called ""the most comprehensive approach to the problem of determinants and mechanisms of child development (Karpov 2003: 138).""