Updating Empiricist Mentalist Semantics
... sentences and parse them into electronic texts. They can even pronounce sentences in
such a way that humans can understand them. This is already a great achievement, but
the computers executing these tasks have no sense of what they are processing or
producing; they completely fail to grasp its mea ...
A QUALITATIVE EXPLORATION OF EMOTIONAL RESPONSES OF
... friendships. There are three different types of mania. Euphoric mania, which make people appear
happier and very excited about anything (Belmaker, 2004). Patients in these episodes can have a
substantial influence on other people because of high positive energy and self-confidence.
However, they may ...
How Do We Know That We Know? The Accessibility Model
... In the present article, I focus on one general cue for the FOK:
the accessibility of pertinent information. According to the position advanced in this article, the cues for the FOK are to be
found in the very information that is activated or accessed during the course of the search-and-retrieval pro ...
SR associations, their extinction, and recovery in an animal model of
... Rachman, 1977, 1990). However, it is not clear why something learned by vicarious or
instructional processes would not be remembered as a cause of the phobic reaction. Thus, the
associative account still fails to explain some patients’ failure to remember the source of phobias.
An associative accoun ...
Negative affect induced by derogatory verbal feedback modulates
... the beginning of an experiment. An ERN relationship to
trait, but not to state variables like anger, tension and fatigue
has been reported by Tops et al. (2006). Although subjects
scored higher on the post-experimental state variables tiredness and anger, this was not correlated to ERN amplitude.
... and "concept-formation" that the wnter had been doing In these,
while seemmg to behave m conformity with continuity theory, the
subjects always did a lot of "hypothesizmg" (agam, some of it to
the pomt) k la the Tohnan-Krechevsky school Even the wnter,
resent it though he may (as a Spencian mcrement ...
Within-subjects Extinction and Renewal in Predictive Judgments
... effect, and has received important empirical support using animals as subjects
(v.g., Bouton & Bolles, 1979; Rosas & Bouton, 1997b; see Bouton, 1993 for
a review). Renewal has been also found when acquisition and extinction are
conducted in the same context, and the test is run in a different one (v ...
Pavlovian Contingencies and Temporal Information
... Second, we used an algorithm that finds change points in cumulative
records (Gallistel, Fairhurst, & Balsam, 2004). First, we computed the
cumulative record of responses versus trials. If the average rate (responses
per trial) remains constant, then the slope of the cumulative record will be
Affect and psychological magnification: Denvations from Tomkins
... predicted that interpersonal themes are more frequent in scenes based on
joy as compared with excitement, and shame as compared with fear.
Differential magnification of positive and negative affects. Tomkins
(1979) distinguishes two different cognitive processes involved in the
magnification of posi ...
Rodolphe Gouin - Hal-SHS
... wrong answers to the questions asked. “Why are the reasons of the subjects
perceived as good when their answers are wrong ? It is because they tried to
answer the questions they were confronted with by making a guess, a conjecture,
or by applying a theory or a general principle valid in many cases.” ...
Trait Conceptualization and Measurement of
... Richins and Dawson were not the first to classify materialism as a value however.
In their classic work, Csikszentmihalyi and Rochberg-Halton (1981) discuss materialism
as a value and differentiate between instrumental materialism and terminal materialism.
Under instrumental materialism, individual ...
Similarity and Distance in Information Spatializations Sara Irina
... appears a little longer as compared to the same distance within regions. In agreement with
the results for point displays, however, similarity judgments in network and region displays
are more variable than distance judgments.
Our findings provide much needed empirical evidence on the conditions und ...
... • The Wason selection task
– Within a familiar content
> You are working at a bar
> There is a table of 4, each person is drinking something, you can see
that one person is drinking beer, another is drinking Coke.
> You know the other two people,one is 18, one is 19 yrs old.
If one is drinking beer, ...
Probability - University of Central Missouri
... • A two-way interaction that changes
depending on the level of a third factor.
• Example: For inpatients, the effect of the
drug is greater for people getting cognitive
than behavior therapy. For outpatients, the
effect of the drug is greater for people
... forgetting works according
to the cue dependency
theory (context dependent
forgetting) should be the
same for everyone – this
means that we can
generalise from the study to
the way most people’s
The stress model of Yerkes-Dodson law suggests that at low and
... students were asked to fill out the computerized questionnaire, which had true or false statements
reflecting back on the video clip. Statements were different for each condition, and they required
a yes or no response (‘Y’ or ‘N’ on computer keyboard) from the participant.
After approximately an ho ...
Final Review Guide ( Due on May 2-counts toward
... How can the confirmation bias and fixation block our ability to effectively problem solve?
How does the availability heuristic affect our social judgment? Representative Heuristic?
What is the difference between belief bias and belief perseverance? Be sure to explain.
Explain the three beginning sta ...
Brain Teasers - Dartmouth Math Home
... Therefore, we would recommend that future projects be performed on a
large population of students from many different grade-levels and
institutions, that a more time-oriented cognitive task be chosen, and that
the subjects be truly isolated in the testing situation.
EXEMPT CATEGORY CLAIMED
... effectiveness of or the comparison among instructional techniques, curricular or classroom management
methods. This category may include children.
Research involving the use of educational tests (cognitive, diagnostic, aptitude, achievement), survey
procedures, interview procedures or observation of ...
Construction of mental model in mechanics through sensory
... interpretations. The observed responses reflected three cognitive mechanisms: sharing of sensory
information, using strategies of scientific inquiry and using mental images of forces and motion.
These mechanisms contributed to the representation of physics ideas. Along with alternative ideas
such as ...
Heuristics in judgment and decision-making
In psychology, heuristics are simple, efficient rules which people often use to form judgments and make decisions. They are mental shortcuts that usually involve focusing on one aspect of a complex problem and ignoring others. These rules work well under most circumstances, but they can lead to systematic deviations from logic, probability or rational choice theory[?]. The resulting errors are called ""cognitive biases"" and many different types have been documented. These have been shown to affect people's choices in situations like valuing a house or deciding the outcome of a legal case. Heuristics usually govern automatic, intuitive judgments but can also be used as deliberate mental strategies when working from limited information.Cognitive scientist Herbert A. Simon originally proposed that human judgments are based on heuristics, taking the concept from the field of computation. In the early 1970s, psychologists Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman demonstrated three heuristics that underlie a wide range of intuitive judgments. These findings set in motion the Heuristics and Biases (HB) research program, which studies how people make real-world judgments and the conditions under which those judgments are unreliable. This research challenged the idea that human beings are rational actors, but provided a theory of information processing to explain how people make estimates or choices. This research, which first gained worldwide attention in 1974 with the Science paper ""Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases"", has guided almost all current theories of decision-making, and although the originally proposed heuristics have been challenged in the further debate, this research program has moulded the field by permanently setting the research questions.It has been criticised that this specific Heuristic-and-Bias tradition has focused on how heuristics lead to errors. However, heuristics can be seen as rational in an underlying sense. According to this perspective, heuristics are good enough for most purposes without being too demanding on the brain's resources. Another theoretical perspective sees heuristics as fully rational in that they are rapid, can be made without full information and can be as accurate as more complicated procedures. By understanding the role of heuristics in human psychology, marketers and other persuaders can influence decisions, such as the prices people pay for goods or the quantity they buy.