""Caracalla"" (/ˌkærəˈkælə/) was the popular nickname of Antoninus (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus, 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), was Roman emperor from 198 to 217. The eldest son of Septimius Severus, he reigned jointly with his father from 198 until Severus' death in 211. For a short time he then ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta until he had him murdered later in 211. Caracalla is remembered as one of the most notorious and unpleasant of emperors because of the massacres and persecutions he authorized and instigated throughout the Empire.Caracalla's reign was also notable for the Constitutio Antoniniana (also called the Edict of Caracalla or the Antonine Constitution), granting Roman citizenship to all freemen throughout the Roman Empire, which according to historian Cassius Dio, was done for the purposes of raising tax revenue. Caracalla also commissioned a large public bath-house (thermae) project in Rome, and the remains of the Baths of Caracalla are still one of the major tourist attractions of the Italian capital.