The Sample Complexity of Exploration in the Multi

... The focus of this paper is the classical multi-armed bandit problem, but rather than looking at the expected regret, we are concerned with PAC-type bounds on the number of steps needed to identify a near-optimal arm. In particular, we are interested in the expected number of steps that are required ...

... The focus of this paper is the classical multi-armed bandit problem, but rather than looking at the expected regret, we are concerned with PAC-type bounds on the number of steps needed to identify a near-optimal arm. In particular, we are interested in the expected number of steps that are required ...

PPT

... 12/12 heads is probably the result of an unfair coin. However, we also know that each of these outcomes is possible (though with low probability) with a fair coin. Any fair coin will produce 10/12 heads 1.6% of the time. But when it happens we’ll claim that the coin is unfair -- and we’ll be wrong. ...

... 12/12 heads is probably the result of an unfair coin. However, we also know that each of these outcomes is possible (though with low probability) with a fair coin. Any fair coin will produce 10/12 heads 1.6% of the time. But when it happens we’ll claim that the coin is unfair -- and we’ll be wrong. ...

Statistical Hypothesis Testing

... 12/12 heads is probably the result of an unfair coin. However, we also know that each of these outcomes is possible (though with low probability) with a fair coin. Any fair coin will produce 10/12 heads 1.6% of the time. But when it happens we’ll claim that the coin is unfair -- and we’ll be wrong. ...

... 12/12 heads is probably the result of an unfair coin. However, we also know that each of these outcomes is possible (though with low probability) with a fair coin. Any fair coin will produce 10/12 heads 1.6% of the time. But when it happens we’ll claim that the coin is unfair -- and we’ll be wrong. ...

Notes on the longest run of heads

... length x from n coin tosses. Each of these probabilities can be found by breaking the event into a partition of events involving shorter sequences by conditioning on how the sequences begin. The desired probability would then be a sum of these probabilities events on shorter sequences. We can then f ...

... length x from n coin tosses. Each of these probabilities can be found by breaking the event into a partition of events involving shorter sequences by conditioning on how the sequences begin. The desired probability would then be a sum of these probabilities events on shorter sequences. We can then f ...

Economics for Business

... 20% of the time. Now what is your best strategy? Call Heads brings you 80%x1+20%x(-1)=0.6. Call Tails gives you 0.2x1+0.8x(-1)=-0.6. So best strategy is to call Heads. ...

... 20% of the time. Now what is your best strategy? Call Heads brings you 80%x1+20%x(-1)=0.6. Call Tails gives you 0.2x1+0.8x(-1)=-0.6. So best strategy is to call Heads. ...

Lecture6_SP17_probability_combinatorics_solutions

... • Explain the difference between a likelihood and a probability • Probability refers to the probability of an event and assumes that certain outcomes of an event are equally likely, for example, if a coin is assumed to be fair then its probability of landing on heads or tails is one half. • The term ...

... • Explain the difference between a likelihood and a probability • Probability refers to the probability of an event and assumes that certain outcomes of an event are equally likely, for example, if a coin is assumed to be fair then its probability of landing on heads or tails is one half. • The term ...

Lecture 6: Probability: Combinatorics

... • Explain the difference between a likelihood and a probability • Probability refers to the probability of an event and assumes that certain outcomes of an event are equally likely, for example, if a coin is assumed to be fair then its probability of landing on heads or tails is one half. • The term ...

... • Explain the difference between a likelihood and a probability • Probability refers to the probability of an event and assumes that certain outcomes of an event are equally likely, for example, if a coin is assumed to be fair then its probability of landing on heads or tails is one half. • The term ...

The St. Basil`s Cake Problem The St. Basil`s Cake Problem

... When we deal five cards in poker, we do not deal the same card twice. The cards dealt are all distinct (unless the deck is rigged). This is typical of most sampling problems, where samples are chosen without replacement. This means that once chosen, an object is not eligible to be selected again. Ho ...

... When we deal five cards in poker, we do not deal the same card twice. The cards dealt are all distinct (unless the deck is rigged). This is typical of most sampling problems, where samples are chosen without replacement. This means that once chosen, an object is not eligible to be selected again. Ho ...

Probability Statistics Student Module

... You put a CD that has 8 songs in your CD player. You set the player to play the songs at random. The player plays all 8 songs without repeating any song. What is the probability that the songs are played in the same order they are listed on the CD? ...

... You put a CD that has 8 songs in your CD player. You set the player to play the songs at random. The player plays all 8 songs without repeating any song. What is the probability that the songs are played in the same order they are listed on the CD? ...

A Scientific Coin Toss Experiment

... is a 50% probability of it coming up heads and a 50% probability of it coming up tails. There is also the very small probability that the coin will land on its edge. What about even more unlikely tail-events? Have you heard of quantum physics and quantum probability? And have you heard of Schröding ...

... is a 50% probability of it coming up heads and a 50% probability of it coming up tails. There is also the very small probability that the coin will land on its edge. What about even more unlikely tail-events? Have you heard of quantum physics and quantum probability? And have you heard of Schröding ...

Math 111 - Midterm 2 Review Problems

... 9. The golden ratio is the positive number √ ϕ with the property that ϕ + 1 is the same as −b ± b2 − 4ac to find ϕ. ϕ2 . Use the quadratic formula 2a 10. Write down the first 5 rows of Pascal’s triangle. 11. Use the binomial theorem to expand (x + 10)4 . 12. Suppose you are selecting a lunch at a re ...

... 9. The golden ratio is the positive number √ ϕ with the property that ϕ + 1 is the same as −b ± b2 − 4ac to find ϕ. ϕ2 . Use the quadratic formula 2a 10. Write down the first 5 rows of Pascal’s triangle. 11. Use the binomial theorem to expand (x + 10)4 . 12. Suppose you are selecting a lunch at a re ...

Rattus binomialis

... you decide to do a test and keep track of his correct rate for a block of 50 trials. After 50 trials, we see that the rat has gotten 31 trials correct (19 trials wrong) for an average of 62. Is the rat learning the task or might he still be guessing? Let's say that we know nothing about probability ...

... you decide to do a test and keep track of his correct rate for a block of 50 trials. After 50 trials, we see that the rat has gotten 31 trials correct (19 trials wrong) for an average of 62. Is the rat learning the task or might he still be guessing? Let's say that we know nothing about probability ...

ONLYAlbinism - WordPress.com

... Inheritance of Albinism A gene controls if a person can produce the pigment melanin contributing to the color of skin, eyes and hair. Some people have the hereditary condition, albinism and cannot produce melanin and have little or no pigment in their skin and hair. (Remember 2 different versions o ...

... Inheritance of Albinism A gene controls if a person can produce the pigment melanin contributing to the color of skin, eyes and hair. Some people have the hereditary condition, albinism and cannot produce melanin and have little or no pigment in their skin and hair. (Remember 2 different versions o ...

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Spring 2006)

... being chosen with probability 1/2. Let H1 be the event that the ﬁrst toss results in heads, and H2 be the event that the second toss results in heads. The coins are biased: with the blue coin, the probability of heads in any given toss is 0.99, whereas for the red coin it is 0.01. (a) Are the events ...

... being chosen with probability 1/2. Let H1 be the event that the ﬁrst toss results in heads, and H2 be the event that the second toss results in heads. The coins are biased: with the blue coin, the probability of heads in any given toss is 0.99, whereas for the red coin it is 0.01. (a) Are the events ...

Mathematics 1050 Some solutions of Homework 5

... Section 7.4: 10 Four balls are selected at random without replacement from an urn containing 3 white balls and 5 blue balls. Find the probability that they are all blue. ...

... Section 7.4: 10 Four balls are selected at random without replacement from an urn containing 3 white balls and 5 blue balls. Find the probability that they are all blue. ...

Advice Coins - Scott Aaronson

... change in p without more than poly(n) bits to record the statistics—regardless of how many times you flip the coin • Seems to answer our question! Except that it doesn’t ...

... change in p without more than poly(n) bits to record the statistics—regardless of how many times you flip the coin • Seems to answer our question! Except that it doesn’t ...

# Coin flipping

Coin flipping, coin tossing, or heads or tails is the practice of throwing a coin in the air to choose between two alternatives, sometimes to resolve a dispute between two parties. It is a form of sortition which inherently has only two possible and equally likely outcomes.