... “The purpose of Newspeak was
not only to provide a medium of
expression for the world-view and
mental habits proper to the
devotees of Ingsoc, but to make all
other modes of thought
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... of such language leads to the lack of understanding between
representatives of different disciplines forming cognitive
Underestimation of results obtained by collaborators, as
well as their research efforts (“It’s trivial, isn’t it?”; “We could
have done the same stuff much easier”);
College Readiness David Conley`s Key Cognitive Strategies for
... College Readiness
A university education is largely about learning how to think in particular ways. Content is a means to
that end. That end is the ability to think about things differently and in deeper, more systematic and
complex ways. For students who think about college strictly in terms of mas ...
Thinking and Language Chapter 10
... Some thought does not need words to accomplish.
When you think about how to turn on your faucet
you do it through mental images.
Mentally practicing things improves performance.
Implicit memories and activities are thought about
Thinking affects our language which then affects
our thoug ...
BLOOM`S TAXONOMY Knowledge – Recalling specific facts or
... Knowledge – Recalling specific facts or general concepts.
Comprehension – Demonstrating the lowest level of understanding. Can use what is
being communicated without necessarily relating it to other material or seeing its fullest
Application – Using abstractions in concrete situations. ...
Introduction to Cognitive Science
... Computations might still be sufficient
for mentality even if some aspects of
the human mind can only be explained
... ‘discover’ the unity of plants and animals as
living things with many shared properties only
around the age of 10.
• She suggested that the coalescence of the
concept of living thing depends on learning
about diverse aspects of plants and animals
– Nature of life sustaining processes
– Wha ...
Classnotes chapter 3: Cognitive foundations of entrepreneurship
... The raw materials for creativity and opportunity recognition: Mental
structures that allow us to store—and use—information.
Why do some persons generate ideas for new products or services?
The answer seems to involve having just the right combination of past experiences.
Because everyone’s experienc ...
... 2. Compare and contrast Ayer and Moore’s
views of language. (35)
The Prefix extra: A Cognitive Linguistic Approach
... of prefixes classified as prefixes of degree and size. The prefix analyzed combines with different word classes and
its semantics might seem chaotic due to different meaning extensions. The prototype theory, along with the theory of
conceptual metaphor and metonymy can make sense of the semantics of ...
Review of: Line Brandt, The Communicative Mind
... philosophical, critical and abstract aspect to Brandt’s notion of communication, at every stage
her statements are pinned down to concrete examples and situations.
A false distinction has emerged in recent years, in which some discourse analysts have complained that cognitive scientific approaches t ...
see his PPT on this
... functions that are served by communication,
including social influence and relational
management. In addition, there are a number
of different ways of defining communication.
The functions and definitions used here are
not the correct ones; they are useful for our
Construction of mental model in mechanics through sensory
... examined the role of motor action and force sensation in construction of physics mental models.
The subjects were asked to represent mechanical situation, to characterize physical parameters and
to solve prediction problems. Their responses were documented and analyzed inductively.
Analysis of the o ...
Understanding Communication in Second Language Classrooms
... language, students of linguistics, or language teachers but is not appropriate for nonnative
speakers of English. The book provides a short but thorough explanation of each grammar
term and even explains grammatical features not found (or hardly used) in English but that are
important for understand ...
... − More than just rationalisations / justifications / errorprone reconstructions?
• Influence of measurement
− Framing effects and order effects
• Combine with additional data
− Non-verbal approaches (e.g., response time)
− Information search behaviour (or eye tracking)
- Birkbeck, University of London
... neural hardware are subject to the constraints of computability theory. Thus, as Frawley notes, this
view is consistent even with anti-representationalist dynamic systems theory (Port & van Gelder,
1995). At the other extreme, one might conceive of the neural hardware as a glorified von Neumann
(in Multilingua 16 (1997): 145-51)
... personal and common history of the participants, which surely contributes to shaping and giving meaning to
their interaction. And so on.
The real issue is not whether it is acceptable to abstract away from some aspects of reality, even though they
play some role in the phenomenon studied. Everybody ...
... •Maps are not accurate copies of
the environment; they include
(Communication) Theory and Research --
... rights if you are accused of violating the Academic Integrity Policy? The right
to appeal for 10 days.
---Can you identify two key theories related to trust, expectations and
communication? Pygmalion Effect (Self-fulfilling prophecy) : Positive
expectations positive results. Negative expectations ...
... • Communications are issues for a purpose “All Chinese people
believe that the new agricultural policy is a major step….”
• If we want to assess the impact of communication, we need to
know whom it reaches…
• What is the degree of our own access to communication (free
choice over material we analyze ...
... functioning of the mind is just a hypothesis. Who knows if we’re
looking at the right aspects of the brain at all. Maybe there are
other aspects of the brain that nobody has even dreamt of
looking at yet. That’s often happened in the history of science.
When people say that the mental is just the ne ...
In linguistics, the conduit metaphor is a dominant class of figurative expressions used when discussing communication itself (metalanguage). It operates whenever people speak or write as if they ""insert"" their mental contents (feelings, meanings, thoughts, concepts, etc.) into ""containers"" (words, phrases, sentences, etc.) whose contents are then ""extracted"" by listeners and readers. Thus, language is viewed as a ""conduit"" conveying mental content between people.Defined and described by linguist Michael J. Reddy, PhD, his discovery of this conceptual metaphor refocused debate within and outside the linguistic community on the importance of metaphorical language.Fellow linguist George Lakoff stated that""The contemporary theory that metaphor is primarily conceptual, conventional, and part of the ordinary system of thought and language can be traced to Michael Reddy’s now classic essay... With a single, thoroughly analyzed example, he allowed us to see, albeit in a restricted domain, that ordinary everyday English is largely metaphorical, dispelling once and for all the traditional view that metaphor is primarily in the realm of poetic or 'figurative' language. Reddy showed, for a single, very significant case, that the locus of metaphor is thought, not language, that metaphor is a major and indispensable part of our ordinary, conventional way of conceptualizing the world, and that our everyday behavior reflects our metaphorical understanding of experience. Though other theorists had noticed some of these characteristics of metaphor, Reddy was the first to demonstrate them by rigorous linguistic analysis, stating generalizations over voluminous examples.""