Cloaking and Invisibility: A Review
... blue circle in Fig. 3(b). This explains why the phase velocity in the cloak at the inner radius must be
inﬁnite, according to (1). The cloak therefore requires superluminal propagation because any ray that
goes through it has more distance to travel in an equal time than it would have in the associa ...
Mechanisms of Pulsed Laser Ablation of
... logical structure that provides an improved mechanistic understanding of pulsed laser ablation of
We consider ablation to be any process of tissue
incision or removal, regardless of the photophysical
or photochemical processes involved. We restrict this
review to pulsed ablation (pulse durat ...
Frontiers in Optics 2010/Laser Science XXVI
... and an exhibit hall featuring leading companies in the field.
Headlining the popular Plenary Session and Awards Ceremony
were Alain Aspect, speaking on quantum optics; Steven Block,
who discussed single molecule biophysics; and award winners
Joseph Eberly, Henry Kapteyn and Margaret Murnane.
Led by ...
OPTO - SPIE
... The 3-dB modulation bandwidth and linewidth enhancement factor
(LEF) of a semiconductor laser both directly benefit from an increased
differential optical, which is typically improved through the use of strain,
quantum confinement, or p-type doping in the active region of the device.
All of these me ...
Integrated Opto-Micro uidic Lab-on-a-Chip in
... mixed and analysed, allowing for parallel processing and for large sets of data to be acquired
in a short time.
There are three main droplet generation techniques: co-owing systems, T-junction
and ow-focusing devices. In all cases the dispersed phase is injected in the device where
it comes in con ...
Development of a Tm3+-doped Fluoride Glass - DORAS
... 1.4.3 Solid state lasers
Solid state lasers are usually based on a host crystal or glass doped with
active laser ions. The first report of an operational laser was made by Maiman in
1961§. This was a ruby laser, in which chromium ions were used to emit a high
intensity pulse of red light when excite ...
Optical rogue waves
Optical rogue waves are rare pulses of light analogous to rogue or freak ocean waves. The term optical rogue waves was coined to describe rare pulses of broadband light arising during the process of supercontinuum generation—a noise-sensitive nonlinear process in which extremely broadband radiation is generated from a narrowband input waveform—in nonlinear optical fiber. In this context, optical rogue waves are characterized by an anomalous surplus in energy at particular wavelengths (e.g., those shifted to the red of the input waveform) and/or an unexpected peak power. These anomalous events have been shown to follow heavy-tailed statistics, also known as L-shaped statistics, fat-tailed statistics, or extreme-value statistics. These probability distributions are characterized by long tails: large outliers occur rarely, yet much more frequently than expected from Gaussian statistics and intuition. Such distributions also describe the probabilities of freak ocean waves and various phenomena in both the man-made and natural worlds. Despite their infrequency, rare events wield significant influence in many systems. Aside from the statistical similarities, light waves traveling in optical fibers are known to obey the similar mathematics as water waves traveling in the open ocean (the nonlinear Schrödinger equation), supporting the analogy between oceanic rogue waves and their optical counterparts. More generally, research has exposed a number of different analogies between extreme events in optics and hydrodynamic systems. A key practical difference is that most optical experiments can be done with a table-top apparatus, offer a high degree of experimental control, and allow data to be acquired extremely rapidly. Consequently, optical rogue waves are attractive for experimental and theoretical research and have become a highly studied phenomenon. The particulars of the analogy between extreme waves in optics and hydrodynamics may vary depending on the context, but the existence of rare events and extreme statistics in wave-related phenomena are common ground.