The History of Anti-Semitism - Learning with Ms. Evers
... government policy—taught in the schools, elaborated in “scientific” journals and research institutes, and promoted
by a huge, highly effective organization for international propaganda. In 1941 the liquidation of European Jewry
became official party policy. An estimated 5.7 million Jews were extermi ...
... become extremely powerful and was committed to
exerting the fullest possible control over western
Christendom. It was also increasingly well informed about
Judaism and its Talmud, largely through learned converts.
Initially, knowledge of the Talmud was used to mock Jews
for their purported lack of r ...
Antisemitism in 21st-century France
After World War II, antisemitism in France was vitriolic, especially during the Six-Day War and the anti-Zionist campaign of the 1970s and 1980s. These stereotypes were strongly accepted, following the successes achieved by the extreme right-wing National Front and an increasing denial of the Holocaust in the 1990s. At the same time, in the mid-1990s began the critical engagement with National Socialism, collaboration and the responsibility of the Vichy Regime..At the beginning of the 21st century, antisemitism found new sources from those of leftist views and from the identification of a significant proportion of the Muslim immigrant population with the Palestinian cause on the one hand and with radical Islamism on the other. A critical debate on the nature, as well as the denunciation of antisemitism linked to the situation in the Middle East (for example, the break out of the Second Intifada) and to Islam, led to divisions between anti-racist groups. Most Jews in France, like most French Muslims, are of North African origin. Maud S. Mandel uses this as the basis of her inquiry Jews and Muslims in France: A History of a Conflict, where she attributes the roots of Muslim antisemitism in France to intercommunal relations in Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco; the course of decolonization, and eventually the Arab-Israeli conflict.The idea of a rise of antisemitism in 21st-century France has been challenged by sociologists like Nonna Mayer, Laurent Mucchielli and others who indicated that antisemitic opinions were in continuous decline in France since the end of the second world war and that other forms of racism were more widespread than antisemitism. This position was criticized by members of the French Jewish community.By early 2014 the number of French Jews making aliyah (migrating to Israel) had overtaken the number of American Jews. At the same time 70 percent of French Jews were concerned about insults or harassment and 60% about physical aggression because of their Jewishness, both figures being much higher than the European average.