Explorations in Applied Social Science
... theoretical models of pure social science are equally useful to applied social
scientists, (c) Applied social scientists will more likely borrow from their basic
disciplines those concepts and theoretical models which aid them in understanding or producing changes, (d) When the basic discipline does ...
Social Anthropology in the British Tradition English Summary
... they are by the work of European anthropologists, all of which reflects the liberating
effects of the end of the disciplinary “boundary policing” process in which the leaders
of the “modern British school” often engaged. The result has been an open,
intellectually pluralistic and certainly far more ...
On Social Structure
... Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at
Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printe ...
Sociology without Societies
... has been called critical sociology, or of the elements associated with the rise
of structuralism, first in linguistics and in many other spheres of sociology
or social anthropology.
Thus the immense field of studies in classical sociology is disappearing
or disintegrating, both in what we could call ...
Social action theory - The Richmond Philosophy Pages
... • Social Action approaches do not deny the existence of roles,
norms and values but they see these as flexible guidelines
rather than rigid frameworks over which we have no control.
• Thus our roles as mothers, students or workers are open to
individual interpretation and negotiation.
Economists are known for their qualification, "all other things being
... component of one kind of political-economic system in which it functions to define the
rights of its owners to the value that labor creates. Capital does not exist apart from the
social and political system that defines and enforces it. It is wealth that has a specific
function in an economic system ...
Internet influences on communities
A community is ""a body of people or things viewed collectively"". According to Steven Brint, communities are ""aggregates of people who share common activities and/or beliefs and who are bound together principally by relations of affect, loyalty, common values, and/or personal concern – i.e., interest in the personalities and life events of one another"".Jenny Preece suggested to evaluate communities according to physical features: size, location and the boundaries that confined them. When commuting became a way of life and cheaper transportation made it easier for people to join multiple communities to satisfy different needs, the strength and type of relationships among people seemed more promising criteria.Since social capital is built of trust, rules, norms and networks, it can be said that the social capital of communities has grown. The lower entrance barriers to the community have made it easier to be a part of many different communities. This goes hand in hand with Don Tapscott's theory of how the digital society has changed collaboration and innovation to a world of co-creation.From birth to death, people are shaped by the communities to which they belong, affecting everything from how they talk to whom they talk with. Just like the telephone and the television changed the way people interact socially, computers have transformed communication and at the same time created new norms for social capital.""A virtual community is a group of people who may or may not meet one another face to face, who exchange words and ideas through the mediation of computer bulletin board systems and other digital networks"". Along with the fact that computer usage has spread, the use of virtual communities have grown. Rheingold defines virtual communities as ""social aggregations that emerge from the Net when enough people carry on those public discussions long enough, with sufficient human feeling, to form webs of personal relationships in cyberspace"". Michael Porter describes a virtual community as ""an aggregation of individuals or business partners who interact around a shared interest, where the interaction is at least partially supported and/or mediated by technology and guided by some protocols or norms"".Virtual communities consist of ""people with shared interests or goals for whom electronic communication is a primary form of interaction"" and have created new forms of collaboration. ""The most skilled and experienced members of the community provide leadership and help integrate contributions from the community as a whole. This way, virtual communities can use the voluntary motivations that exist in a community to assign the right person to the right task more effectively than traditional forms"".According to Benkler, we can ""see a thickening of the preexisting relations with friends and family, in particular with those who were hard to reach earlier"". ""Also, we are beginning to see the emergence of a greater scope for limited-purpose, loose relationships. Although these may not fit the ideal model of virtual communities, they are effective and meaningful to their participants"".The heightened individual capacity that actually is a driving social force have raised concerns by many that the Internet is further fragmenting the community, making people spend their time in front of their computer instead of socializing with each other. Empirical studies show, however, that we are using the Internet and communities on the expense of television, and that is an exchange that promotes social ties.