slides - Frontiers of Fundamental Physics (FFP14)
... On the Relation Betweeen Gauge and Phase
Laboratoire SPHERE - Sciences, Histoire, Philosophie (UMR 7219) - Université Paris Diderot/CNRS
ERC Project Philosophy of Canonical Quantum Gravity
Beyond the Standard Model
... The first version of these notes was written up for lectures at the 1995 AIO-school
(a school for PhD students) on theoretical particle physics. Later they were adapted for
lectures at the Radboud University in Nijmegen, aimed at undergraduate students in their
fourth year. This means that no detail ...
Lattice quantum field theory
... Therefore, the lattice version of a quantum field theory may in the end be actually even
be a better approximation of nature than a continuum theory, if both should not coincide.
These remarks show the conceptual importance of lattice quantum field theories. There
is also a technical important one. ...
15. GRAND UNIFIED THEORIES 15. Grand Uniﬁed Theories 15.1. Grand Uniﬁcation 1
... Finally, larger symmetry groups have been considered. For example, E(6) has a
fundamental representation 27, which under SO(10) transforms as a [16 + 10 + 1].
The breaking pattern E(6) → SU(3)C × SU(3)L × SU(3)R is also possible. With the
additional permutation symmetry Z(3) interchanging the three ...
Non-linear field theory with supersymmetry
... as well as in astrophysics and cosmology [10, 11]. As it is also believed to provide a more
accurate description of hydrodynamical phenomena, much work has been invested in its development [51, 52]. Recently, an interesting extension of the theory to include non-abelian
charges and currents has been ...
Quantum gauge theory simulation with ultracold atoms
... The study of ultracold atoms constitutes one of the hottest areas of atomic,
molecular, and optical physics and quantum optics. The experimental and theoretical achievements in the last three decades in the control and manipulation
of quantum matter at macroscopic scales lead to the so called third ...
Quantum Field Theory and Composite Fermions in the Fractional
... KSvKE00, TEPW07].
The quality of being a macroscopic quantum effect and its connection to topological
quantum numbers and braid group or fractional statistics is the basis for the idea that the
fractional Hall system is a possible candidate for the realization of a quantum computer
One prom ...
Introduction to Integrable Models
... • different choice of symmetry algebra. The spin 1/2 spin chain corresponds to su(2),
but any Lie algebra or even super-algebra can be chosen instead.
• for the rank of the symmetry algebra r > 1, there are more particle species on the
chain, e.g. ↑, ↓, ◦ (hole) of the tJ–model, where ↑, ↓ are fermi ...
Phase transition in gauge theories, monopoles and the Multiple
... implemented to the Standard Model (SM), Family replicated gauge group model
(FRGGM) and phase transitions in gauge theories with/without monopoles. Using
renormalization group equations for the SM, the effective potential in the two–loop
approximation is investigated, and the existence of its postul ...
Probing gauge theories: Exact results and holographic computations
... One of the most fundamental ingredients in modern theoretical physics, and in string
theory in particular, is the notion of duality, the exact equivalence between two systems
or theories with different descriptions but with the same underlying physics.
The very first discovery of an exact duality in ...
Symmetry breaking - Corso di Fisica Nucleare
... The term symmetry derives from the Greek word συµµτ ρια (meaning with measure)
and originally indicated a relation of commensurability (such is the meaning codified
in Euclid’s Elements for example). It quickly acquired a further, more general,
meaning: that of a proportion relation, grounded on (i ...
Measurability of Wilson loop operators
... where (R) denotes the character of the representation D (R) .
The Wilson loop operator does not depend on how the point
x 0 on the loop C is chosen. In much of what follows, we will
assume for notational simplicity that the unbroken gauge
group G is finite; however, our arguments can be easily ext ...
Introduction and Theoretical Background
... Lagrangian preserves gauge invariance, despite the fact that the particular state that describes nature
does not exhibit SU (2) × U (1) symmetry. In this sense the symmetry is said to be “spontaneously
The upshot of the spontaneous symmetry breaking is that in nature the scalar ﬁelds will t ...
Introduction to Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking
... group G . As a consequence, the particles will form multiplets of symm group H . For
example, if symmetry SU (2 ) SU (2 ) is spontaneously broken to SU (2 ) , particles will
form SU (2 ) multiplets
Ling-Fong Li (Carnegie Mellon University) Introduction to Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking
2011 BCVSPIN, ...
CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS OF THE UNI- FIED THEORY OF WEAK AND ELECTROMAG-
... interactions have a spontaneously broken approximate SU(2) X SU(2) symmetry, but also that the currents of this symmetry group are, up to an
overall constant, to be identified with the vector and axial vector currents
of beta decay. (With this assumption ga/gv gets into the picture through
the Goldb ...
This article was downloaded by:[Michigan State University Libraries]
... the energy of quark conﬁnement as the origin of the
nucleon mass, we have explained nearly all the visible mass
of the Universe, since the luminous matter is essentially
made of protons and neutrons in stars. To excellent
approximation, that visible mass of the Universe arises
from QCD—not from the ...
Non-perturbative Quantum Electrodynamics in low
... dimensional versions of QED can still excite the curiosity of theoreticians, as well as condensed matter physicists. Although interesting for
their own sake, these theories provide also valuable playgrounds to study
more realistic quantum field theories, as for example quantum chromodynamics. Beside ...
Non-equilibrium and local detection of the normal fraction of a
... thermodynamic measurements of the energy [21–25].
The second method to measure the normal fraction is
by optical means. It is discussed in Sec.V A. The spatially modulated gauge field is imposed using the same
laser beam configuration in a continuous wave regime to
generate a stationary current patt ...
A New Perspective on Chiral Gauge Theories
... 1. Gauge the RH mirror fermions (so X does
not violate gauge symmetry)… and then
Historically numerous attempts to endow mirror fermions with exotic
interactions in hopes of decoupling them…many have been shown not to
work. Currently several proposed for which there is no evidence ...
Anomaly driven signatures of new invisible physics
... topological nature and are therefore scale independent. As a result, they are not
suppressed even at energies much smaller than the masses of the particles producing
these terms via loop effects. This gives hope to see some signatures at low energies
generated by new high-energy physics.
One possibi ...
Ten Lectures on the ElectroWeak Interactions
... interactions. Partially this is because I consider the Lagrangian of QuantumCromoDynamics more
likely to be established then the ElectroWeak sector of the Standard Model, although not to be
confused with the statement that there are no important open problems in the physics of the strong
Lokal fulltext - Chalmers tekniska högskola
... However, M -theory, or even any of the five kinds of string theories that exist, is
not the focus of this thesis. This rather deals with a closely related set of theories:
supersymmetric field theories. These can be thought of as some low-energy limits of
string theory, and understanding these theor ...
In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under a continuous group of local transformations.The term gauge refers to redundant degrees of freedom in the Lagrangian. The transformations between possible gauges, called gauge transformations, form a Lie group—referred to as the symmetry group or the gauge group of the theory. Associated with any Lie group is the Lie algebra of group generators. For each group generator there necessarily arises a corresponding vector field called the gauge field. Gauge fields are included in the Lagrangian to ensure its invariance under the local group transformations (called gauge invariance). When such a theory is quantized, the quanta of the gauge fields are called gauge bosons. If the symmetry group is non-commutative, the gauge theory is referred to as non-abelian, the usual example being the Yang–Mills theory.Many powerful theories in physics are described by Lagrangians that are invariant under some symmetry transformation groups. When they are invariant under a transformation identically performed at every point in the space in which the physical processes occur, they are said to have a global symmetry. The requirement of local symmetry, the cornerstone of gauge theories, is a stricter constraint. In fact, a global symmetry is just a local symmetry whose group's parameters are fixed in space-time.Gauge theories are important as the successful field theories explaining the dynamics of elementary particles. Quantum electrodynamics is an abelian gauge theory with the symmetry group U(1) and has one gauge field, the electromagnetic four-potential, with the photon being the gauge boson. The Standard Model is a non-abelian gauge theory with the symmetry group U(1)×SU(2)×SU(3) and has a total of twelve gauge bosons: the photon, three weak bosons and eight gluons.Gauge theories are also important in explaining gravitation in the theory of general relativity. Its case is somewhat unique in that the gauge field is a tensor, the Lanczos tensor. Theories of quantum gravity, beginning with gauge gravitation theory, also postulate the existence of a gauge boson known as the graviton. Gauge symmetries can be viewed as analogues of the principle of general covariance of general relativity in which the coordinate system can be chosen freely under arbitrary diffeomorphisms of spacetime. Both gauge invariance and diffeomorphism invariance reflect a redundancy in the description of the system. An alternative theory of gravitation, gauge theory gravity, replaces the principle of general covariance with a true gauge principle with new gauge fields.Historically, these ideas were first stated in the context of classical electromagnetism and later in general relativity. However, the modern importance of gauge symmetries appeared first in the relativistic quantum mechanics of electrons – quantum electrodynamics, elaborated on below. Today, gauge theories are useful in condensed matter, nuclear and high energy physics among other subfields.