VALUING DISTRIBUTIVE EQUALITY by CLAIRE ANITA BREMNER
... provides reasons for accepting the principle independently of its consequences; for
example, even when the distributive outcomes are not fully specified by the principle or
cannot be predicted. Although these two definitions overlap, they are distinct from each
other. The first refers to valuing cer ...
Final 9/19/14 Ethics Case Studies—Learning
... The student needs to recognize that he/she is being dishonest and is cheating.
The student may not view his behavior as violating ethical principles and the Code of Ethics.
This situation points out the important role of faculty who need to review acceptable ethical
behaviors in all classes an ...
Assessing risky social situations∗
... related point must be made. Interpreting risk as a lack of information renders the Pareto
principle suspect when it is applied to ex-ante prospects. It is widely recognized that,
when individuals have diﬀerent beliefs, their unanimity over prospects may be spurious
and carries little normative weigh ...
`Do No Harm` and Industrial Action
... It is not clear whether a clinically indicated test to rule out a low (eg, 1-in-100, or
1-in-200) chance of a condition that poses an immediate threat to life or permanent
disability counts as a LPS. For any given patient, a positive test result is unlikely. Yet if
many (eg, 200 or 400) such tests a ...
The Availability Heuristic, Intuitive Cost
... It has become standard to say that with respect to risks, Europe and the United
States can be distinguished along a single axis: Europe accepts the Precautionary
Principle, and the United States does not. On this view, Europeans attempt to build a
“margin of safety” into public decisions, taking car ...
263. Cass R. Sunstein, "The Availability Heuristic, Intuitive Cost
... authors find that risk perception is a product of discussions that “are often
provoked by observing or hearing about an illness or death” (Behrman et al.,
2003, p. 10) People “know in the abstract how HIV is transmitted and how it can
be prevented,” but they are unclear “about the advisability and e ...
Conclusions and Recommendations for Risk Perception and Risk
... communicating about what people can do to appropriately and effectively reduce their
− Risk communication messages to the public and the media should contain answers to
the following questions that are uppermost in the public mind
- what is happening?
- what risk is it to me?
- what should I ...
Chapter 13 Irreversibility risk and uncertainty
... The role of uncertainty is explicitly recognised in Article 3, Principles, where it is stated that
3. The Parties should take precautionary measures to anticipate,
prevent or minimize the causes of climate change and mitigate its
adverse effects. Where there are threats of serious or irreversible
... « International matters concerning the protection and improvement of the
environment should be handled in a cooperative spirit by all countries, big
and small, on an equal footing. Cooperation through multilateral or bilateral
arrangements or other appropriate means is essential to effectively contr ...
ELEMENTS OF DIRECTING
... a time. If the subordinate gets directions from more than one officer, the
subordinate will be unable to priorities his work. As a result, situation of
confusion, conflict and disarrangement is created. By following this principle,
effective direction takes place
Ethics Notes - Website of Neelay Gandhi
... (a) World Medical Association 1948 - Exceptionless commitment
(b) BMA 1971 (rewritten because of the Dr. Browne case)
(i) Except where the patient agrees
(ii) Except in cases of formal public policy
(c) AMA 1980
(i) Except when serious harm to others is imminent (Tarasoff case)
(ii) Except where the ...
International Legal Framework
... • CDR cannot override the text of the WTO
agreements any more than special and
differential treatment or the precautionary
• Both the text and the context of the WTO
Agreements indicate that CDR would have a
limited role in interpretation.
... There is widespread consensus, summarised in the reports of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007a,b,c), that in the
absence of mitigation policies, average global temperatures will rise
substantially over the next century, with ‘business as usual projections’ of
temperature inc ...
Principle of Double Effect
... • endorsed by most moral theories
• provide a framework that may facilitate resolution of
• four key principles: autonomy (respect for autonomy),
non-maleficence, beneficence, justice
• each principle needs to be weighed and balanced in
determining an optimal course of action
... • With the effort of many states , the UN Framework
Convention on Climate Change aims to ‘achieve
stabilization of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at
a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic
interference with the climate system and such level
should be achieved within a timeframe suffi ...
The precautionary principle or precautionary approach to risk management states that if an action or policy has a suspected risk of causing harm to the public or to the environment, in the absence of scientific consensus that the action or policy is not harmful, the burden of proof that it is not harmful falls on those taking an action.The principle is used by policy makers to justify discretionary decisions in situations where there is the possibility of harm from making a certain decision (e.g. taking a particular course of action) when extensive scientific knowledge on the matter is lacking. The principle implies that there is a social responsibility to protect the public from exposure to harm, when scientific investigation has found a plausible risk. These protections can be relaxed only if further scientific findings emerge that provide sound evidence that no harm will result.In some legal systems, as in the law of the European Union, the application of the precautionary principle has been made a statutory requirement in some areas of law.Regarding international conduct, the first endorsement of the principle was in 1982 when the World Charter for Nature was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly, while its first international implementation was in 1987 through the Montreal Protocol. Soon after, the principle integrated with many other legally binding international treaties such as the Rio Declaration and Kyoto Protocol.