Oxidation of urea‐derived nitrogen by thaumarchaeota‐dominated
... October (20.0 6 8.8 nmol L21 d21; Mann-Whitney U test
p < 0.001; Fig. 1, Table 1, Table S1). Rates of 15N-ammonia oxidation (19.4 6 4.8 nmol L21 d21) in samples from
continental shelf and slope waters collected west of the
Antarctic Peninsula (Fig. S1) during summer (January)
were not different from ...
... higher the yield of KNO3 in this initial reaction, but potassium chloride also tends to
precipitate. Of course, the more water used the lower the yield of potas sium nitrate.
Following precipitation of potassium nitrate, a calcium chloride brine remains containing in
weight percent, in addition to w ...
Vanadium - Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines
... Vanadium (+2) and vanadium (+3) salts are strong
reducing agents and are readily oxidized in air (API
1985). Vanadium (+4) and vanadium (+5) are usually
found bonded to oxygen as a negatively charged
polymeric oxyanion that tends to complex with
polarizable ligands such as phosphorus and sulphur
DDT uptake by arbuscular mycorrhizal alfalfa and depletion in soil
... A loamy soil was collected from the surface (0e15 cm depth) of an experimental field at Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forest Sciences. The selected characteristics are as follows: silt, 45%; clay, 23%; sand, 32%; pH, 7.74
(1:2, soil/water); organic matter, 2.7%; NaHCO3-extractable P, 3.9 mg kg ...
Rangeland Ecology and Management 66(4): 445-453
... mm and 3–6 mm) using a modified slake test (Herrick et al.
2001), which is a visual estimation of how readily a small soil
sample falls apart when submersed in water. The soil sample
was placed on a sieve with 1.5-mm openings and set into water
for 5 min followed by five gentle dipping cycles. Struc ...
Assessing soil quality and interpreting soil test results
... Soil salinity refers to the presence of soluble salts within the
root zone. Tree growth, crop production and fruit quality
can be affected through osmotic and/or ionic processes (see
Figure 6). If the concentration of soluble salts is high enough,
the tree’s ability to take up water and nutrients ma ...
CHAPTER 5 The impact of aquifer intensive use on groundwater
... water supplies). Special attention should be paid
to methods of groundwater sampling, because
ferric oxyhydroxides precipitate in the presence
of air. Iron-bearing groundwaters also support
the growth of iron bacteria. They may be introduced into production wells during drilling
processes, through d ...
Control of Hydrogen Sulfide from Groundwater Using Packed
... Figure 28. Effectiveness of Aeration, Anion Exchange, and Oxidation for
Reduction of Hydrogen Sulfide and Chlorine Demand Associated .............. 74
Figure 29. Impact of Aeration, Anion Exchange, and Oxidation on Organic
Carbon (TOC) and Sulfate Levels in Treated Water ........................... ...
Isolation of Thiobacillus sp from aerobic sludge of distillery and dairy
... Results and Discussion
Sulfide oxidation by IICT-SOB-DAIRY-201 at different initial
sulfide concentration: Fig. 1 shows the oxidation of sulfide and
sulfate formation with time by IICT-SOB-DAIRY-201 at two different
initial sulfide concentrations in a batch reactor. From the Fig. it is
evident that, ...
Development of an NDIR CO2 Sensor
... technologies to rapidly assess the scope and level of PHC pollution at a relatively low cost and within
a short time provides a means of improving management decisions for site remediation.
Common approaches to determine the total concentration of hydrocarbon pollutants in soil focus on
Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from
... Statutory Order no. 56 of 24 January 2000, impose quality criteria for sewage sludge to be
used as field fertilizers. One of the most important groups of compounds that are regulated
is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are persistent, widespread, and can
have a negative influence on bio ...
Digital mapping of soil carbon
... There is a global demand for soil data and information for food security and global environmental
management. This is also a large interest in recognizing the soil system as a significant terrestrial sink of
carbon. The reliable assessment and monitoring of soil carbon stocks is of key importance fo ...
potassium - ICL Fertilizers
... Both red and white potash are chemically the same salt: potassium
Both have equal amounts of potassium (60 %) and chloride (47%)
Both are highly water soluble, being of equivalent agronomic
albatross species demonstrate regional differences in north pacific
... not responsible for the observed differences in organic
contaminant concentrations between these two species.
We believe the route of contaminant exposure for
both albatross species is via their diet (nonpoint source)
as opposed to a contaminated point source because the
measured organochlorines (DD ...
INTRODUCTION Organic matter in soils and sediments is widely
... with those estimated by the LOI for C conversion factor of 1.724 and 2.2. The SOM content by these two methods were relatively
comparable when 3.3 was used as the C conversion factor. In contrast, the SOM contents
predicted by WB and H2O2were fairly comparable at C conversion factor of 2.2. As repor ...
bioremediation - UniMAP Portal
... plants to degrade chemical compounds
Bioremediation – process of cleaning up
environmental sites contaminated with
chemical pollutants by using living
organisms to degrade hazardous materials
into less toxic substances
... As a soil develops from the surface downward, an identifiable
succession of approximately horizontal weathered zones,
called soil horizons, forms.
The soil horizons constitute a soil profile.
The uppermost horizon may be a surface accumulation of
organic matter (O horizon).
An A horizon may either u ...
Chapter 6: Weathering and Soils
... carbonate, is attacked by dissolution and
hydrolysis, it is readily dissolved, leaving
behind only the nearly insoluble impurities
(chiefly clay and quartz) that are always
present in small amounts in the rock.
Organochlorine compounds in wastewater
... affected by the choice of bleaching chemicals, and the industry’s shift from chlorine bleaching to ECF
bleaching has altered wastewater characteristics.
Chlorinated organic by-products of chemical pulp bleaching that are the most toxic and recalcitrant to
wastewater treatment are chlorinated dioxins ...
prediction of concentration profiles of contaminants in groundwater
... difference approach implemented in Matlab 7.0. The concentration profiles for organic and inorganic pollutants
indicated similar profiles, rising to a maximum with time and distance from the landfill. Three dimensional images
were generated for the concentration profiles of all the contaminants. The ...
Identifying Bioaccumulative Halogenated Organic Compounds
... mass spectrometry (GC×GC/TOF-MS) was used to characterize persistent, bioaccumulative,
and potentially toxic HOCs in the samples. This method has been used to successfully analyze
compounds in Atlantic common dolphin blubber and fish oil [10, 11].
While various marine species have been used as envir ...
Degradation kinetics of Diclofenac in Water by Fenton`s Oxidation
... Diclofenac (DCF) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory
drug (NAID) most prevalently used as analgesic, anti-arthritic
and anti-rheumatic and about 15% is excreted unchanged after
human consumption . Though it has been confirmed that
diclofenac is rapidly degraded by direct photolysis under
In situ chemical oxidation
In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), a form of advanced oxidation processes and advanced oxidation technology, is an environmental remediation technique used for soil and/or groundwater remediation to reduce the concentrations of targeted environmental contaminants to acceptable levels. ISCO is accomplished by injecting or otherwise introducing strong chemical oxidizers directly into the contaminated medium (soil or groundwater) to destroy chemical contaminants in place. It can be used to remediate a variety of organic compounds, including some that are resistant to natural degradation.Chemical oxidation is one half of a redox reaction, which results in the loss of electrons. One of the reactants in the reaction becomes oxidized, or loses electrons, while the other reactant becomes reduced, or gains electrons. In ISCO, oxidizing compounds, compounds that give electrons away to other compounds in a reaction, are used to change the contaminants into harmless compounds. The in situ in ISCO is just Latin for ""in place"", signifying that ISCO is a chemical oxidation reaction that occurs at the site of the contamination.The remediation of certain organic substances such as chlorinated solvents (trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene), and gasoline-related compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, MTBE, and xylenes) by ISCO is possible. Some other contaminants can be made less toxic through chemical oxidation.A wide range of ground water contaminants react either moderately or highly with the ISCO method, and ISCO can also be used in a variety of different situations (e.g. unsaturated vs saturated ground, above ground or underground, etc.), so it is a popular method to use.