Download Unification Outline - Norwell Public Schools

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Crimean War ended the nearly 40 years of peace in Europe among the Great
Powers. Russia vs France and Great Britain
Italian Unification*
- Giuseppe Mazzini à known as “the spirit” of Italian Unification, Mazzini was one of
the first Italian nationalists. Although Mazzini made many attempts to unify Italy
through movements like Young Italy and conspiracies and propaganda (etc.), he never
The task of unification came to the small state of Piedmont-Sardinia, which had fought
Austria (1848) and emerged with a constitutional monarchy led by Victor Emmanuel II
(Now seen as the leading state in Italy).
CamilloCavour - Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia.
Believed Piedmont needed to strengthen its Industry and Army
Once that was achieved Piedmont would lead Risorgimento
Wanted Italy to be ruled by the house of Savoy (Victor Emmanuel II)
Wanted a form of Constitutional Monarchy
Plombieres Agreement made by Cavour w/Louis Napoleon, the Plombieres Agreement
stated that if Piedmont were at war w/Austria then France would support Piedmont.
Piedmont sent troops to the Crimea
If Piedmont won, then there would be land gains for both countries. Cavour wanted
Venetia and Lombardy out of the deal (but he never intended to fully unify Italy), and
Napoleon wanted to weaken Austria, get Nice and Savoy.
1859 war between Piedmont and Austria
Treaty of Villafranca .Napoleon III pulled out and the Austrian-Sardinian war ends.
Piedmont gained Lombardy
Northern Italy (w/exeception of Venetia). Unified with Piedmont-Sardinia
Garibaldi returned and recruited a thousands volunteers (Red Shirts), and attacked the
Kingdom of Two Sicily. As he won battles, his army grew.
Garibaldi decided to march on Rome and The Papal States
He was intercepted by Victor Emmanuel and agreed to surrender his forces.
The Austro-Prussian War (1866), Italy received Venetia.
The Franco-Prussian War( 1870) , Italy invades Rome and The papal States Rome.
Italian Unification was now complete
German Unification
The Burshchenschaften
The Zollverein (Prussian led economic union) was formed.
Then in 1848 the Frankfurt Assembly reinforced the concept of a united Germany.
In 1861, Wilhelm I became the new king.
In 1862 Otto von Bismarck was appointed Chancellor or Prime Minister.
- Similarities to Italian Unification, events not planned in advance (contrary to leader’s
claims later on), industrialized north and rural south, done piece by piece, done using
Obstacle in both cases = Austria.
When Wilhelm I came to power in 1861, there was a big issue on military spending:
Wilhelm wanted $, Parliament didn’t want more taxes. Wilhelm appointed Bismarck.
Blood and Iron speech
3 Leaders of German Unification
King Wilhelm(William)I
Chancellor Otto von Bismarck
General Helmuth von Moltke
-1864 Danish War Austria & Prussia declare war on Denmark. War originated when
Denmark attempted to seize the German provinces of Schleswig and Holstein.
The Treaty of Vienna Austria received Holstein, Prussia received Schleswig.
Austro-Prussian (Seven Weeks) War (1866) Bismarck started this war by causing
trouble in Holstein.
The Prussians defeated Austrian
The Peace of Prague Prussia received Schleswig and Holstein. Prussians are lenient
towards Austria
The North German Confederation(1867)
-The Crisis of the Spanish Succession occurs. The Spanish throne is vacant.
Bismarck proposed Leopold of Hohenzollern (Wilhelms cousin).
France doesn’t support Leopold candidacy.
Ems Dipatch,
The Franco-Prussian War 1870-71
The Treaty of Frankfurt
The Bismarckian System