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Full file at http://testbankcart.eu/Test-Bank-for-Introduction-to-Physical-Anthropology-14thEdition-by-Jurmain
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
Chapter Outline
I. Introduction
a) Hominins are members of the evolutionary lineage that includes our species.
i) Hominins are distinguished by bipedal locomotion.
ii) The 3.7 million year old footprints at the site of Laetoli are clear evidence for early hominids.
(1) Other evidence for early hominins includes numerous fossil discoveries in Africa.
b) Physical or biological anthropology is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and
behavioral characteristic of human beings; our closest relatives, the nonhuman primates.
i) Evolution may be defined as a change in the genetic makeup of a population over time.
(1) Evolution can be studied at the microevolutionary and macroevolutionary levels.
II. The Human Connection
a) The unifying theme of this textbook is how human beings are linked to all other life on earth.
i)
Humans are a product of the same evolutionary forces that produced all living things.
ii)
Humans are one contemporary component of a vast biological continuum at a particular
point in time.
III. Biocultural Evolution
a) Culture is a key concept for its critical role in human evolution. Culture can be defined as the
strategy by which humans adapt to the natural environment. Culture is not genetically passed
down but it is learned.
b) Biocultural evolution is the mutual interactive evolution of human biology and culture; the
concept that biology makes culture possible and that developing culture further influences the
direction of biological evolution; this is a basic concept in understanding the unique components
of human evolution.
IV. What is Anthropology?
a) Anthropology has a broad focus and is divided into specialized subfields. In the United States
these are:
(1) Cultural (or social) anthropology.
(2) Archaeology.
(3) Physical (or biological) anthropology.
(4) Some universities include linguistics.
b) The four fields offer a powerful means of explaining variation in human adaptations.
(1) The practical application of anthropology is called applied anthropology.
V. Cultural Anthropology is the study of global patterns of belief and behavior found in human
cultures past and present.
a) Early anthropologists concentrated on producing ethnographies.
i) Later, cultural anthropologists broadened their scope to include cross-cultural studies.
b) Ethnographic techniques are now used to study a variety of issues, including urban anthropology,
medical anthropology, and economic anthropology.
VI. Archaeology is the study of earlier cultures and life style by anthropologists who specialize in the
scientific recovery, analysis, and interpretation of material remains of past societies.
a) The primary sources of information are artifacts and other material culture.
i) Archaeologists ultimately strive to answer questions about human behavior, and these
questions are answered by using precise excavation techniques.
(1) Therefore, archaeology is not simply the digging up of valuable artifacts. It is a
multidisciplinary approach to the study of human behavior.
VII.
Linguistic Anthropology is the study of human speech and language, including its origins.
a) The spontaneous acquisition and use of language is a uniquely human characteristic.
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b) Linguistic anthropologists are interested in, among other things, the process of language
acquisition and its implications for tracing the evolution of language.
VIII. Physical Anthropology is the study human biology within an evolutionary framework.
a) Physical anthropology and biological anthropology are synonymous.
i)
The use of the term biological anthropology reflects a shift away from the traditional
emphasis on describing physical variation towards other topics, including genetics,
evolutionary biology, nutrition, adaptation, and growth and development.
b) Paleoanthropology is the study of anatomical and behavioral human evolution as evidenced by
the fossil record.
i) Paleoanthropologists identify fossil hominid species and their evolutionary relationships and
attempt to reconstruct their adaptations and behaviors.
c) Primate paleontology is the study of the primate fossil record, which extends back to the
beginning of primate evolution some 65 mya. It can be viewed as a subset of paleoanthropology.
d) Visible physical variation has been another major area of interest because of its possible adaptive
significance and the factors that produced physical and genetic variation. Including a focus on
environmental stress and nutritional aspects of health and disease.
e) Molecular anthropologists use cutting-edge technologies to investigate the evolutionary
relationships between human populations as well as between humans and nonhuman primates; by
looking at and comparing DNA sequences.
f) Osteology is the study of the skeleton.
i)
Knowledge of the structure and function of the skeletal system is key for understanding
the fossil record, and it forms the foundation for the analysis of archaeologically derived
human skeletal materials.
ii)
Bioarchaeology is the study of skeletal remains form archaeological sites and one of its
major components is Paleopathology.
(1) Paleopathologists analyze skeletal samples, noting the incidence of trauma, diseases,
nutritional deficiencies, and any other pathological conditions that leave traces on bones.
g) Forensic anthropology is the application of archaeological and osteological techniques to the law.
i)
Forensic anthropologists are often asked by law enforcement agencies to help identify
and analyze skeletal remains that have legal significance.
ii)
They also aid in the identification of remains after mass disasters; the identification of the
September 11 terrorist attack victims is a recent example.
h) Primatology is the study of nonhuman primate social behavior, ecology, and adaptations.
i)
Many of these insights help paleoanthropologists to model early hominin behavior.
(1) Primate paleontology is the study of the nonhuman primate fossil record.
IX.
Applied Anthropology
a) Applied anthropology is the practical application of anthropological theories and methods.
b) Even though traditionally, applied anthropology has mainly been done in the field of cultural
anthropologists, it can also be used in physical anthropology as well as archaeology. Biocultural
anthropology integrates medical and nutritional aspects to anthropology to gain a better
understanding of the interaction of the two.
i)
Medical anthropology explores the relationship between various cultural attributes and
health and disease.
X.
Physical Anthropology and the Scientific Method
a) Biological anthropologists follow the scientific method of hypothesis testing through data
collection and analysis.
i)
A hypothesis is defined as a provisional statement of a phenomenon following initial data
collection and careful observations.
ii)
The hypothesis must be tested through additional data collection and analysis. The goal
is to reject the hypothesis through empirical research.
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(1) If the hypothesis cannot be falsified through rigorous testing, then it rises to the level of a
theory.
(a) A theory is a statement of scientific relationships that has been verified through
hypothesis testing. But like hypotheses, theories aren’t facts. They are tested
explanations of facts.
(b) Any proposition that is stated as absolute or does not allow the possibility of
falsification is not a scientific hypothesis and should never be considered as such.
(c) The purpose of scientific research is not to establish absolute truth; rather, it is to
generate evermore accurate and consistent explanations of phenomena in our
universe based on observation and testing.
XI.
The Anthropological Perspective
a) The anthropological perspective stresses that human beings can only be understood by
broadening our perspectives over space and through time.
b) By extending our knowledge of the diversity of the human experience within the context of
biological and behavioral connection with other species, and the similarities with other cultures,
we can avoid ethnocentric views.
Learning Objectives
After reading Chapter 1, the student should be able to:
1. Describe the discipline of anthropology as it is practiced in the United Sites, its subfields and the
general anthropological perspective on how humans are biologically and behaviorally connected to
other species.
2. Provide a brief description of the major subfields of physical or biological anthropology.
3. Understand the fundamentals of the scientific method and the importance of hypothesis testing.
4. Explain why scientific theories are not simply guesses or hunches, as the term (theory) is often
incorrectly used and interpreted.
5. Appreciate how understanding the nature of scientific research can lead to the development of
critical thinking skills, which, in turn, are an extremely important outcome of a college education.
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Key Terms and Concepts
Adaptation
Anthropology
Applied anthropology
Artifacts
Behavior
Bioarchaeology
Biocultural evolution
Bipedally
Continuum
Culture
Data (sing., datum)
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
Empirical
Ethnocentric
Ethnographies
Evolution
Forensic anthropology
Genetics
p. 5
p. 4
p. 10
p. 11
p. 5
p.16
p. 6
p. 3
p. 6
p. 6
p. 18
p. 14
p. 18
p. 22
p. 11
p. 5
p. 16
p. 5
Hominin
Hypotheses (sing., hypothesis)
Osteology
Paleoanthropology
Paleopathology
Primates
Primate paleontology
Primatology
Quadrupedal
Quantitatively
Relativistic
Savanna
Science
Scientific method
Scientific testing
Species
Theory
Worldview
p. 3
p. 18
p. 15
p. 12
p. 16
p. 4
p. 12
p. 17
p. 22
p. 20
p. 22
p. 3
p. 18
p. 18
p. 20
p. 3
p. 20
p. 6
Student Activities
Activities and Assignments
1. Ask the students to make a list of what they know about anthropology and human evolution, then
have them survey/ask random people what they know about these two concepts. Bring their responses
back to class for discussion of the fact versus misconceptions of anthropology and human evolution.
2. Bring a couple of articles that discuss physical anthropology and explore it with the students. Then
ask the students to find an article in the news to bring in and discuss. Who published the article? What
is the main discovery? Who made it? How would anthropological training enable this work to be
done?
3. Have the students explain the processes of the scientific method, by listing the steps and their
complexity. Ask them to give an example of phenomena that can be explored or studied through the
scientific method and one of phenomena that cannot (empirical vs. non-empirical).
4. Students can bring in examples of internet sources that are factual versus biased, particularly
regarding evolution. Have the students compare these sites in class and work together to discriminate
reliable sites versus non-scientific ones.
5. The official web site for the American Association of Physical Anthropology is
http://www.physanth.org. What careers are available to physical anthropologists? (Use the link
http://www.physanth.org/careers/).
6. Visit the PBS and NOVA websites for activities and videos on evolution and related topics
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/
Media Suggestions
1. Explore the various activities and videos on the American Anthropology Association website for the
project on Race, at www.understandingrace.org.
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2. PBS has an excellent Evolution website with resources for teachers (such as lesson plans, strategies,
course objectives) as well as for students (with short videos and activities). This is a great resource to
explore the complexity of evolution. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/
3. NOVA has an excellent website with NOVA videos, short and full-length for teachers to use in class
or assign as homework. The site also includes quizzes, activities, and other resources to choose from
at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/evolution/
4. Visit the American Anthropological Association’s web site, http://www.aaanet.org/, to learn more
about the discipline of anthropology. Give your students a tour of this website to learn about all the
resources available.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. At present, the members of the family hominin includes
a. apes.
b. monkeys.
c. all primates.
d. humans.
e. rats
ANS: D
REF: 3
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 1
MSC: Pickup
2. A group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring is called
a. Hominidae.
b. a species.
c. a family.
d. a hominin.
e. a mammal.
ANS: B
REF: 3
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 1
MSC: Pickup
3. Simply stated, evolution
a. is NOT subject to the same factors that have produced other species.
b. is a change in the physiological traits of an organism.
c. is a change in the genetic makeup of a population.
d. is too controversial therefore invalid.
e. only refers to the appearance of a new species.
ANS: C
REF: 5
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 1
MSC: New
4. Many aspects of our behavior have direct connection to
a. Primates
b. Reptiles
c. Birds
d. Insects
e. Mammals
ANS: A
REF: 5
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 1
5
MSC: New
Full file at http://testbankcart.eu/Test-Bank-for-Introduction-to-Physical-Anthropology-14thEdition-by-Jurmain
5. The strategy humans developed that helped them to adapt to the natural environment is
a. evolution.
b. culture.
c. biological adaptation.
d. walking on two legs.
e. genetic change.
ANS: B
REF: 6
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 1
MSC: Pickup
6. Cultural behaviors
a. have become less important throughout human evolution.
b. are genetically determined.
c. includes only those aspects of human lifestyle that relate to the arts.
d. are NOT genetically determined.
e. are the same in all species.
ANS: D
REF: 6
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 1
MSC: Pickup
7. The term biocultural evolution refers to
a. biological changes in a species over time.
b. changes in human culture from generation to generation.
c. the interaction between biology and culture in human evolution.
d. biological evolution in all species except humans.
e. refers to the general orientation shared by members of a society.
ANS: C
REF: 6
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 1
MSC: Pickup
8. Which of the following is not generally considered one of the fields of anthropology in the U.S.?
a. Historical
b. Cultural
c. Linguistics
d. Archaeology
e. Physical
ANS: A
REF: 10
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 1
MSC: Pickup
9. In the United States, anthropology is comprised of _____ major subfields.
a. 2
b. 7
c. 6
d. 4
e. 1
ANS: D
REF: 10
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 1
6
MSC: Pickup
Full file at http://testbankcart.eu/Test-Bank-for-Introduction-to-Physical-Anthropology-14thEdition-by-Jurmain
10. Cultural anthropology
a. was first developed in the 17th century.
b. includes the recovery and analysis of material culture from earlier civilizations.
c. focuses solely upon the study of traditional societies.
d. has no practical application in modern society.
e. is the study of patterns of belief and behavior found in modern and historical cultures.
ANS: E
REF: 11
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 1
MSC: Pickup
11. Ethnographies
a. focus only on Western European societies.
b. are studies of nonhuman primates.
c. are detailed descriptive studies of human societies.
d. are studies done by archaeologists.
e. involve the study of the human skeleton.
ANS: C
REF: 11
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 1
MSC: Pickup
12. The population of any city is composed of many subgroups defined by
a. economic status.
b. popularity.
c. intelligence.
d. good looking people.
e. the type of technology used.
ANS: A
REF: 11
DIF: Conceptual
OBJ: 1
MSC: New
13. Archaeologist obtain information mainly from
a. artifacts
b. artwork left behind by earlier cultures
c. books written by early explorers
d. folk stories passed down from various generations
e. their own interpretation only
ANS: A
REF: 11
DIF: Conceptual
OBJ: 1
MSC: New
14. The most important source of data for archaeologists are
a. material culture left by earlier societies.
b. interviews with living people.
c. DNA preserved in fossils.
d. early hominid fossils.
e. human skeletal remains.
ANS: A
REF: 11
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 1
7
MSC: Pickup
Full file at http://testbankcart.eu/Test-Bank-for-Introduction-to-Physical-Anthropology-14thEdition-by-Jurmain
15. Linguistic anthropology is the study of
a. human speech and language
b. evolution of superior languages
c. origins of language
d. human speech, language, and evolution of superior languages
e. human speech, language, and origins of language
ANS: E
REF: 11
DIF: Conceptual
OBJ: 1
MSC: New
16. The subdiscipline of anthropology concerned with various aspects of human language is called
a. primatology.
b. linguistic anthropology.
c. ethnology.
d. paleoanthropology.
e. anthropometry.
ANS: B
REF: 11
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 1
MSC: Pickup
17. The study of human biology within the framework of human evolution is the domain of
a. cultural anthropology.
b. physical/biological anthropology.
c. primatology.
d. osteology.
e. archaeology.
ANS: B
REF: 12
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 1
MSC: Pickup
OBJ: 2
MSC: New
18. Primate Paleontology is the study of
a. primate behavior
b. primate fossil record
c. primate anatomy
d. primate intelligence
e. primate dentition
ANS: B
REF: 12
DIF: Factual
19. The origins of physical anthropology arose from which two areas of interest among 19th century
scientists?
a. the ancestry of modern species and human variation.
b. the genetic determinants of behavior and osteology.
c. nonhuman primates and origins of modern species.
d. human variation and osteology.
e. human evolution and nonhuman primates.
ANS: A
REF: 12
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 2
8
MSC: Pickup
Full file at http://testbankcart.eu/Test-Bank-for-Introduction-to-Physical-Anthropology-14thEdition-by-Jurmain
20. During the 19th century, the sparks of interest in biological change over time were fanned into
flames by:
a. The discovery of Neandertal fossils in the 1800s.
b. The publication of Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species.
c. The discovery of Australopithecus afarensis in the late 1800s.
d. The discovery of the Americas
e. The witch craze period
ANS: B
REF: 12
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 2
MSC: New
21. The subfield of physical anthropology that is concerned with the study of human evolution as
evidenced in the fossil record is
a. osteology.
b. paleoanthropology.
c. anthropometry.
d. ethnography.
e. paleopathology.
ANS: B
REF: 12
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 2
MSC: Pickup
22. ___________ anthropologists help us to understand relationships between extinct and living species
by comparing DNA sequences.
a. DNA
b. Osteological
c. Molecular
d. Cultural
e. Historical
ANS: C
REF: 14
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 2
MSC: Pickup
23. Why are physical anthropologists concerned with human variation
a. its focus on separating different species
b. they want to identify the factors that produce variation
c. they want to prove that race is real
d. the possibility to classify humans ethnically and racially
e. physical anthropologists are not concerned with human variation
ANS: B
REF: 13
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 2
MSC: New
24. Primatology is the study of
a. human evolution.
b. human skeletal material.
c. skeletal remains at crime scenes.
d. disease in earlier human groups.
e. the biology and behavior of non-human primates
ANS: E
REF: 17
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 2
9
MSC: Pickup
Full file at http://testbankcart.eu/Test-Bank-for-Introduction-to-Physical-Anthropology-14thEdition-by-Jurmain
25. The study of the primate fossil record is known as
a. osteology.
b. primate anthropology.
c. paleopathology.
d. forensic anthropology.
e. primate paleontology.
ANS: E
REF: 12
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 2
MSC: Pickup
26. ________ is the branch of osteology that studies the evidence of disease and injury in human skeletal
remains from archaeological sites.
a. Forensic anthropology
b. Primatology
c. Anthropometry
d. Paleoanthropology
e. Paleopathology
ANS: E
REF: 16
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 2
MSC: New
27. Forensic anthropologists
a. study disease and trauma in ancient populations.
b. apply anthropological approach dealing with legal matters.
c. are primarily concerned with the recovery of material culture remains.
d. examine the relationships between medical treatment and culturally determined views of
disease.
e. study nonhuman primates.
ANS: B
REF: 16
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 2
MSC: Pickup
28. Who uses anthropological techniques to assist in crime investigations and to identify skeletal remains
in cases of disaster?
a. paleoanthropologists
b. primatologists
c. forensic anthropologists
d. archeologists
e. cultural anthropologists
ANS: C
REF: 16
DIF: Conceptual
OBJ: 1
MSC: Pickup
29. The practical use of anthropological theories and methods outside the academic setting is
a. biological anthropology
b. applied anthropology
c. cultural anthropology
d. archaeology
e. linguistic anthropology
ANS: B
REF: 18
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 1
10
MSC: New
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30. Within biological anthropology, the best example of applied anthropology is
a. cultural anthropology
b. forensic anthropology
c. paleoanthropology
d. archaeology
e. primatology
ANS: B
REF: 18
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 2
MSC: Pickup
31. A body of knowledge gained through observation and experimentation is called
a. science
b. hypothesis
c. data
d. empirical
e. theory
ANS: A
REF: 18
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 3
MSC: New
32. A provisional explanation of a phenomenon is called
a. a theory
b. a datum
c. empirical
d. scientific testing
e. a hypothesis
ANS: E
REF: 18
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 3
MSC: Pickup
33. The initial step in the scientific method is
A. the formation of a theory
B. the formation of a hypothesis
C. to perform an experiment
D. to publish a scientific article
E. to collect data and establish facts
ANS: B
REF: 19
DIF: Conceptual
OBJ: 3
MSC: Pickup
34. Theories are not facts, they are
a. tested explanations of facts.
b. ideas scientists have.
c. provisional statements to be further researched.
d. untested hypothesis.
e. absolute truths.
ANS: A
REF: 20
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 3
11
MSC: New
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35. The goal of the scientific method is to
a. establish the absolute truth.
b. support preconceived notions.
c. generate the most accurate explanations possible.
d. study qualitative data
e. generate only hypothesis.
ANS: C
REF: 20
DIF: Conceptual
OBJ: 3
MSC: Pickup
36. The anthropological perspective states that
a. we must focus only on humans
b. we must broaden our view point through time and space.
c. we must include only one field of anthropology.
d. we must be as ethnocentric as possible.
e. we must disregards all other fields.
ANS: B
REF: 22
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 5
MSC: New
True/False Questions
1. The 3.7 million year old footprints of two hominids were discovered in a riverbed in Georgia.
ANS: False
REF: 3
DIF: Conceptual
OBJ: 1
MSC: Pickup
2. The earliest hominins, such as Australopithecus afarensis manufactured stone tools.
ANS: False
REF: 3
DIF: Conceptual
OBJ: 1
MSC: Pickup
3. Physical anthropology is a scientific discipline concerned only with the biological and behavioral
characteristics of humans.
ANS: False
REF: 4
DIF: Conceptual
OBJ: 1
MSC: New
4. In the U.S. the focus of anthropology is very narrow, and has only two subfields.
ANS: False
REF: 10
DIF: Conceptual
OBJ: 1
MSC: Pickup
5. Humans are a product of the same evolutionary forces that produced all living things.
ANS: True
REF: 6
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 1
MSC: New
6. Culture is not genetically passed from one generation to the next, it is learned.
ANS: True
REF: 6
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 1
MSC: New
7. Physical anthropologists are interested only in the study of biological phenomena and are not
interested in the study of culture.
ANS: False
REF: 6
DIF: Conceptual
12
OBJ: 2
MSC: Pickup
Full file at http://testbankcart.eu/Test-Bank-for-Introduction-to-Physical-Anthropology-14thEdition-by-Jurmain
8. Linguistic anthropology is important to the field of physical anthropology because of its insights on
the development of language in human evolution.
ANS: True
REF: 12
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 1
MSC: New
OBJ: 2
MSC: New
9. Paleopathology is a major component of bioarchaeology.
ANS: True
REF: 16
DIF: Factual
10. Anthropology CANNOT be applied to practical issues outside the university setting.
ANS: False
REF: 18
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 1
MSC: Pickup
11. Physical anthropologists must understand anatomy in order to assess the structure and function of
fossil remains.
ANS: True
REF: 16-17
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 2
MSC: Pickup
12. The purpose of scientific research is to generate more accurate and consistent explanations of
phenomena NOT to establish absolute truths.
ANS: True
REF: 21
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 3
MSC: New
OBJ: 1
MSC: Pickup
13. Anthropologists strive to be as ethnocentric as possible.
ANS: False
REF: 22
DIF: Conceptual
14. Scientific testing of hypothesis may take several years but must always only include the original
researchers.
ANS: False
REF: 20
DIF: Factual
OBJ: 3 MSC: New
1. Explain biocultural evolution.
ANS: Answer not provided
MSC: Pickup
REF: 6
DIF: Conceptual
OBJ: 1
2. Explain applied anthropology.
ANS: Answer not provided
MSC: Pickup
REF: 10-11
DIF: Conceptual
OBJ: 1
Short Answer Questions
3. Describe the subfields of archaeology, cultural anthropology, and linguistic anthropology and how
they are important to the study of physical anthropology.
ANS: Answer not provided
REF: 11-18
DIF: Conceptual
OBJ: 1
MSC: New
4. Explain the major research areas in the field of physical/biological anthropology
ANS: Answer not provided
REF: 11-18
DIF: Conceptual
OBJ: 1
MSC: New
13
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5. Explain in a biological sense, what is adaptation?
ANS: Answer not provided
REF: 5
MSC: Pickup
DIF: Conceptual
OBJ: 1
6. Why are physical/biological anthropologists interested in human biological variation?
ANS: Answer not provided
REF: 13-14
DIF: Conceptual
OBJ: 1
MSC: Pickup
7. Explain what a hominin is and the earliest evidence of hominins in this chapter.
ANS: Answer not provided
REF: 3-4
DIF: Conceptual
OBJ: 1
MSC: New
8. Explain how human beings are linked to all other life on earth and why this is important.
ANS: Answer not provided
REF: 5-6
DIF: Conceptual
OBJ: 1
MSC: New
9. What is anthropology? Why are there four subfields in the U.S.?
ANS: Answer not provided
REF: 5-6
DIF: Conceptual
MSC: New
OBJ: 1
10. Explain paleoanthropolgoy and its importance.
ANS: Answer not provided
REF: 5-6
MSC: New
DIF: Conceptual
OBJ: 2
11. What can molecular anthropologists tell us about human evolution?
ANS: Answer not provided
REF: 14
DIF: Conceptual
MSC: Pickup
OBJ: 2
12. Explain osteology and its importance to physical anthropology.
ANS: Answer not provided
REF: 15-16
DIF: Conceptual
MSC: New
OBJ: 2
13. Explain paleopathology and bioarcheaology.
ANS: Answer not provided
REF: 16
MSC: New
DIF: Conceptual
OBJ: 2
14. Describe the scientific method and its relevance to human evolution.
ANS: Answer not provided
REF: 19-20
DIF: Conceptual
MSC: New
OBJ: 3
15. Explain why theories are neither absolutes nor facts.
ANS: Answer not provided
REF: 20-22
DIF: Conceptual
MSC: New
OBJ: 3
16. What is the anthropological perspective? Why is it important?
ANS: Answer not provided
REF: 22
DIF: Conceptual
MSC: New
OBJ: 5
14
Full file at http://testbankcart.eu/Test-Bank-for-Introduction-to-Physical-Anthropology-14thEdition-by-Jurmain
Essay Questions
1. Define anthropology and describe each of the four fields of anthropology and their importance.
ANS: Answer not provided
2. Explain physical/biological anthropology and all of its areas of specialization.
ANS: Answer not provided
3. Discuss the role of the scientific method in physical anthropology and the study of evolution.
ANS: Answer not provided
15
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