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Chapter 5 Ancient India
Section 1: Geography and Early India
The Big Idea: Indian civilization first developed in the Indus River.
Indian Geography
 Mountains
o North: The ___________ are the highest mountains in the world.
o West: The ___________ _________ provide protection from enemies.
 Plains and Plateaus
o Rivers and melting snow kept the plains ___________.
o Both sides of the river thrived.
 Water
o Monsoons
o Heavy rainfall
o Civilizations arose around seasonal rainfall.
Harappan Civilization
 People
o Population grew in the _____________ ______________ ______________.
o Growth came as ______________ and ____________ techniques improved.
o _______ were built as surplus food was produced.
 Cities
o ___________
o _____________ __________
o Fortresses for defense against enemies
o Well-planned public areas
 Achievements
o __________ and _________ ___________
o Pottery, cotton clothing, jewelry
o India’s first __________ ___________
Aryan Invasion
 Invaders from the West - When the Harappan civilization dissipated in ________ BC, Central Asians called
__________ began taking over territory
 Religion - The Aryans left behind vast collections of _________, __________, ___________, and __________.
They also had religious writings known as _______
 Governments - No _________ government: small communities ruled by _________
 Language - __________ is the root of many modern South Asian languages.
Section 2: Origins of Hinduism
The Big Idea: Hinduism, the _____________ religion in India today, developed out of ancient Indian beliefs and
Indian Society Divides
 Varnas - Social _____________ in Aryan society
 Brahmins –____________
 Kshatriyas - _______________ and warriors
 Vaisyas - _________________, ____________________, and traders
 Sudras - _________________ and non-Aryans
Caste System
 Individuals
o Place in society based on ____________, _______________, or __________________
o 3,000 _________________ once existed in India.
o Individuals could ___________ change castes.
 Caste Rules
o _________ (guides) listed all the rules for the caste system.
o Breaking rules resulted in a ______________ to a lower class.
Brahmanism develops into Hinduism
 Brahmanism
o Aryan priests were called ________________.
o Wrote _______________ texts, which were their thoughts about the Veda
 Evolving Beliefs
o The ___________, Upanishads, and other Vedic texts began blending with beliefs from different
cultures, creating Hinduism.
 Hinduism
o ___________ gods
o Reincarnation: could be ___________ into new forms and castes
o Men and women could both gain salvation, but women were ___________.
Jains React to Hinduism
 Origins of Jainism
o ______BC, established as an alternative to Hindu ritualism
o Based on the teachings of __________________, who abandoned his life of luxury to become a monk
Four Principles of Jainism
 _______________________ ___________ _________________.
 _________________ _____________ __________________.
 ______________ _____________ ___________________.
 ____________ _______________ ___________________.
Section 3: Origins of Buddhism
The Big Idea: __________________ began in India and became a major religion.
 Quest for Answers
o _____________________ was born a prince, but he questioned the meaning of life.
o Determined to find answers using:
 ________________
 _______________
 ______________ _________ _________________ ___________________
 Enlightenment
o Found it under the ________ _______ ____________ while meditating
o Called the _____________ (Enlightened One)
o Spent the rest of his life traveling and teaching his ideas
Teachings of Buddhism
 Four Noble Truths
1. ___________________________________________________________________________________
2. ___________________________________________________________________________________
3. ___________________________________________________________________________________
4. ___________________________________________________________________________________
Challenging Hindu Ideas
 Ancient Ways
o The Buddha taught that following the ___________ texts was unnecessary.
o Challenged the authority of ____________ priests
 Changing Society
o A more individualistic approach to __________________________________
o ________________________ as a means to evolve
 Caste System
o ________________ caste system
o The ___________________ Path could lead any individual to nirvana.
o The Buddha’s teachings reached all _______________________.
Buddhism began in India and then became a major religion.
 Buddhism branches out
o __________, one of the most powerful kings in India, became a Buddhist and spread Buddhism in
India and foreign lands.
o Buddhist missionaries traveled the ___________ to teach enlightenment.
 Buddhism splits
o Buddhism split into _____ main sects: Theravada and Mahayana.
o Members of the ____________ followed the Buddha’s teachings exactly.
o Members of the ________________ believed that individual interpretation was important
Section 4: Indian Empires
The Big Idea: The Mauryas and the Guptas built great __________ in India.
Mauryan Rule
 Candragupta Maurya
o Candragupta seized control of northern India and created a society dominated by _________.
o Candragupta became a Jainist ____________ and gave up his throne.
 Asoka
o The grandson of ________________ extended Mauryan rule over most of India.
o Asoka converted to Buddhism and stopped ______________ war, choosing instead to rebuild cities
and spread Buddhist teachings.
Gupta Empire
 After the ________________ of the Mauryan Empire, India remained primarily Buddhist for ______ years.
 Under the rule of _______________ Gupta I, India became unified and prosperous again.
 Gupta rulers spread Hinduism in their empire through the building of temples and the promotion of Hindu
_____________ and ________________.
 Widespread religious ___________________ was encouraged for Buddhists and Jainists.
Candra Gupta II
 Growth - Under Candra Gupta II, the Gupta Empire reached the height of its ___________. It spread across
northern India and prospered.
 Economy and Culture – The ________________boomed, allowing citizens the time and money to create great
works of __________and _______________________.
 The Caste System - It was believed that keeping ___________ under strict caste rule would _____________
the empire.
 Social Ramifications - _____________ in the caste system were not seen as equals and had few basic rights.
Time Line
 320 BC Candragupta Maurya becomes the first ____________ emperor.
 301 BC Candragupta Maurya relinquishes the ____________ to become a Jainist monk.
 270 BC ____________becomes the second Mauryan emperor.
 261 BC Asoka’s empire gains great power, and he leaves to become a ______________.
 AD 375 Candra Gupta I invades and ______________ northern India and brings Hinduism, prosperity, and a
strict caste system back into popular culture.
Section 5: Indian Achievements
The Big Idea: The people of ancient India made great contributions to the _______ and _______________,
Religious Art: Temples
 Both __________ and ______________ temples began flourishing under Gupta rule.
 Once simply constructed meeting places, Hindu temples became complex towers covered with intricate
 Buddhist temples were ____________ and ________________, some carved out of mountainsides.
 Buddhist ___________ were built to house sacred objects from the life of the Buddha. They were covered
with detailed carvings.
Religious Art: Paintings and Sculptures
 Great artists were commissioned by rich and powerful members of ___________
 Paintings offered a perspective on the ___________ ____________ and religious belief of the ancient Indians;
many of these paintings could be found on the walls of temples.
 Indian sculptors carved columns, statues, and entire temples in the likenesses of the _________ and Hindu
Sanskrit Literature
 Mahabharata
o One of the world’s _______________ literary works
o The story of two Indian families ____________ for control of a kingdom
o Many long _____________ of Hindu beliefs and practices
 Ramayana
o The story of a god, ______________, who has taken human form
o Written long after the __________________________; contains models for the ideal ruler (Rama) and
the ideal mate (Sita)
 Other Works
o Chadra Gupta II hired a famous writer named _____________ to write plays for the royal court.
o The ____________________, a book of stories intended to teach moral lessons and quick thinking, was
translated into many languages.
Scientific Advances
 Metalworking - Pioneers of metallurgy, the Indians created _____________and _________________by mixing
iron and other metals together.
 Mathematics - The Indians invented the concept of ____________ and developed a sophisticated number
system, the ______________-_______________ numerals.
 Medicine - Using ____________ and ____________, Indian doctors made advances in medicinal science. They
were among the first to practice inoculation and perform surgery.
 Astronomy - Indian __________________ knew of seven about the nine planets in the solar system and could
predict eclipses of the sun and moon