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Biology 1 1
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
Contenido
Surface Area and Volume ............................................................................................................................. 2
Section Assessment 10-1 .............................................................................................................................. 3
Section 10–1 Cell Growth (pages 241–243) ................................................................................................. 4
Section Review 10-1 ..................................................................................................................................... 5
Cell Cycle ..................................................................................................................................................... 6
Mitosis .......................................................................................................................................................... 7
CELL DIVISION .......................................................................................................................................... 8
Cytokinesis.................................................................................................................................................. 10
Analyzing Data Pg. 249 Life Spans of Human Cells .................................................................................. 11
Section Assessment 10-2 ............................................................................................................................ 13
Section 10–2 Cell Division (pages 244–249) ............................................................................................. 14
Section Review 10-2 ................................................................................................................................... 18
Controls on Cell Division ........................................................................................................................... 19
Section 10–3 Regulating the Cell Cycle (pages 250–252).......................................................................... 21
Section Review 10-3 ................................................................................................................................... 23
Meiosis ........................................................................................................................................................ 24
Section Assessment 11-4 ............................................................................................................................ 25
Section 11–4 Meiosis (pages 275–278) ...................................................................................................... 26
Section Review 11-4 ................................................................................................................................... 28
Graphic Organizer Meiosis and Mitosis ..................................................................................................... 29
Graphic Organizer Cell Growth and Division ............................................................................................ 30
Modeling Meiosis ....................................................................................................................................... 31
Chapter 10 Assessment ............................................................................................................................... 34
MITOSIS 10-1 & 10-2 ?’s (pp 240-249) .................................................................................................... 39
Chapter 11-4 ?’s – MEIOSIS (pp 275-278)............................................................................................... 43
Biology 1 2
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
Surface Area and Volume
Use what you know about surface area and volume to complete the table.
Use the table to answer the questions.
1. Suppose you had enough smaller cells to fill the larger cell.
What would their combined surface area be?
_______________ smaller cells X _____________ cm2 for one cell =
_____________cm2 total
2. Which has a greater surface area? Circle the best answer.
one large cell
27 smaller cells
Biology 1 3
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
Section Assessment 10-1
1- Give two reasons why cells divide?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
2- How is a cell’s DNA like the books in a library?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
3- As a cell increases in size, which increases more rapidly, its
surface area or its volume?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
4- Calculate the surface area, volume, and ratio of surface area to
volume of an imaginary cubic cell measuring 4cm on each side.
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
Biology 1 4
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
Section 10–1 Cell Growth (pages 241–243)
This section explains some of the problems that growth causes for cells.
Limits to Cell Growth (pages 241–243)
1. What are two reasons why cells divide rather than continue to grow indefinitely?
a. _______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
b. __________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
2. Is the following sentence true or false? As a cell increases in size, it usually makes extra
copies of its DNA. ________________
3. Circle the letter of what determines the rate at which food and oxygen in a cell are used
up and waste products produced.
a. The cell’s organelles
c. The cell’s location
b. The cell’s volume
d. The cell’s DNA
4. How can you obtain a cell’s ratio of surface area to volume? _______________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
5. If a cell’s surface area is 6 cm3 and its volume is 1 cm3, then what is its ratio of surface
area to volume? _________________________
6. Is the following sentence true or false? As a cell grows in size, its volume increases much more
rapidly than its surface area.______________________________
7. Circle the letter of what happens to a cell’s ratio of surface area to volume as the cell’s volume
increases more rapidly than its surface area.
a. The ratio decreases.
c. The ratio remains the same.
b. The ratio increases.
d. The ratio disappears.
Division of the Cell (page 243)
8. What is cell division?
_________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
9. How does cell division solve the problem of increasing size?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Biology 1 5
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
Section Review 10-1
Reviewing Key Concepts
Completion On the lines provided, complete the following sentences.
1. The larger the cell, the more trouble it has moving enough nutrients and wastes across the
____________________________.
2. As the length of a cell increases, its volume increases faster than its_____________________.
3. To avoid growing too large, cells regulate their size by_____________________________.
Short Answer On the lines provided, answer the following questions.
4. What can happen if a cell were to get too large for the amount of DNA it has?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5. What substances must pass through a cell’s membrane for the cell to continue to function?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
6. How does a cell’s ratio of surface area to volume change as the cell grows larger?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
7. Why do cells divide?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Reviewing Key Skills
Calculating Complete the following table.
Biology 1 6
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
Cell Cycle
Cell growth and division occur in a regular cycle. This cycle is divided into four phases:
G1, S, G2, and M. The diagram shows this cycle, along with events that occur in each
phase.
Follow the prompts below.
• Color the phase in which most cell growth occurs blue.
• Color the phase in which DNA replication occurs red.
• Color the phase in which preparation for mitosis occurs yellow.
• Color the phase in which mitosis and cytokinesis occur orange.
Use the diagram to answer the questions.
1. Which three phases make up interphase?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
2. Many organelles and molecules needed for cell division are formed after DNA
replication and before mitosis. In which phase are they formed?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Biology 1 7
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
Mitosis
Mitosis is the process by which the nucleus of most eukaryotic cells divides. Mitosis has
four phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
Color each chromosome in prophase a different color. Follow each of these
chromosomes through mitosis. Show this by coloring the correct structures in each phase
of mitosis.
Use the diagram to answer the questions.
1. In which phase do the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell?
__________________________________________________________________
2. In which process are two daughter cells formed?
__________________________________________________________________
Biology 1 8
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
CELL DIVISION
INTERPHASE ( _____________________ )
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
PROPHASE ( ________________________ )
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
METAPHASE ( ___________________ )
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
Biology 1 9
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
ANAPHASE ( ___________________ )
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
TELOPHASE ( _______________________ )
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
CYTOKINESIS ( ___________________________ )
_____________________________
_____________________________
Biology 1 10
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
Cytokinesis
Cytokinesis is the final step of cell division. During cytokinesis in plant cells, a cell plate
forms between the two daughter cells.
The diagram shows plant cytokinesis in progress.
In the space provided below, draw how the cells will look when
cytokinesis is complete.
Use the diagram to answer the questions. Circle the correct answer.
1. What structure forms in the cell plate?
cell wall
cytoplasm
2. What divides during cytokinesis?
Cytoplasm
nucleus
Biology 1 11
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
Analyzing Data Pg. 249 Life Spans of Human Cells
Like all organisms, cells have a give life span from birth to death. In
multicellular organisms, such as humans, the health of the organism depends on
cells not exceeding their life span. This is especially true of cells that tend to divide
rapidly. If these cells did not die on schedule, overcrowding of cells would be lifethreatening.
The data table shows the life spans of various human cells. It also contains
information about the ability of the cells to multiply though cell division.
1Inferring. White blood cells help protect the body from infection and disease- producing
organisms. How might their function relate to their life span?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2Comparing and Contrasting. Based on the data, how are the consequences of injuries to
the heart and spinal cord similar to each other? How are they different from the consequences of
injuries to smooth muscle?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Biology 1 12
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
3Formulating Hypothesis. Propose a hypothesis to account for the data related to the cell
life spans of the lining of the esophagus, small intestine, and large intestine.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4Cancer is a disease related to cell life span and cell division. If cancer cells were added to
the data table, predict what would be written under the columns headed “Life Span” and “Cell
Division.” Explain the reasoning underlying your predictions.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Biology 1 13
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
Section Assessment 10-2
1-
Name the main events of the cell cycle.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2-
Describe what happens during each of the four phases of mitosis.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3-
Describe what happens during interphase.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4-
What are chromosomes made of?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5-
How do prokaryotic cells divide?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
6-
How is cytokinesis in plant cells similar to cytokinesis in animal cells? How is it
different?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Biology 1 14
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Section 10–2 Cell Division (pages 244–249)
This section describes the main events of the cell cycle. It also explains what happens during mitosis,
when cell division occurs.
Chromosomes (page 244)
1. Is the following sentence true or false? Chromosomes are not visible in most cells except
during cell division. ____________________________
2. When chromosomes become visible at the beginning of cell division, what does each
chromosome consist of?_________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
3. Each pair of chromatids is attached at an area called the _________________________.
The Cell Cycle (page 245)
4. The period of growth in between cell divisions is called _______________________________.
5. What is the cell cycle?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
6. Complete the diagram of the cell cycle by writing the names of each of the four phases.
Biology 1 15
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
7. The division of the cell nucleus during the M phase of the cell cycle is called
___________________.
Events of the Cell Cycle (page 245)
8. Interphase is divided into what three phases?
a. _______________ b. _______________ c. _______________
9. What happens during the G1 phase? __________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
10. What happens during the S phase? __________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
11. What happens during the G2 phase? _____________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Mitosis (pages 246–248)
12. What are the four phases of mitosis?
a. ____________________ c. ____________________
b. ____________________ d. ____________________
Biology 1 16
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
13. Circle the letter of the name for the two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm near the
nuclear envelope at the beginning of prophase.
a. centrioles
c. centromeres
b. spindles
d. chromatids
14. What is the spindle? _______________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Match the description of the event with the phase of mitosis it is in. Each phase may be used
more than once.
21. Identify each of the four phases of mitosis pictured below.
Biology 1 17
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
Cytokinesis (page 248)
22. What is cytokinesis? _________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
23. How does cytokinesis occur in most animal cells? _________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
24. Circle the letter of what forms midway between the divided nucleus during cytokinesis in
plant cells.
a. cell nucleus
c. cell plate
b. cytoplasm
d. cytoplasmic organelles
Biology 1 18
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
Section Review 10-2
Reviewing Key Concepts
Short Answer On the lines provided, answer the following questions.
1. What are the four phases of the cell cycle?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. What happens when the cell copies its chromosomes?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3. What happens during cytokinesis?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Classifying On the line provided, label each event with one of the four phases of mitosis in
which it occurs. A phase may be used more than once.
_________ 4. The chromosomes line up across the middle of the cell.
_________ 5. Chromosomes become visible.
_________ 6. Centrioles separate.
_________ 7. Sister chromatids separate into individual chromosomes.
_________ 8. Two new nuclear envelopes form.
_________ 9. The nucleolus disappears and the nuclear envelope breaks down.
_________ 10. Each chromosome is connected to a spindle fiber.
_________ 11. The individual chromosomes move apart.
Reviewing Key Skills
12. Applying Concepts Explain why the terms cell division and mitosis should not be used
interchangeably.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
13. Calculating If a particular type of cell completes one cell cycle in 75 minutes, and you start
with one cell, how many cells would be present after 7.5 hours?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
14. Inferring Many plant cells have more than two complete sets of chromosomes in each cell.
Explain how this might occur.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
15. Comparing and Contrasting How does an animal cell differ from a plant cell during cell
division? ______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Biology 1 19
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
Controls on Cell Division
When cells come in contact with one another, molecules on their surfaces signal them to stop
growing. This prevents cells from growing uncontrollably and disrupting nearby tissues.
Circle the dish(es) in which cells would be stimulated to grow. Mark an X over the dish(es) in
which cells would not be growing.
Answer the questions.
1. What happens when there is a gap between two groups of cells?
________________________________________________________________________
2. Which of the following best describes cancer? Circle the correct answer.
uncontrolled cell growth
cells stop growing
Biology 1 20
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
Section Assessment 10-3
1What chemicals regulate the cell cycle? How do they work?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2What happens when cells do not respond to the signals that normally regulate their
growth?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3How do cells respond to contact with other cells?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4Why can cancer be considered a disease of the cell cycle?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5Write a hypothesis about what you think would happen if cyclin were injected into a cell
that was in mitosis.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
6Imagine that you are developing a drug that will inhibit the growth of cancer cells. Use
your knowledge of the cell cycle to describe how the drug would target and prevent the
multiplication of cancer cells. Use the Internet to compare your anticancer drug with those
currently in use.
Biology 1 21
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
Section 10–3 Regulating the Cell Cycle (pages 250–252)
This section describes how the cell cycle is regulated. It also explains how cancer cells are
different from other cells.
Controls on Cell Division (page 250)
1. What happens to the cells at the edges of an injury when a cut in the skin or a break in a bone
occurs? _______________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
2. What happens to the rapidly dividing cells when the healing process nears completion?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Cell Cycle Regulators (page 251)
3. What do cyclins regulate? ___________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
4. What are internal regulators?____________________________________________________
5. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about external regulators.
a. They direct cells to speed up or slow down the cell cycle.
b. They prevent the cell from entering anaphase until all its chromosomes are attached to
the mitotic spindle.
c. They include growth factors.
d. They prevent excessive cell growth and keep the tissues of the body from disrupting
each other.
Uncontrolled Cell Growth (page 252)
6. What is cancer?_______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
7. Complete the flowchart about cancer.
8. Is the following sentence true or false? Cancer is a disease of the cell cycle. _______________
WordWise
Biology 1 22
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
Complete the sentences by using one of the scrambled words below.
1. The division of a cell’s cytoplasm is called _________________.
2. The final phase of mitosis is _________________.
3. The phase of mitosis in which microtubules connect the centromere of each
chromosome to the poles of the spindle is _________________.
4. At the beginning of cell division, each chromosome consists of two sister
_________________.
5. The longest phase of mitosis is _________________.
6. The phase of mitosis that ends when the chromosomes stop moving is_________________ .
7. The process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells is called
_________________.
8. A tiny structure located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope is a(an)
_________________.
9. A disorder in which some of the body’s cells lose the ability to control growth is
called_________________.
10. The area where a pair of chromotids is attached is the _________________.
11. The division of the cell nucleus is called _________________.
12. A protein that regulates the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells is
_________________.
13. The series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide is known as the
_________________.
14. A fanlike microtubule structure that helps separate the chromosomes is a(an)
_________________.
15. The time period between cell divisions is called _________________.
Biology 1 23
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
Section Review 10-3
Reviewing Key Concepts
Short Answer On the lines provided, answer the following questions.
1. What is the function of cyclin in eukaryotic cells?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. Explain the importance of internal regulators.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3. How do external regulators respond to events outside the cell?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4. What causes the abnormal growth of cancer cells?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Reviewing Key Skills
5. Applying Concepts Do all cells in the body have the same growth rate? Give examples.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
6. Posing Questions Cyclin seems to regulate the cell cycle. What questions might scientists
have asked following the discovery of cyclin?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
7. Comparing and Contrasting What are the similarities and the differences between internal
and external cell cycle regulators?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
8. Inferring Describe a situation in the human body that would cause an increase in the rate of
cell division of certain cells, followed by a return to the normal rate of division.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Biology 1 24
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
Meiosis
At the beginning of meiosis, two homologous chromosomes pair up. These two homologous
chromosomes are separated during meiosis I.
Look at the labeled pair of homologous chromosomes in the original cell. Color one
chromosome red. Color the other chromosome blue. Follow these two chromosomes through
meiosis. Show this by coloring the correct structures in the cells that result from meiosis I and II.
Biology 1 25
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
Section Assessment 11-4
1Describe the main results of meiosis.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2What are the principal differences between mitosis and meiosis?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3What do the terms diploid and haploid mean?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4What is crossing-over?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5In human cells, 2N=46. How many chromosomes would you expect to find in a sperm
cell? In an egg cell? In a white blood cell? Explain.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Biology 1 26
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
Section 11–4 Meiosis (pages 275–278)
This section explains how gametes form in the process of meiosis. It also explains how meiosis is
different from mitosis.
Introduction (page 275)
1. List the two things that Mendel’s principles of genetics required in order to be true.
a. ___________________________________________________________________________________
b. __________________________________________________________________________________
Chromosome Number (page 275)
2. What does it mean when two sets of chromosomes are homologous? Each of the
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
3. Circle the letter of each way to describe a diploid cell.
a. 2N
b. Contains two sets of homologous chromosomes
c. Contains a single set of homologous chromosomes
d. A gamete
4. Circle the letter of the number of chromosomes in a haploid Drosophila cell.
a. 8
b. 4
c. 2
d. 0
Phases of Meiosis (pages 276–277)
5. Draw the chromosomes in the diagrams below to show the correct phase of meiosis.
Biology 1 27
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
6. Why is meiosis described as a process of reduction division? The number of
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
7. What are the two distinct divisions of meiosis?
a.______________________
b.______________________
8. Is the following sentence true or false? The diploid cell that enters meiosis becomes 4 haploid
cells at the end of meiosis._______________________________
9. How does a tetrad form in prophase I of meiosis? ____________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
10. Circle the number of chromatids in a tetrad.
a. 8
b. 6
c. 4
d. 2
11. What results from the process of crossing-over during prophase I? When homologous
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
12. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about meiosis.
a. During meiosis I, homologous chromosomes separate.
b. The two daughter cells produced by meiosis I still have the two complete sets
of chromosomes as a diploid cell does.
c. During anaphase II, the paired chromatids separate.
d. After meiosis II, the four daughter cells contain the diploid number of
chromosomes.
Gamete Formation (page 278)
Match the products of meiosis with the descriptions.
Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis (page 278)
16. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about mitosis and meiosis.
a. Mitosis produces four genetically different haploid cells.
b. Meiosis produces two genetically identical diploid cells.
c. Mitosis begins with a diploid cell.
d. Meiosis begins with a diploid cell.
Biology 1 28
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
Section Review 11-4
Reviewing Key Concepts
Identifying Processes On the lines provided, order the different stages of meiosis I and meiosis
II in the proper sequence.
_________ 1. Chromosomes line up in the center of the cell.
_________ 2. Spindle fibers pull apart homologous chromosomes.
_________ 3. Four haploid (N) daughter cells form.
_________ 4. Cells undergo a round of DNA replication.
_________ 5. Sister chromatids separate from each other.
_________ 6. Homologous chromosomes form tetrads.
_________ 7. Two haploid (N) daughter cells form.
_________ 8. Spindle fibers attach to the homologous chromosome pairs.
_________ 9. Individual chromatids move to each end of the cell.
_________ 10. Crossing-over (if any) occurs.
Short Answer On the lines provided, answer the following questions.
11. Compare the number of cells that result from meiosis and mitosis.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
12. How does the genetic content of cells resulting from mitosis and meiosis differ?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Reviewing Key Skills
13. Comparing and Contrasting Describe a similarity and a difference between the products of
meiosis I and meiosis II.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
14. Comparing and Contrasting How is the formation of gametes in males similar to the
formation of gametes in females? How is it different?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
15. Applying Concepts If a diploid cell containing 28 chromosomes undergoes meiosis, how
many chromosomes will each daughter cell have?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Biology 1 29
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
Graphic Organizer Meiosis and Mitosis
Compare/Contrast Table
Comparing Processes
Using information from the chapter, complete the compare/contrast table below. If there is not enough
room in the table to write your answers, write them on a separate sheet of paper.
Biology 1 30
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
Graphic Organizer Cell Growth and Division
Concept Map
Using information from the chapter, complete the concept map below. If there is not enough room in the
concept map to write your answers, write them on a separate sheet of paper.
Biology 1 31
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
Modeling Meiosis
Meiosis results in 4 new cells, each containing half the number of chromosomes in the original
cells. Using the procedures below, you will build a model to demonstrate the process of meiosis
and explore how it can lead to genetic changes.
Problem
What happens to the chromosomes in cells during meiosis?
Materials
• 4 colors of yarn (2 shades of red and 2 shades of green)
• scissors
• transparent tape
• index cards
• felt-tip marker
Skills Using Models, Communicating Results
Procedure
1. You will use yarn and index cards to model each stage of meiosis. Use 2 shades of red yarn to
represent one homologous pair of chromosomes and 2 shades of green yarn to represent another
pair. Use an index card to represent a cell.
2. Cut 2 pieces of yarn about 5 cm long from each color of yarn. Each piece of yarn will
represent a chromatid.
3. Tape pieces of red and green yarn to an index card to show the appearance of two tetrads in a
cell at the beginning of meiosis.
Biology 1 32
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
4. Tape pieces of yarn to additional index cards to model the numbers and positions of the
chromosomes and cells at each stage of meiosis. Be sure to include an example of crossing-over
at the correct stage. Use a felt-tip marker to label each card with the name of the stage it
represents.
5. Arrange the finished cards to show the complete process of meiosis. Label the stages at which
genetic segregation and crossing-over occur and chromosome number changes.
6. Use your cards to explain the process of meiosis to a classmate. Then, trade roles and have
your classmate use his or her models to explain the process of meiosis to you.
Analyze and Conclude
1. Using Models What is the result of the first meiotic division (meiosis I)?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
2. Using Models What is the result of the second meiotic division (meiosis II)?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Biology 1 33
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
3. Drawing Conclusions How does meiosis lead to increased genetic variation?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
4. Predicting How would the gametes be affected if a pair of chromatids failed to separate in the
second meiotic division?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
5. Using Models What parts of the cell did the yarn represent?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
6. Evaluating How well do you think this investigation modeled the process of meiosis? Explain
your answer.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Biology 1 34
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
Chapter 10 Assessment
1cell’s
abcd-
The rate at which materials enter and leave through the cell membrane depends on the
2abcd-
The process of cell division results in
Sister chromatids
Mitosis
Two daughter cells
Unregulated growth.
abcd-
Sister chromatids are attached to each other at an area called the
Centriole
Centromere.
Spindle
chromosome
3-
Volume
Weight
Mass
Surface area
4If a cell has 12 chromosomes, how many chromosomes will each of its daughter cells
have after mitosis?
a- 4
b- 6
c- 12
d- 24
5abcd-
At the beginning of cell division, a chromosome consists of two
Centromeres
Centrioles
Chromatids
spindles
6The phase of mitosis during which chromosomes become visible and the centrionles
separate from one another is
a- Prophase
b- Anaphase
c- Metaphase
d- telophase
Biology 1 35
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
7-
Which of the illustrations below best represents metaphase of mitosis?
8The timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells is believed to be controlled by a group of
closely related proteins known as
a- Chromatids
b- Cyclins
c- Centromeres
d- Centrioles.
9abcd-
In the cell cycle, external regulators direct cells to
Speed up or slow down the cell cycle.
Remain unchanged.
Proceed and then stop the cell cycle.
Grow uncontrollably/
abcd-
Uncontrolled cell division occurs in
Cancer
Mitosis
Cytokinesis
cyclin
abcd-
The illustration below represents what stage of meiosis?
Prophase I
Anaphase I
Telophase I
Metaphase I
10-
11-
Biology 1 36
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
12abcd-
Unlike mitosis, meiosis in male mammals result in the formation of
One haploid cell.
Three diploid polar bodies
Four diploid gamets cells.
Four haploid gamete cells.
13Summarize what happens during the process of cell division.
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14Explain how a cell’s DNA can limit the cell’s size.
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15Describe what is meant by each of the following terms: cell volume, cell surface area,
ratio of surface area to volume.
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16How is a cell’s potential growth affected by its ratio of surface area to volume?
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17Describe how a cell’s chromosomes change as a cell prepares to divide.
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Biology 1 37
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
18What is the relationship between interphase and cell division?
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19Summarize what happens during interphase.
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20Explain how the following terms are related to one another: DNA, centromere,
chromosome, chromatid.
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21List the following events in the correct sequence, and describe what happens during each
event: anaphase, metaphase, prophase, and telophase.
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22How does the number of chromosomes in the two new cells compare with the number in
the original cell at the end of cell division?
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23Summarize what happens during the cell cycle.
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24When some cells are removed from the center of a tissue culture, will new cells replace
the cells that were removed? Explain.
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Biology 1 38
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
25Describe the role of cyclins in the cell cycle.
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26Why is it important that cell growth in a multicellular organism be regulated so carefully?
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27How do cancer cells differ from noncancerous cells? How are they similar?
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28Suppose that for an organism, 2N =8. How many chromosomes do the organism’s
gametes contain?
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29Describe the process of meiosis.
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30Compare the phases of meiosis I with the phases of meiosis II in terms of the number and
arrangement of the chromosomes.
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31Describe the differences between cell division in an animal cell and cell division in a
plant cell.
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Biology 1 39
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
MITOSIS 10-1 & 10-2 ?’s (pp 240-249)
MULTIPLE CHOICE:
Circle the letter of the answer that best completes the statement.
DNA that is spread out in a non-dividing cell is called _____________________.
A. chromosomes
B. chromatin
The two copies of each chromosome that are the same size, same shape, and carry genes for the
same traits are called ___________________________ chromosomes.
A. maternal
B. paternal
C. heterozygous
D. homologous
Bacteria reproduce using ______________________.
A. mitosis
B. meiosis
C. binary fission
D. binary duplication
LOOK at the picture on page 243. As a cell grows in size, which increases more rapidly?
A. its volume
B. its surface area
The two chromatid arms on a chromosome are ____________________.
A. identical copies
B. similar but not identical
Homologous chromosomes are _____________________.
A. identical copies
B. similar but not identical
Cells spend most of their lifetime in _____________________ phase of interphase.
A. Mitosis
B. S
C. G1
D. G2
Biology 1 40
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
MATCHING: Match the vocab word with its definition:
_______ The log-shaped structures that appear next to the nucleus
during prophase to pull the chromosomes apart
A. CHROMATID
B. CENTRIOLE
C. CENTROMERE
_______ framework of microtubules to which chromosomes attach
during cell division which guides them to the poles
_______ constricted area in the middle of a chromosome that
that holds the two chromatids together
______ region where centrioles are located that helps organize
the spindle
______ one of two identical arms that make up a chromosome
D. CENTROSOME
E. SPINDLE
Biology 1 41
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
MATCH THE PHASE WITH WHAT HAPPENS:
You CAN use them more than once
S
G1
G2
G0
Mitosis (M)
Cytokinesis (C)
_______ Cells leave the cell cycle and stop dividing
_______ Division of chromosomes happens
_______ Division of cytoplasm happens
_______ Cell makes the molecules and organelles needed for cell division
_______ Made up of telophase, anaphase, prophase, metaphase
_______ Cell is reading the DNA code and “doing its job”
_______ Cell makes a copy of its DNA
Explain what happens to a growing cell to cause “DNA Overload”.
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Tell how cell division in PROKARYOTES is different from EUKARYOTES
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Biology 1 42
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
MATCH THE PHASE WITH WHAT HAPPENS:
You CAN use them more than once!
Interphase (I)
Prophase (P)
Telophase (T)
_______
_______
Cytokinesis (C)
Anaphase (A)
Metaphase (M)
DNA is all spread out as chromatin and nuclear membrane is visible
DNA scrunches up and chromosomes are first visible
_______
Chromosomes line up in middle of cell
_______
DNA is copied and cell prepares to divide
_______
Chromatid arms separate and move to opposite ends of the cell
_______
Nuclear membrane & nucleolus disappear
_______
Two nuclei are visible
_______
First dividing phase
_______
Made up of G1, S, G2
_______
Centrosomes containing centrioles & spindle fibers appear next to nucleus
_______
Cytoplasm is split between two cells
_______
Spindle fibers and centrioles disappear
_______
Chromosomes unwind into chromatin & nucleus returns
Biology 1 43
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
Chapter 11-4 ?’s – MEIOSIS (pp 275-278)
_______________is a kind of cell division that produces haploid cells with ½ the number of
chromosomes of the parent cell.
A, mitosis
B. meiosis
Cells undergo meiosis to _____________________.
A. grow bigger
B. repair injuries
C. replace worn out cells
D. make gametes
The pairing up of homologous chromosomes during meiosis is called _______________.
A. crossing over
B. synapsis
C. independent assortment
D. binary fission
The group of 4 chromatids that forms during synapsis is called a _____________.
A. biad
B. triad
C. tetrad
D. quadrad
The exchange of genetic material between arms of homologous chromosomes is called
A. synapsis
B. independent assortment
C. asexual reproduction
D. crossing over
The pairing up of maternal and paternal chromosomes (synapsis) during meiosis happens in
___________________.
A. prophase I
B. metaphase I
C. prophase II
D. interphase II
Biology 1 44
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
During meiosis, crossing over happens in __________________________.
A. prophase I
B. metaphase I
C. prophase II
D. interphase II
During meiosis, independent assortment happens in _______________________.
A. metaphase I
B. anaphase I
C. anaphase II
D. telophase II
In MEIOSIS a 2n parent cell divides to produce ____________________.
A. four identical 2n cells
B. two identical 2n cells
C. two identical 1n cells
D. four different 1n cells
During oogenesis, the cytoplasm is divided UNEVENLY so that only one mature egg is
produced along with three _____________________.
A. polar bodies
B. diploid cells
C. zygotes
D. spermatids
The production of mature sperm cells is called _________________________.
A. oogenesis
B. spermo-synthesis
C. spermosis
D. spermatogenesis
The random separation of maternal and paternal chromosomes during anaphase I
is called ____________________.
A. crossing over
B. polarization
C. independent assortment
D. spermatogenesis
The production of offspring from one parent without joining gametes is called
___________________ reproduction.
A. sexual
B. asexual
Biology 1 45
Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division
TRUE or FALSE
Circle T if the statement is TRUE.
Circle F if the statement is FALSE.
If it is FALSE, MAKE CORRECTIONS to the underlined word(s) to make the statement true.
T
F
Offspring from asexual reproduction are genetically identical to the parent.
T
F
Polar bodies go on to become eggs.
T
F
The 2nd division in meiosis is a mitosis division without copying the DNA 1st.
T
F
In humans, meiosis occurs in the testes and ovaries.
T
F
Gametes produced in meiosis are identical to each other, but different from
the parent cell.
NAME two processes that happen during meiosis which result in genetic recombination so that
the 4 daughter cells have different DNA from each other and from the parent cell.
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