GREAT BRITAIN: EARLIEST TIMES Для добавления текста щелкните мышью PLAN 1. Britain’s Prehistory 2. The Celts 3. The Roman Conquest Britain’s Prehistory Для добавления текста щелкните мышью 250,000 BC The earliest evidence of human occupation of Britain Around 10,000 BC, the end of the Ice Age The wanderer-hunter culture About 3000 BC Neolithic (or New Stone Age) people These people kept animals, grew corn crops and knew how to make pottery. They probably came from either the Iberian Peninsula or even the North African coast. They settled in the western part of Britain and Ireland. What did these people leave to posterity? Barrows, or burial mounds Henges – great circles of earth banks and ditches, inside which they built wooden buildings and stone circles Stonehenge This beaker from the West Kennet long barrow in Wiltshire is typical of the finely decorated pottery which gave its name to the “Beaker Folk” who invaded Britain from the Rhineland and Brittany in the second millennium BC. The Beaker People replaced animal skin clothes with woven textiles contributed to the building of Stonehenge used copper and its alloy with tin – bronze Many early settlements have been found on Chalk Hills in the southwest. Maiden Castle, or Mai Dan in Dorset, is the largest surviving IronAge hill-fort in Britain, with a perimeter of two miles. An Iron-Age farm settlement has been reconstructed at Buster, near Petersfield in Hampshire. The Celts Для добавления текста щелкните мышью The Celts They came from central Europe or Southern Russia from around 700 BC onwards Brythons (Britons) settled in England and Wales Gaels settled on Ireland Picts settled in Scotland The Celts They continued the same kind of agriculture as the Bronze Age people but used iron tools They continued to built hill-forts They were good warriors and used war-chariots Celtic Society Chief (King) Learned Men (Druids) Nobles (warriors) Freemen (farmers) Slaves Boadicea’s monument on the Thames Embankment What is your origin, Britons? The Blood of the Isles (2006) by Bryan Sykes The Origins of the British: a Genetic Detective Story (2006) by Stephen Oppenheimer The Roman Conquest Для добавления текста щелкните мышью 55 BC The Proconsul of Gaul, Gaius Julius Caesar Cassivellaunus AD 43 Claudius AD 410 Hadrian’s Wall Roman Britain Its society was literate It was a world dominated by the rule of law, which closely regulated the relations between the individual and the State and between one man and another, however corruptly or inefficiently it might often have been administered. Roman Legacy Towns 20 large towns (over 5,000 inhabitants) 100 smaller towns London=Londinium Manchester=Mamucium York=Eburacum “castra” – “chester, caster, cester” Roman Legacy Roads Water supply, sanitation and sewage systems Villas New vocabulary Christianity A new diet Chi Rho Cross Constantine the Great.