Another Look at Another Look at PAVLOV’S DOGS Tristram Jones, Ph.D. PS 517 Unit II Who is this PAVLOV dude anyway? Simple, Comrades---Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was born on September 14, 1849 at Ryazan, studied to become a priest at the church school in Ryazan and then at the theological seminary. Pavlov abandoned his religious career and devoted his life to science. In 1870 he joined the physics and mathematics faculty at the University of St. Petersburg and studied natural science. The concept for which Pavlov is famous is the conditioned reflex. Pavlov won a fellowship as Director of the Physiological Laboratory at the clinic of the famous Russian clinician, S. P. Botkin, where he did the stuff with those drooling doggies, circa 1900! Who are PAVLOV’S DOGS? Besides being a cool Irish Rock Band, they are the surgically altered animals upon whom PAVLOV experimented with meat powder, buzzers, bells, and yes, electricity! PAVLOV’S KIDS??? It is less widely known that Pavlov's experiments on the conditional reflex extended to children, some of whom apparently underwent surgical procedures, similar to the dogs, for the collection of saliva. So let’s get down to the nuts and bolts of it! What is RESPONDENT CONDITIONING? Also called classical conditioning, and Pavlovian conditioning, Respondent conditioning is a process in which a stimulus that was previously neutral, as the sound of a bell, comes to evoke a particular response, as salivation, by being repeatedly paired with another stimulus that normally evokes the response, as the taste of food. The BASIC language of RESPONDENT conditioning: Unconditioned stimulus (US): ◦ natural stimulus producing response Unconditioned response (UR): ◦ unlearned response Conditioned stimulus (CS): ◦ originally neutral now elicits reflective response Conditioned response (CR): ◦ learned reflective response to conditioned stimulus One term at a time: UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS (U.S): UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE (U.S): NOBODY TAUGHT ME TO DO THIS! NEUTRAL STIMULUS (N.S.) NEUTRAL NEUTRAL STIMULUS BY ITSELF PROVOKES NO RESPONSE! I HEAR A BELL BUT YOU WILL NOTICE I’M NOT DROOLING! COMBINING NEUTRAL AND UNCONDITIONED STIMULI! still neutral DROOLING AGAIN! NOW: Conditioned stimulus (CS): (FORMERLY THE NEUTRAL STIMULUS) NEUTRAL NO MORE! Conditioned Response (CR): I’M DROOLING AND I DON’T KNOW WHY! C.S. HERE’S WHAT JUST HAPPENED: So what are examples of respondent conditioning? The way a particular fragrance takes you right back to that special person, that special night! You become violently ill after drinking a particular cocktail, and can never think about that cocktail again without feeling nauseated! When you’re in the shower and you here a toilet flush, you brace for the cold water automatically! SO WHY IS BOB SO UPSET? Am Psychol. 1988 Mar;43(3):151-60. Pavlovian conditioning. It's not what you think it is Because he is a cognitive scientist, that’s why! Behaviorism traditionally denies cognition! Bandura changed our thinking on this issue! But Pavlov and Skinner didn’t change! Bob says: “Traditional descriptions of conditioning as the acquired ability of one stimulus to evoke the original response to another because of their pairing are shown to be inadequate. They fail to characterize adequately the circumstances producing learning, the content of that learning, or the manner in which that learning influences performance.” So what do you think, Class? Does RESPONDENT CONDITIONING elicit mindless reactions by conditioning an organism through stimuli? Or does it teach test subjects to react logically by cognitive association? DO YOU BELIVE IN OR THOUGHTFUL ZOMBIES? MINDLESS ZOMBIES?