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World Religions
• Jews believe in one god.
• Their holy book is called the Torah which
consists of Genesis, Exodus, Numbers,
Leviticus, and Deuteronomy.
• The Tanakh is made up of the Torah, the
Prophets (Nev’im) and the Writings (Ki’tuvim)
• The Ten Commandments were given to Moses
from G-d on Mt. Sinai.
• How did Abraham go from polytheistic to
– Midrash story
• G-d made a sacred covenant with Abraham that
his descendants would be plentiful and would
settle in the Promised land.
• Social Justice
• Religion and a Culture
• 14 million followers
• No Original sin. People sin and atone for their sins
Types of Judaism
• There are 4 types of Judaism:
– Orthodox
– Conservative
– Reform
– Reconstructionist
• There are 2 cultural types of Jews
– Ashkenazi
– Sephardic
Jewish Holy Cities
• Jerusalem
Jewish holidays
• All Jewish holidays start at sundown and end
at sundown
• Shabbat (Sabbath) – Friday night to Saturday
• Big holidays
– Passover
– Yom Kippur
– Sukkot
Other holidays
• Other not as important holidays
– Rosh Hasannah
– Hannukkah
– Purim
• Turn to page 114 in your textbook and fill in
your civilization charts.
• When you finish that on a piece of paper in
your three-pronged folder answer the
following questions:
– What do you remember from yesterday about the
different religions?
– What similarities do you see between the
religions? Differences?
• Choose two religions to compare and contrast
History of Islam
• Developed in the Middle East during the 7th century
• Founded by the Prophet Muhammad
• Muhammad was a descendent of Ishmael, Abraham’s
• Muhammad lived in Mecca. He went to a cave to find
solitude. In this cave he was visited by the angel
Gabriel. Gabriel told Muhammad the word of G-d,
which Muhammad wrote down and is the basis of the
• Muhammad preached the belief of One G-d to the
people of Mecca. They ran him out of town and he fled
to Medina.
Islam facts
Means “Submission”
Followers are called Muslims “one who submits”
Holy book is the Quran
One G-d called Allah
1.5 Billion followers
Believe that Jesus was a prophet of G-d, but not
• Respect “Followers of the Book” ( Jews and
Beliefs of Islam
• 5 pillars of Islam
– Shahadah
– Salat
– Zakat
– Sawm
– Hajj
• Don’t believe in original sin
• Salvation through good works
Holy Cities of Islam
• Medina
• Mecca – Ka’aba (house of G-d built by
Abraham and Ishmael)
– Non-Muslims are not allowed to enter the city
• Jerusalem – Dome of the Rock
– Muhammad ascended to heaven to meet
Types of Islam
• After the death of Muhammad leadership was
in question
• Sunni
– Believe that the new leader should be elected
• Shia
– Believe that leadership should have gone to
Muhammad’s cousin/son in law. That it should
remain in the family
Islamic Holidays
• Begin at sundown
• Eid Al-Fitr
– Celebrates the end of Ramadan
• Eid Al-Adha
– Celebrated on the 10th day of the last month of
the Islamic calendar
• Jesus was a Rabbi from Galilee who preached
about love. The Romans were in charge of the
• Jesus was crucified on orders of Pontius Pilate.
Christian beliefs
• 2.2 Billion followers
• One G-d who exists in three parts (the Father, the Son,
and the Holy Spirit)
• The holy book of Christians is the Bible
• Jesus is the son of G-d and died for people’s sins.
• Three days after Jesus was crucified, he was
• People are born with sin
• Salvation by accepting Jesus (Protestant)
– Catholics through Jesus and tithing and Church doctrine
• Distinct heaven and hell
History of Christianity
• After Jesus’ death, his disciples began to
spread Christianity throughout the Roman
• Christians were persecuted until 313 when
Constantine converted with the Edict of Milan
• Council of Nicaea solidified the beliefs of
Christianity denouncing some as heretics
Types of Christianity
• Roman Catholic
• Greek Orthodox
• Protestant
Christian Holidays
• Two big holidays
– Christmas
– Easter
• We will break up into small groups. Each
group will read a passage from one of the holy
• Which religion is the passage from?
• As you read, take notes on how the passage
highlights important aspects of the religion.
• The groups will then switch to a different holy
book passage.
Compare and Contrast
• In small groups, you will brainstorm the
similarities and differences between the
different religions.
• We will then share answers in the large group.
• We will then discuss how to write a good
history essay.