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World Religions
Judaism
• Jews believe in one god.
• Their holy book is called the Torah which
consists of Genesis, Exodus, Numbers,
Leviticus, and Deuteronomy.
• The Tanakh is made up of the Torah, the
Prophets (Nev’im) and the Writings (Ki’tuvim)
• The Ten Commandments were given to Moses
from G-d on Mt. Sinai.
Judaism
• How did Abraham go from polytheistic to
monotheistic?
– Midrash story
• G-d made a sacred covenant with Abraham that
his descendants would be plentiful and would
settle in the Promised land.
• Social Justice
• Religion and a Culture
• 14 million followers
• No Original sin. People sin and atone for their sins
Types of Judaism
• There are 4 types of Judaism:
– Orthodox
– Conservative
– Reform
– Reconstructionist
• There are 2 cultural types of Jews
– Ashkenazi
– Sephardic
Jewish Holy Cities
• Jerusalem
Jewish holidays
• All Jewish holidays start at sundown and end
at sundown
• Shabbat (Sabbath) – Friday night to Saturday
night
• Big holidays
– Passover
– Yom Kippur
– Sukkot
Other holidays
• Other not as important holidays
– Rosh Hasannah
– Hannukkah
– Purim
Bellringer
• Turn to page 114 in your textbook and fill in
your civilization charts.
• When you finish that on a piece of paper in
your three-pronged folder answer the
following questions:
– What do you remember from yesterday about the
different religions?
– What similarities do you see between the
religions? Differences?
• Choose two religions to compare and contrast
History of Islam
• Developed in the Middle East during the 7th century
• Founded by the Prophet Muhammad
• Muhammad was a descendent of Ishmael, Abraham’s
son.
• Muhammad lived in Mecca. He went to a cave to find
solitude. In this cave he was visited by the angel
Gabriel. Gabriel told Muhammad the word of G-d,
which Muhammad wrote down and is the basis of the
Quran.
• Muhammad preached the belief of One G-d to the
people of Mecca. They ran him out of town and he fled
to Medina.
Islam facts
•
•
•
•
•
•
Means “Submission”
Followers are called Muslims “one who submits”
Holy book is the Quran
One G-d called Allah
1.5 Billion followers
Believe that Jesus was a prophet of G-d, but not
divine
• Respect “Followers of the Book” ( Jews and
Christians)
Beliefs of Islam
• 5 pillars of Islam
– Shahadah
– Salat
– Zakat
– Sawm
– Hajj
• Don’t believe in original sin
• Salvation through good works
Holy Cities of Islam
• Medina
• Mecca – Ka’aba (house of G-d built by
Abraham and Ishmael)
– Non-Muslims are not allowed to enter the city
• Jerusalem – Dome of the Rock
– Muhammad ascended to heaven to meet
prophets
Types of Islam
• After the death of Muhammad leadership was
in question
• Sunni
– Believe that the new leader should be elected
• Shia
– Believe that leadership should have gone to
Muhammad’s cousin/son in law. That it should
remain in the family
Islamic Holidays
• Begin at sundown
• Eid Al-Fitr
– Celebrates the end of Ramadan
• Eid Al-Adha
– Celebrated on the 10th day of the last month of
the Islamic calendar
Christianity
• Jesus was a Rabbi from Galilee who preached
about love. The Romans were in charge of the
area.
• Jesus was crucified on orders of Pontius Pilate.
Christian beliefs
• 2.2 Billion followers
• One G-d who exists in three parts (the Father, the Son,
and the Holy Spirit)
• The holy book of Christians is the Bible
• Jesus is the son of G-d and died for people’s sins.
• Three days after Jesus was crucified, he was
resurrected.
• People are born with sin
• Salvation by accepting Jesus (Protestant)
– Catholics through Jesus and tithing and Church doctrine
• Distinct heaven and hell
History of Christianity
• After Jesus’ death, his disciples began to
spread Christianity throughout the Roman
Empire
• Christians were persecuted until 313 when
Constantine converted with the Edict of Milan
• Council of Nicaea solidified the beliefs of
Christianity denouncing some as heretics
Types of Christianity
• Roman Catholic
• Greek Orthodox
• Protestant
Christian Holidays
• Two big holidays
– Christmas
– Easter
Documents
• We will break up into small groups. Each
group will read a passage from one of the holy
books.
• Which religion is the passage from?
• As you read, take notes on how the passage
highlights important aspects of the religion.
• The groups will then switch to a different holy
book passage.
Compare and Contrast
• In small groups, you will brainstorm the
similarities and differences between the
different religions.
• We will then share answers in the large group.
• We will then discuss how to write a good
history essay.
Document related concepts
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