Download Sep 11 - University of San Diego

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Transcript
I.
Characteristics of Biological Systems
D.
Regulation
•
Metabolic processes controlled to maintain
homeostasis
Feedback regulation may be
•
•
•
Negative (Ex: Glucose metabolism)
Positive (Ex: Blood clotting)
Fig 1.13
I.
Characteristics of Biological Systems
E.
Growth and Development
•
•
•
•
F.
Increase in cell number, size, both
Uniform or local growth
Determinate or indeterminate growth
Development: Changes in structure and/or
function
Reproduction
•
•
Asexual – No gametes
Sexual
•
•
Genetic material from multiple individuals
Creates genetic variation – important for adaptation
and evolution
I.
Characteristics of Biological Systems
G. Evolutionary Adaptation
•
•
Change over multiple generations
Involves natural selection
Peppered Moth
II.
Cellular Basis of Life
•
All organisms composed of cells
•
•
•
•
•
Organisms unicellular or multicellular
First observations of cork cells by Robert
Hooke (1665)
First observations of microorganisms by
Anton van Leeuwenhoek (~1665)
Cell Theory developed in 1838-1839 by
Schleiden and Schwann using inductive
reasoning
Later: Cells come from other cells, providing
basis for growth, reproduction, and repair
II.
Cellular Basis of Life
A.
Cell types
1.
Prokaryotic
•
•
•
•
•
2.
Domains Archaea and Bacteria
No membrane-bounded organelles or membranebounded nucleus
DNA not separated from rest of cell
Most with tough exterior cell walls
Usually much smaller than eukaryotic cells
Eukaryotic
•
•
•
•
Domain Eukarya (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protists)
Membrane-bounded organelles
DNA separated from rest of cell as chromosomes in
nucleus
Some have cell walls (Plantae, Fungi)
Fig. 1.8
III.
Transmission of Heritable Information
•
Basis for most species on earth is
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
•
Double-stranded backbone with four types of
nucleotide building blocks
Organized into functional units called genes
•
•
•
•
•
Fundamental units of heredity
Transmission of genes  transmission of
traits
All known forms of life use same genetic code
Genetic complement of an organism =
genome
Fig. 1.11
IV. Diversity of Life
•
About 1.8 million described species
•
•
•
•
•
•
1,000,000+ insects
290,000+ plants
100,000+ fungi
52,000 vertebrates
Estimated total: 10-200 million
Classification system: taxonomy
•
•
•
System developed by Carolus Linnaeus
Binomial nomenclature (Genus species)
Shared characteristics unite members of a
taxon (group)
Fig. 1.14
Fig. 1.15
IV. Diversity of Life
•
Unity in diversity
•
Similarities among distantly-related species
How can this
happen?
Fig. 1.16
V.
Evolution
•
Concept underlies virtually all of
modern biology
Explains unity and diversity of life
Involves responses by species (not
organisms) to their environment
Charles Darwin (1859) – On the Origin
of Species by Means of Natural
Selection
•
•
•
•
Synthesis of information from biology and
geology
V.
Evolution
A.
Descent with Modification
•
•
B.
Species change from generation to
generation
Contemporary species arose from ancestral
species
Natural Selection
•
Mechanism for evolutionary change
Fig. 1.20
Document related concepts

Genetic engineering wikipedia, lookup

Evolution of metal ions in biological systems wikipedia, lookup

Vectors in gene therapy wikipedia, lookup

Endogenous retrovirus wikipedia, lookup

Molecular ecology wikipedia, lookup