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Advanced Aquaculture of Carps and Tilapia
– Ponds and Cages
Kevin Fitzsimmons, John Woiwode, R.S.N. Janjua
ASA SoyPak
Multan, Punjab, Pakistan
14 March 2012
Carp and Tilapia
•
•
•
Carps are most important farmed food fish and
tilapia are second.
Global demand, variety of production systems
and geographic regions, some vertically
integrated
Environmentally sustainable – “Green
Aquaculture” (no fish meal required in the diet,
no antibiotics, many farms use effluents for
crops)
Subsistence and Export Commodity
•
•
•
•
Tilapia is unique in its role as a small
livestock animal grown by subsistence farmers
in developing countries around the world…..
And
It is widely grown and exported to high value
markets to be served in expensive restaurants
and grocery stores
Commodity or specialty crop - BOTH, like
chicken
World Tilapia Production of
3,300,000 mt in 2011
1,400,000
1,200,000
1,000,000
800,000
600,000
400,000
200,000
0
US Tilapia consumption (imports and domestic)
368,295 mt of live weight (equivalent) – 2006
437,000 mt of live weight (equivalent) - 2007
453,264 mt of live weight (equivalent) – 2008
465,953 mt of live weight (equivalent – 2009)
579,443 mt of live weight (equivalent – 2010)
600,000
400,000
300,000
200,000
2010
2008
2006
2004
2002
2000
1998
1996
1994
1992
1990
0
1988
100,000
1986
Metric tons
500,000
Genetic improvements in tilapia
(From: Mair, G., 2002)
Selective breeding and genetic
improvements
•
•
•
Excellent breeding programs
- G.I.F.T. - Malaysia
- Genomar - Brazil and Norway
- Chitralada – Thailand
- TabTim – Thailand (CP Group)
- GIFT Excell – Philippines
- Molobicus - Philippines
- GIFT Bangladesh
Several in Mexico
YY Supermale - Philippines and Swansea,
Egypt and Indonesia
Carp and tilapia in ponds
 Extensive
ponds
Semi-intensive
ponds
Multiple small
cages
Irrigation Reservoir, Arizona
Taal Lake, Philippines
Paulo Afonso Reservoir, Brasil
Other small cages
Nile Delta, Egypt
Shrimp Pond, Philippines
Shrimp Pond, Thailand
All tilapia farms have dogs,
even cage farms
Large cage farms
Pond culture to cotton irrigation
Fish and citrus in Hainan, China
Integration of aquaculture and agriculture
pH reduced from 8.3 to 8.0
 Added 19.7 kg/ha N to 45 kg/ha used in
standard fertilization schedule of cotton.
25
20
15
Well
Pond
10
5
Se
pt
e
m
be
r
us
t
A
ug
Ju
ly
Ju
ne
M
ay
0
A
pr
il
Total N applied with water (kg/ha)
 Water
Results - Integration of aquaculture
3
2.5
2
Well
Pond
1.5
1
0.5
be
r
m
Se
pt
e
A
ug
us
t
Ju
ly
Ju
ne
M
ay
0
A
pr
il
Total P applied with water (kg/ha)
and agriculture
 Contributed 2.6 kg/ha P to cotton crop.
Plant height with Fish Effluent,
Standard Fertilizer and Well Water
Cotton Height
2002
120
100
height (cm)
80
60
40
WW
WW+SF
FE
FE+SF
20
0
5/15
6/12
7/8
7/16
8/19
9/21
Fish Nutrition and Feeds
Contents
 Nutrition
 Pond
Fertilization and Natural Feeds
 Ingredients and Formulations
 Manufacture and Preparation
 Storage, Handling, and Feeding Methods
Nutrition and feeding behaviours
 Tilapia
are omnivores (eat lots of things)
 Carps are more specialized
 Both capable of consuming decaying vegetable
matter
 Long intestines
 Filter feeders (algae, bacteria, plankton) when
young
 Need protein and balanced nutrition for rapid
growth
 Maybe more cost effective to settle for moderate
growth
Feeding strategy
 Juvenile
fish are especially good at filter
feeding phytoplankton.
 Many hatcheries utilize greenwater culture
 Juveniles also filter feed on small
zooplankters (especially crustaceans)
 Save money on juvenile feeds by partial
nutrition from natural feed in juvenile ponds
and tanks
Nutrition decisions
 Natural
herbivores and detritivores.
 Opportunistic feeders grazing on algae and
bacteria in production system.
 Fry and fingerlings need high protein
(50-40%) diet
 Growout needs lower protein (32-28%) diet
 “Organic” diets may be needed for “organic”
buyers
 Compare FCR to decide most efficient diet
Minimize fish meal in diet
 Use
more soybean meal
 Utilize other grains treated with phytase
 Increase use of other by-product meals
(meat and bone, blood, feather, poultry byproduct, brewers waste, etc.)
 Examine other locally available ingredients
(rice bran, cotton cake, canola, sunflower
seed meal, etc)
Carp and Tilapia Biology
 Long
convoluted intestine.
 Digests complex organic matter
 Fry are filter feeders
 Adults are grazers
Proteins
 Need
balanced set of amino acids. Basic
building blocks of proteins (and muscles)
 Ten essential amino acids (required)
several more are supplemental
Lipids
 Lipids
are basically fats.
 Fish need a variety of long chain
hydrocarbon fatty acids for proper growth
 Will also bio-accumulate lipids from
consumed algae
Carbohydrates
 Needed
for metabolic energy
 Carbohydrates are polymers of sugar.
 Common ingredients are corn, sorghum,
rice
 Molasses is mostly sugar and water. Does
not supply as much energy as equal mass of
lipid (fat)
Fiber
 Less
digestible material to help move
material though the intestines.
 Helps with micronutrients
Vitamins and minerals
 Commonly
supplied in “premix”
 Often available in natural production of
ponds.
 Not critical for most semi-intensive fish
farm operations.
 Very critical in cage systems
Ingredients and formulations
 Normally
need high protein diets for young
 40-50%
 Protein
requirements drop as fish reach
reproductive age. Lipid demand might
increase with egg formation. 30-32%
 Growout diets only need 25% protein
Manufacturing and preparations
Pellet mill
Compression pellet mill
 Feed
mixed with water to dough consistency
 Moistened feed put into hopper, pushed down
to auger screw
 Auger forces feed through the die head.
 Holes in die determine pellet width
 Knife blade cuts pellets to desired length
Extruders
 Floating
feeds
 Feed mixes with steam in barrel of extruder
 Cooks ingredients, improves palatability
 Gelatinizes starches
 Steam expansion and auger forces feed out
of barrel with rapid expansion.
 Traps air in pellet, allows to float
Meat grinders and pasta mills
Storage
 Always
keep feed as dry and cool as possible
 Avoids spoilage and rancidity of fats in diet
 Bags should be on pallets, off floor to allow
air to circulate and slow pests (mice, rats,
roaches, ants, from getting to bags
 Large amount can be stored in bulk in silos.
Handling
 Reduce
rough handling
 Crushed pellets form fines which are not
consumed by fish.
 Fed by hand, blower, belts
Bangladesh tilapia aquaculture
100,000
80,000
60,000
40,000
20,000
2011 (est)
2010(est)
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
0
2002
Metric tons
120,000
2011 (est)
2010(est)
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
Metric tons (000)
Future global tilapia aquaculture
3,500
3,000
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
500
0
Conclusions
 Tilapia
are omnivores
 But eating anything will not make you grow
fast and strong
 Tilapia need balanced nutrition for rapid
growth just like human children
Buy TILAPIA
Thank you!
Questions and
discussion?
Document related concepts

Nutriepigenomics wikipedia, lookup