Download 700 BC – Discovery in Lydia (Turkey) of Schist

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Atomic Energy
• Cash money
• Increased trade & shipping
• The compass
• Meteorology
• Cloud chamber
• Splitting the atom
700 BC – “Touchstone”
•
A schist mineral in
Lydia (Turkey)
• Standardized precious
metals and alloys.
• Gave credibility to the
king’s mint.
• Provided a unifying
effect on the state and
permitted selective
buying.
•
Increased trade.
Lydian Coinage 500 BC
331 BC –Alexandria
• Strategically Located at
the mouth of the Nile.
• Developed into the
largest international
seaport.
• The library had
copyrights for all
incoming manuscripts.
Ancient Alexandria
From
Cleopatra VII
exhibit @
Science Center
90-168 AD – Claudius
Ptolemy
• Alexandrian Professor
• Wrote ‘Mathematike
Syntaxis’ a composition
of all known astronomy
and star locations.
• An Idea far ahead of its
time.
• Important navigational
tool in 15th Century.
8-13th Century Ship
Improvements
• Incorporation of lateen
(triangular) sail
• The stern post rudder
• The compass
• Increased trade
• Ships became fatter,
squarer, longer and
fuller.
“South-pointer” 2200 BP
• First used in China
for divination or feng
shui.
• The pointer evolved
into the compass for
navigational
purposes in 11th
century China.
– Western Europe 12th
century.
Modern compass
Fall of Constantinople
• Seized by Turks in
1452
• Ended easy
passage to the East
• Navigation around
Africa & West was
made easier with
the compass – but it
erred!
Portugues & Spanish
Conquistadors
• Chrisopher Columbus 1492
• De Gama - 1497-98 first to “round the hope.”
• Amerigo Vespuchi - 1501 found Americas.
• Magellan - 1519-22 circumnavigated globe
• Sir Francis Drake brought back much gold
(4000% profit) which may not have made it
back do to compass error in 1581.
Dr. William Gilbert
• Spent 18 years solving the riddle of the errant
compass needle.
• Told us the compass always points to the
magnetic north pole of the earth.
• In 1600 he published De Magnete. Falsely
credited magnetism as gravitational force.
However suggested that a vacuum existed
between the planets.
True & Magnetic North
• Presently Magnetic
North is moving
NNW at 25mi/yr.
Learn more about magnetic North migration
1646 – Otto von Guericke
invented the vacuum pump.
• Introduced us to
the vacuum &
electricity.
• He published his
work in 1672.
1750 – Ben Franklin
• Invented the theory
of positive and
negative charge
attraction.
• Invented the metal
lightning rod.
1800 – Hot air balloons
• Done for fun
and to collect
meteorological
data.
1854 – Hurricane disaster of
French ship, Henri IV.
• This triggered the increased number of
weather observatory stations.
1883 – Ben Nevis weather
station in Scotland
• Charles Wilson
observed a glory
here, which led him
to invent the cloud
chamber to study
cloud formation.
• Discovered radiation
or charged particles
(ions) form clouds.
Glory
Wilson Chamber
• The streaks are
caused by He+2 and
e- particles emitted
from radioactive
decay.
• Thick streaks from
He+2 ions.
Radar
• Cambridge professors
Wilson and Appleton,
who discovered radio
waves bounced off the
“Appleton Layer”
contacted Watson Watt.
• In 1935 Watson Watt
invented RADAR.
1912 - Ernest Rutherford
• Used Wilson’s
cloud chamber to
study atoms under
bombardment.
• This tool led to the
discovery of nuclear
fission and the
atomic bomb.
Nuclear Fission
• The splitting of
fissionable material
such 235U or Pu into
smaller elements,
energy and free
neutrons.
• Some matter is
changed into energy
• Fusion is the opposite
of fission.
Summary
Electricity
• Voltage = Current x Resistance
• Power = Voltage x Current
Direct and Inverse Variables
Y= 4x
Direct
Inverse
As x increases y
increases by same
proportion
Y= 4/x
Some mathematical
expressions.
• E= mc2
• PV= nRT
• E= h
• E= hc/
• E=mv2/2
• Voltage = Current x Resistance
What you should know
• Describe early gold
purification methods, in
Burke pg. 15.
• Burke pg. 15 (golden fleece)
• How did the touchstone
affect trade? Slide #2
• Increased (see slide #2)
• How did cash money affect
trade. #2
• Increased (see slide #2)
• How long was it before
Ptolemy’s star charts were
used for navigation?
• 1400 years later after ship
improvements & Turks
conquered Constantinople
(slide #9)
• How did the lateen sail affect
trade and navigation?
• Increased by allowing
“tacking” into the wind. #7
What you should know
• Describe the
accomplishments of Otto von
Guericke on magnetism,
vacuum and electricity, 3234.
• How was radio detection and
ranging developed from
weather forecasting, 39-42
• Describe the
accomplishment of Gilbert
on the compass, vacuum &
magnetism, 30-31
• Read Burke 32-34
• RADAR read Burke 39-42
• Explained Earth’s magnetic
field. True North vs.
Magnetic North (see Burke
30-31
What you should know
• What is the relationship
between energy, E, and
wave length of light, ,
in the equation E=hc/
? (Direct or inverse)
• If power is constant and
voltage is decreased 10
times, how would
current be affected?
• As wave length  gets
larger energy (E) gets
smaller. They are
inverse.
• Power = current x volts
thus current must
increase by 10x