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High Density's Glossary of Internet Terms
Section
A
First
Term
16-bit
Last Term
Page
Total
Terms
Awk
2
137
Total
Terms
N
First
Term
NavEx
O
OEM
OSP
163 20
P
Packet
Push
167 75
Q
Qic
Queue
181 8
R
RAM
Rtfm
183 36
S
SCO
Sysop
189 99
T
T-1
Twisted pair 208 46
U
UCE
UUENCODE 215 20
V
VDOLive VT100
Section
Last Term
Page
NT-1
155 47
Back
door
Bytesexual 21
C
Cache
Cybored
60
81
D
Dynamic
Daemon node
72
addressing
88
E
Easter
egg
E-zine
88
47
F
FAT
Fyi
97
54
G
Gateway GZip
106 17
W
W3
H
Hacker
Hypermedia 110 48
ethic
X
x
x-modem
coordinate
232 4
I
I-beam
118 68
Y
Yahoo!
y-modem
233 6
J
Jabber Jughead
131 7
Z
zine!
z-modem
244 5
K
Kbps
Kruegerapp 133 13
L
L8R
Lynx
16-bit
z-modem
M
MacTCP MUSE
B
ISP
181
135 43
Total
WYSIWYG 223 45
141 68
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
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219 20
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High Density's Glossary of Internet Terms
HIGH DENSITY COMPUTING
16-bit --------- Awk
A
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
16-bit --- Ad-hockery
Page 1
16-bit --- @HOME Network
16-bit ---In Windows, this refers to the way memory is accessed. 16-bit
applications access memory in 16-bit "chunks" (2-bytes). Most pre-Windows 95
applications are 16-bit (see 32-bit).
16550A UART --- The name of the most modern chip controlling the serial
port. Older chips could not support the data throughput that today's high-speed
communications protocols and modems support.
32-bit ---
In Windows, this refers to the way memory is accessed. 32-bit
application access memory in 32-bit "chunks" (4-bytes). Large portions of Window
95 and many of its new applications are 32-bit applications, and may run faster
because it has become more efficient to access chunks of memory.
@ --- The "at" sign has grown tremendously in popularity. It is primarily used to
separate the domain name and the user name in an Internet address and is pronounced
"at." For example, egone@interport.net is read and pronounced as "egone at interport
dot net."
@HOME Network --- pronounced "at" HOME - A broadband system
designed and developed for delivering high-speed information and Internet services
using cable television lines. It brings the Internet to homes and businesses at higher
speeds and with greater levels of service than previously possible. @Home uses
advanced network technology to enable connections that are hundreds of times faster
than possible with traditional telephone modems.
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Page2
Abbrev --- Access time
Abbrev--- abbrev: /*-breev'/, /*-brev'/ n. Common abbreviation for
`abbreviation'.
ABEND---ABEND: [ABnormal END] /ah'bend/, /*-bend'/ n. Abnormal
termination (of software); crash; lossage. Derives from an error message on the IBM
360; used jokingly by hackers but seriously mainly by code grinders. Usually
capitalized, but may appear as `abend'. Hackers will try to persuade you that ABEND
is called `abend' because it is what system operators do to the machine late on Friday
when they want to call it a day, and hence is from the German `Abend' = `Evening'.
Accelerator key---A keyboard shortcut for a command. For example,
Shift-Delete is an accelerator command for the Edit Cut command. activate To bring
a window to the front and make it active.
Acceptable use policy---acceptable use policy - this is the official policy
statement regarding the use of a network or computer system.
Access ---To get into a computer system, dial-up service, or network, by dialing
a phone number, logging on a network such as the Internet and retrieving data.
Access control ---Ways to protect confidential data in a computer or on
a computer network from unauthorized access.
Access Number ---The telephone number you use to dial into your local
Internet Service Provider (ISP). To connect to the Internet you must first establish an
account with an ISP your area. Usually you will receive a list of telephone numbers
you can use to "dial-in" to the service. Sometimes access numbers can be frustrating
because you get continous busy signals and/or no answer. You should try and have a
few alternate access numbers available just in case this happens.
Access time ---The time it takes a device to retrieve stored data. Technically
speaking, access time is the time interval between the instant a computer calls for data
from a storage medium (like a hard disk or CD-ROM) and the instant the data is
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delivered. This can be a matter of minutes or just microseconds from a computer's
DRAM.
Page 3
AccessWatch --- AcM
AccessWatch --- A World Wide Web utility that provides a comprehensive
view of daily activity for a particular Web site. It is equally capable of gathering
statistics for an entire server. It provides a regularly updated summary of WWW
server hits and accesses, and gives a graphical representation of available statistics. It
generates statistics for hourly server load, page demand, accesses by domain, and
accesses by host. #accessWatch parses the WWW server log and searches for a
common set of documents, usually specified by a user's root directory, such as
/~username/ or /users/username. AccessWatch displays results in a graphical,
compact format. This program runs an a UNIX platorm.
Account --- When you sign up with an Internet Service Provider (ISP), you're
given an account name or account ID and password this will allow you access to the
Internet when you dial the access number provided by the ISP.
Accumulator --- accumulator: n. 1. Archaic term for a register. On-line
use of it as a synonym for `register' is a fairly reliable indication that the user has been
around for quite a while and/or that the architecture under discussion is quite old. The
term in full is almost never used of microprocessor registers, for example, though
symbolic names for arithmetic registers beginning in `A' derive from historical use of
the term `accumulator' (and not, actually, from `arithmetic'). Confusingly, though, an
`A' register name prefix may also stand for `address', as for example on the Motorola
680x0 family. 2. A register being used for arithmetic or logic (as opposed to
addressing or a loop index), especially one being used to accumulate a sum or count
of many items. This use is in context of a particular routine or stretch of code. "The
FOOBAZ routine uses A3 as an accumulator." 3. One's in-basket (esp. among oldtimers who might use sense 1). "You want this reviewed? Sure, just put it in the
accumulator." (See stack.)
AcDSee --- A graphic image viewer and editor for Windows 95 which
supports among others the image file formats GIF andJPEG (JPG). Downlad it!
AcK --- acknowledgement - When a modem receives a data packet, it sends a
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signal back to the. If all the data is present and correct, it sends an ACK signal, which
acts as a request for the next data packet. If the modem didn't get all the data, it sends
back a negative ACK, or NAK (negative acknowledgement).
AcM ---Association for Computing Machinery - ACM (founded 1947) is an
international scientific and educational organization dedicated to advancing the art,
science, engineering, and application of information technology, serving both
professional and public interests by fostering the open interchange of information and
by promoting the highest professional and ethical standards.
An applet based on Microsoft technologies that enables interactive content on Web
pages. See also ActiveX.
Page 4
Active printer --- Ad Server
Active printer --- The printer that will be used by programs.
Active window --- The window that is currently being used. Active
windows show the "active window color" in their title bar (settable through the
control panel).Other windows are inactive. To activate an inactive window, you must
click somewhere in the inactive window or use the task bar to select the window (See
Task Bar). On the task bar, the active window looks like a pressed button; inactive
windows are represented by unpressed buttons.
ActiveX --- ActiveX is a model for writing programs. ActiveX technology is
used to make interactive web pages that look and behave like computer programs,
rather than static pages. With ActiveX, users can ask or answer questions, use push
buttons, and interact in other ways with the web page.
Ad banner --An advertisement on a Web page that links to an advertiser's site or buffer page. Ad
banners are the most common unit of advertising on the Web and cost anywhere from
free to upwards of $15,000 per month depending on the amount of visitors the Web
site gets. The standard size for an ad banner set by the Internet Advertising Bureau
(IAB) is 468 pixels wide by 60 pixels high.
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Ad Server --- A program or a type server which manages and maintains
advertisement banners for a Web site or collection of Web sites. These programs are
extremely sophisticated and are capable of keeping track and reporting Web site
usage statistics on users. Ads can then be targeted towards certain types of
individuals. It also provides the ability to rotate banners so a user won't see the same
ad everytime they come back to the same page.
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5
Ada --- Ad-hockery
Ada --- Ada: n. A Pascal-descended language that has been made mandatory for
Department of Defense software projects by the Pentagon. Hackers are nearly
unanimous in observing that, technically, it is precisely what one might expect given
that kind of endorsement by fiat; designed by committee, crockish, difficult to use,
and overall a disastrous, multi-billion-dollar boondoggle (one common description is
"The PL/I of the 1980s"). Hackers find Ada's exception-handling and inter-process
communication features particularly hilarious. Ada Lovelace (the daughter of Lord
Byron who became the world's first programmer while cooperating with Charles
Babbage on the design of his mechanical computing engines in the mid-1800s) would
almost certainly blanch at the use to which her name has latterly been put; the kindest
thing that has been said about it is that there is probably a good small language
screaming to get out from inside its vast, elephantine bulk.
ADC --- analog-to-digtal converter - the conversion of data or signal storage
from analog format, like the continous electrical vibrations triggered by a voice on a
phone, to the on-off digital format of computer code. SEE ALSO: binary
Address --- e-mail address, Internet address, and Web address - A code or
series of letters, numbers and/or symbols by which the Internet identifies you or a
location where information is stored. Through the use of addresses people can send
you e-mail, look at your Web site, and send or receive information. As an e-mail
identifier it looks something like username@hostname.com, in which username is the
userID, account, or nickname of a particular person or machine designated to receive
e-mail, and hostname could be the name of the Internet Service Provider (ISP) the
account is set up with or the name of the computer itself which will store the e-mail
messages sent to it. The symbol in the middle of an e-mail address is an "at" symbol
(@), and the symbol which follows the hostname is called a period but is spoken in
computer terms as a "dot", therefore an e-mail address would be verbalized as
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username at hostname dot com. A Web address is the same as a URL or Uniform
Resource Locator this address usually starts with http://www followed by a "dot" and
then a domain name and a path. Internet address can refer to both of the above as well
as IP addresses which are numeric designations given to computers or domain names
and users that log on to the Internet.
Address book --- A list of persons, phone numbers, and other
information used by various Windows 95 programs, including Microsoft Fax and
HyperTerminal. A feature of e-mail programs that lets you store a list of important email addresses.
Adger --- adger: /aj'r/ [UCLA] vt. To make a bonehead move with
consequences that could have been foreseen with a slight amount of mental effort.
E.g., "He started removing files and promptly adgered the whole project". Compare
dumbass attack.
Ad-hockery --- ad-hockery: /ad-hok'*r-ee/ [Purdue] n. 1. Gratuitous
assumptions made inside certain programs, esp. expert systems, which lead to the
appearance of semi-intelligent behavior but are in fact entirely arbitrary. For example,
fuzzy-matching input tokens that might be typing errors against a symbol table can
make it look as though a program knows how to spell. 2. Special-case code to cope
with some awkward input that would otherwise cause a program to choke, presuming
normal inputs are dealt with in some cleaner and more regular way. Also called `adhackery', `ad-hocity' (/ad-hos'*-tee/). See also ELIZA effect.
Admin --- Alta Vista
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Page 6
Admin --- ADVENT
Admin --- admin: /ad-min'/ n. Short for `administrator'; very commonly used
in speech or on-line to refer to the systems person in charge on a computer. Common
constructions on this include `sysadmin' and `site admin' (emphasizing the
administrator's role as a site contact for email and news) or `newsadmin' (focusing
specifically on news). Compare postmaster, sysop, system mangler.
ADN --- (Advanced Digital Network) -- Usually refers to a 56Kbps leasedline.
Adobe Type Manager --- (ATM) An Adobe program that enables
you to work with Postscript fonts in Windows 95.
ADPCM --- Adaptive Digital Pulse Code Modulation - A family of speech
compression and decompression algorithms. A common implementation takes 16-bit
linear PCM samples samples and converts them to 4-bit samples, yeilding a
compression rate of 4:1.
ADSL --- (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) -- A method for moving data
over regular phone lines. An ADSL circuit is much faster than a regular phone
connection, and the wires coming into the subscriber’s premises are the same (copper)
wires used for regular phone service. An ADSL circuit must be configured to connect
two specific locations, similar to a leased line.
A commonly discussed configuration of ADSL would allow a subscriber to receive
data (download) at speeds of up to 1.544 megabits (not megabytes) per second, and to
send (upload) data at speeds of 128 kilobits per second. Thus the “Asymmetric” part
of the acronym.
Advanced Program-to-Program
Communications --- A communications standard defined by IBM.
The APPC standard is intended to allow multiple users to share the processing of
programs.
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ADVENT --- ADVENT: /ad'vent/ n. The prototypical computer adventure
game, first implemented on the PDP-10 by Will Crowther as an attempt at computerrefereed fantasy gaming, and expanded into a puzzle-oriented game by Don Woods.
Now better known as Adventure, but the TOPS-10 operating system permitted only 6letter filenames. See also vadding. This game defined the terse, dryly humorous style
now expected in text adventure games, and popularized several tag lines that have
become fixtures of hacker-speak: "A huge green fierce snake bars the way!" "I see no
X here" (for some noun X). "You are in a maze of twisty little passages, all alike."
"You are in a little maze of twisty passages, all different." The `magic words' xyzzy
and plugh also derive from this game. Crowther, by the way, participated in the
exploration of the Mammoth & Flint Ridge cave system; it actually *has* a `Colossal
Cave' and a `Bedquilt' as in the game, and the `Y2' that also turns up is cavers' jargon
for a map reference to a secondary entrance.
Page
7
.Aiff --- AIDS
.Aiff --- One of many Macintosh sound file formats. On the Net you may come
across the option to hear a sound clip. The file which is downloaded to your computer
when "clicked on" might be in the aiff format (if the sound file was originally
captured on a Macintosh). Your helper applications or browser plugins need to be
configured to know what to do with this type of file.
AFK --- Away From Keyboard - A shorthand appended to a comment written
in an online forum.
Agent --- sometimes called a Web agent or autonomous agent is a program
which does things for you like, filtering your e-mail and finding Web sites to suit
your interests. Usually the program does this independently once you set your
preferences. Click on the More button below to get a detailed description of what
agents are from MIT.
AI --- artificial intelligence - Computer hardware and software packages that try
to emulate human intelligence in order to solve problems using reasoning and
learning. First conceived as computer intelligence in 1950 by Alan Turing, it was
renamed artificial intelligence in 1955 by John McCarthy. One of the earliest and
most successful applications were computer programs that could play chess. In 1990,
a computer named Mephisto suprised the public by checkmating Grand Master
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Anatoly Karpov.
AI koans --- AI koans: /A-I koh'anz/ pl.n. A series of pastiches of Zen
teaching riddles created by Danny Hillis at the MIT AI Lab around various major
figures of the Lab's culture (several are included in appendix A). See also ha ha only
serious, mu, and Humor, Hacker.
AI-complete --- AI-complete: /A-I k*m-pleet'/ [MIT, Stanford: by
analogy with `NP-complete' (see NP-)] adj. Used to describe problems or
subproblems in AI, to indicate that the solution presupposes a solution to the `strong
AI problem' (that is, the synthesis of a human-level intelligence). A problem that is AIcomplete is, in other words, just too hard. Examples of AI-complete problems are
`The Vision Problem' (building a system that can see as well as a human) and `The
Natural Language Problem' (building a system that can understand and speak a
natural language as well as a human). These may appear to be modular, but all
attempts so far (1991) to solve them have foundered on the amount of context
information and `intelligence' they seem to require. See also gedanken.
AIDS --- AIDS: /aydz/ n. Short for A* Infected Disk Syndrome (`A*' is a glob
pattern that matches, but is not limited to, Apple), this condition is quite often the
result of practicing unsafe SEX. See virus, worm, Trojan horse, virgin.
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8
Airplane rule --- Aliasing & anti-aliasing
Airplane rule --- airplane rule: n. "Complexity increases the possibility
of failure; a twin-engine airplane has twice as many engine problems as a singleengine airplane." By analogy, in both software and electronics, the rule that simplicity
increases robustness (see also KISS Principle). It is correspondingly argued that the
right way to build reliable systems is to put all your eggs in one basket, after making
sure that you've built a really *good* basket.
AIX --- A multiple-user OS, basically IBM's attempt to copy UNIX.
AKA --- The term you are looking up is an IRC or E-mail shorthand. These are
acronyms for commonly used phrases people use on the Internet that they would
otherwise have to type out. To find the meaning of one of these terms scroll down and
find your term on the table below. RI&W - Read It And Weep
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Another commonly discussed configuration would be symmetrical: 384 Kilobits per
second in both directions. In theory ADSL allows download speeds of up to 9
megabits per second and upload speeds of up to 640 kilobits per second. ADSL is
often discussed as an alternative to ISDN, allowing higher speeds in cases where the
connection is always to the same place.
See Also: bit , bps , ISDN
Alert message --- A critical warning, confirmational, or informational
message appearing in a dialog box. airbrush In "paint" and graphics programs, a tool
that "sprays" dots in a randomized pattern around the point indicated by the user. In
most programs, the output of the airbrush can be configured to modify the color,
pattern, and density of the dot pattern. annotate To add notes. For example, you can
add your own notes to Windows Help.
Alias --- On servers aliases are a way of mapping an incoming request for a
Web page. When an alias is found in a URL, the alias's value is substituted in place of
the alias. For example, if you have Web pages on a server which you wish to be
viewed on the Internet, the actual location of those files may be: www/highdensity.com/userpages/joesWebsite/index.html but with the use of an alias, the URL
you use to access the site could be http://www.high-density.com/~joesWebsite. In this
case the tilda (~) represents an alias for the path www.high-density.com/userpages/.
Aliasing & anti-aliasing --- Unrealistic visual effects on a
computer screen are known as aliasing. These peculiarities take many forms; one of
the most common would be images with jagged edges or stair-stepped appearances
along what is supposed to be a smooth curved surfaces (like O or S) and/or diagonal
lines on the screen. Sometimes called the jaggies. Anti-aliasing is a software
techinque used in imaging systems (such as Adobe Photoshop) to make these curved
edges or diagonal lines look smooth and continous.
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Aliasing bug --- Alt text
Aliasing bug --- aliasing bug: n. A class of subtle programming errors
that can arise in code that does dynamic allocation, esp. via `malloc(3)' or equivalent.
If more than one pointer addresses (`aliases for') a given hunk of storage, it may
happen that the storage is freed through one alias and then referenced through
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another, which may lead to subtle (and possibly intermittent) lossage depending on
the state and the allocation history of the malloc arena. Avoidable by use of allocation
strategies that never alias allocated core. Also avoidable by use of higher-level
languages, such as LISP, which employ a garbage collector (see GC). Also called a
stale pointer bug. See also precedence lossage, smash the stack, fandango on core,
memory leak, overrun screw, spam. Historical note: Though this term is nowadays
associated with C programming, it was already in use in a very similar sense in the
Algol-60 and FORTRAN communities in the 1960s.
AliWeb --- A search engine for locating WWW documents that is provided
by NEXOR, a UK based service provider. AliWeb does not use a spider, instead, it
relies on forms that Web authors themselves submit to the AliWeb database.
All-elbows --- all-elbows: adj. Of a TSR (terminate-and-stay-resident)
IBM PC program, such as the N pop-up calendar and calculator utilities that circulate
on BBS systems: unsociable. Used to describe a program that rudely steals the
resources that it needs without considering that other TSRs may also be resident. One
particularly common form of rudeness is lock-up due to programs fighting over the
keyboard interrupt. See also mess-dos.
Alpha --- Refers to a pre-release of a software or hardware product. The
release prior to the beta release.
Alpha particles --- alpha particles: n. See bit rot.
Alphanumeric --- Characters which consist of letters, numbers,
punctuation, and symbols found on a standard keyboard.
Alt --- Type of newsgroup that discusses alternative topics. Some Internet
providers ask that their users sign an agreement stating they are over 18 before
providing access to the alt.newsgroups.
Alt bit --- alt bit: /awlt bit/ [from alternate] adj. See meta bit.
Alt text --- The text you see before an image is loaded on a Web page. A
Web site author can code an alt tag when building a Web page to say anything they
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want. Usually it is a description of the picture or image. The HTML syntax or code
would look like this: <img src="logo.gif" alt="High-density: The glossaryn.htm#Network Language Dictionary">
Page 10
Alta Vista --- Amazon.com
Alta Vista --- Developed
by Digital Equipment
Corporation the AltaVista Search Service has changed how
we use the Internet. It is no longer necessary to know the address of a particular home
page, only to begin following the trail of hyperlinks to your eventual goal. AltaVista
Search Service takes you to precisely where you want to be from the start by pointing
you to relevant Web pages regardless of where they reside on a particular site. You
can then follow the links from there as desired.
The painstaking task of classifying Web pages into logical groups is a thing of the
past. Today, AltaVista Search Service puts the contents of the Internet
at your fingertips, transforming this information into a bona fide business,
education, and entertainment resource.Great search engine for the
Web!http://www.altavista.digital.com
Search The Web or Newsgroups with Alta Vista
Alta Vista Software
Aluminum Book --- Aluminum Book: [MIT] n. `Common LISP: The
Language', by Guy L. Steele Jr. (Digital Press, first edition 1984, second edition
1990). Note that due to a technical screwup some printings of the second edition are
actually of a color the author describes succinctly as "yucky green". See also book
titles.
Amazon.com --- "If it's in print, it's in stock", that's the motto of
Amazon.com which offers over one million book titles over the Internet for you to
purchase. It's worth a visit just to search the titles.
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Aluminum Book ---Archive
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11
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Amoeba --- Analog
Amoeba --- amoeba: n. Humorous term for the Commodore Amiga personal
computer.
Amp off --- amp off: [Purdue] vt. To run in background. From the UNIX
shell `&' operator.
Amper --- amper: n. Common abbreviation for the name of the ampersand
(`&', ASCII 0100110) character. See ASCII for other synonyms.
Anchor --- In HTML, anchors mark the start and end of hypertext links. For
example: the HTML tag <a href="glossary-h.htm#html"> marks the start of an
anchor, while the tag </a> marks the closing of an anchor.
Angels --- People who invest in computer related start-up companies.
Angle brackets --- angle brackets: n. Either of the characters `<'
(ASCII 0111100) and `>' (ASCII 0111110) (ASCII less-than or greater-than signs).
The Real World angle brackets used by typographers are actually taller than a lessthan or greater-than sign. See broket, ASCII.
Angry fruit salad --- angry fruit salad: n. A bad visual-interface
design that uses too many colors. This derives, of course, from the bizarre day-glo
colors found in canned fruit salad. Too often one sees similar affects from interface
designers using color window systems such as X; there is a tendency to create
displays that are flashy and attention-getting but uncomfortable for long-term use.
Animated gif --- or animated GIF or multi block GIF - a type of GIF
format which allows a series of images to be displayed one after another or on top of
each other. Since its implementation in Netscape Navigator 2.0, GIF animation has
been one of the best and easiest ways to put animation. Animated GIFs have been
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around since the introduction of the GIF89a format in 1989. The reason animated
GIFs didn't appear on the Web at that time is that Netscape Navigator or any other
Web browsers around at that time didn't support GIF89a's animation features.
Analog --- This word is often used to denote the opposite of digital. It loosely
means the measuring of data on more physical grounds as opposed to digital which is
a more electronic "wired state." Thanks to Wired Style Guide
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Anime --- AOHell
Anime --- pronounced "ah-knee-may" - An artistic, and sensual type of
Japanese animation. On the Internet one can find hundreds of superb anime Web
sites.
Annie --- A homepage which seems to have been abandoned for some time -most of the links are out of date, etc. -- ie, it's been orphaned.
Annotations --- Notes that you can add to Web documents. These notes
are stored on your local disk and are available each time that you access a document.
This feature is found in NCSA Mosaic, but not Netscape.
Anonymous FTP --- An Internet File Transfer Protocol (FTP> option
which allows you to connect to a site, search through available files, and download
any file, document, or program available without first establishing an account there.
Some FTP servers are setup to allow a limited amount of anonymous FTP users to
login at the same time, and only provide access to designated files.
Anonymous posting --- A message posted to a newsgroup or email discussion group that does not identify the person who sent it.
ANSI --- American National Standards Institute - An organization of
American industry groups who work with other nations to develop standards in
facilitating telecommunications and international trade. Developments include the
ASCII, SCSI, and the ANSI.SYS device driver.
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Anti Virus --- A program included with Windows 95 that helps eradicate
viruses (see virus) from your hard drive or floppy disks.
Anti-aliasing --- A graphics technique used to hide the diagonal edges
and sharp color changes ("jaggies") in a graphic or font. Because a computer screen
possesses limited resolution, such changes highlight the pixels on the screen and don't
look smooth. Using anti-aliasing smoothes out the changes and makes them appear
more attractive.
AOHell --- America OnLine Hell - Hacker programs that allow one to
manipulate AOL's software. Bundles of keyboard macros that exploit software bugs
in the AOL system allowing hackers to access, among other things, personal e-mail
accounts.
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AOL --- APpC
AOL --- America-On-Line, the largest on-line service.
AOS --- AOS: 1. /aws/ (East Coast), /ay-os/ (West Coast) [based on a PDP-10
increment instruction] vt.,obs. To increase the amount of something. "AOS the
campfire." Usage: considered silly, and now obsolete. Now largely supplanted by
bump. See SOS. 2. A Multics-derived OS supported at one time by Data General.
This was pronounced /A-O-S/ or /A-os/. A spoof of the standard AOS system
administrator's manual (`How to load and generate your AOS system') was created,
issued a part number, and circulated as photocopy folklore. It was called `How to
goad and levitate your chaos system'. 3. Algebraic Operating System, in reference to
those calculators which use infix instead of postfix (reverse Polish) notation.
Historical note: AOS in sense 1 was the name of a PDP-10 instruction that took any
memory location in the computer and added 1 to it; AOS meant `Add One and do not
Skip'. Why, you may ask, does the `S' stand for `do not Skip' rather than for `Skip'?
Ah, here was a beloved piece of PDP-10 folklore. There were eight such instructions:
AOSE added 1 and then skipped the next instruction if the result was Equal to zero;
AOSG added 1 and then skipped if the result was Greater than 0; AOSN added 1 and
then skipped if the result was Not 0; AOSA added 1 and then skipped Always; and so
on. Just plain AOS didn't say when to skip, so it never skipped. For similar reasons,
AOJ meant `Add One and do not Jump'. Even more bizarre, SKIP meant `do not
SKIP'! If you wanted to skip the next instruction, you had to say `SKIPA'. Likewise,
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JUMP meant `do not JUMP'; the unconditional form was JUMPA. However, hackers
never did this. By some quirk of the 10's design, the JRST (Jump and ReSTore flag
with no flag specified) was actually faster and so was invariably used. Such were the
perverse mysteries of assembler programming.
API --- Application Programming Interface - An API is a series of functions
that programs can use to make the operating system do their dirty work. Using
Windows APIs, for example, a program can open windows, files, and message boxes
as well as perform more complicated tasks by passing a single instruction. Windows
has several classes of APIs that deal with telephony, messaging, and other issues.
APp --- A computer software program or application. Usually you see this
word in conjuction with the word "killer". A killer app is supposedly an intensely
"killer" or extremely good program.
APpC --- See Advanced Program-to-Program Communications
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APplet --- Archie
APplet --- A small Java program that can be embedded in an HTML page.
Applets differ from full-fledged Java applications in that they are not allowed to
access certain resources on the local computer, such as files and serial devices
(modems, printers, etc.), and are prohibited from communicating with most other
computers across a network. The current rule is that an applet can only make an
Internet connection to the computer from which the applet was sent.
See Also: HTML ,Java
APplication --- program or software - all three of which refer to a
computer program or set of programs that performs a specific job. World Wide Web
browsers, HTML editors, and Netscape plugins are all examples of applications. This
contrasts with an Operating System, such as MacOS or Windows, which manage how
your computer performs tasks, and "runs" these applications.
APplication Programming Interface (API) --- A set of
interface functions available for applications.
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ARC --- Augmentation Research Center - set up in the 1960's by Doug
Engelbart, this lab at the Stanford Research Center in Palo Alto, is credited with
developing GUI tools (mouse, graphical icons, and the hypertext system) that were
expanded at Xerox PARC and 20 years later, became the basics of the Macintosh
computer and operating system. ARC also developed ideas about teleconferencing, email, and workgroup processing tools.
Arc wars --- arc wars: [primarily MSDOS] n. holy wars over which
archiving program one should use. The first arc war was sparked when System
Enhancement Associates (SEA) sued PKWare for copyright and trademark
infringement on its ARC program. PKWare's PKARC outperformed ARC on both
compression and speed while largely retaining compatibility (it introduced a new
compression type that could be disabled for backward-compatibility). PKWare settled
out of court to avoid enormous legal costs (both SEA and PKWare are small
companies); as part of the settlement, the name of PKARC was changed to PKPAK.
The public backlash against SEA for bringing suit helped to hasten the demise of
ARC as a standard when PKWare and others introduced new, incompatible archivers
with better compression algorithms.
Archie --- As a noun, archive is the place on an Internet host where files are
stored. It is also a file that contains a number of compressed files. As a verb, archive
means to compress a number of files into one file for storage and transmittal. SEE
ALSO: FTP and file compression.
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Architecture --- Arena
Architecture --- Deals with the structuring paradigms, style and patterns
that describe or make up, either software systems or Internet/intranet systems. In
particular, architectures can be overall structures for systems.
Archive --- archive: n. 1. A collection of several files bundled into one file
by a program such as `ar(1)', `tar(1)', `cpio(1)', or arc for shipment or archiving (sense
2). See also tar and feather. 2. A collection of files or archives (sense 1) made
available from an `archive site' via FTP or an email server
Archive bit --- A single bit stored in a disk directory to indicate if a file
.
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has been changed since it was last backed up. Backup programs clear a file's archive
bit when they back up the program. Modifying the program resets the bit and a
backup program knows to make a backup the next time you do a backup.
Archive site --- A tool (software) for finding files stored on anonymous
FTP sites. You need to know the exact file name or a substring of it
Arena --- arena: [UNIX] n. The area of memory attached to a process by
`brk(2)' and `sbrk(2)' and used by `malloc(3)' as dynamic storage. So named from a
semi-mythical `malloc: corrupt arena' message supposedly emitted when some early
versions became terminally confused. See overrun screw, aliasing bug, memory leak,
smash the stack.
Archive bit ---Auto answer
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Arg --- Asbestos
Arg --- arg: /arg/ n. Abbreviation for `argument' (to a function), used so often as
to have become a new word (like `piano' from `pianoforte'). "The sine function takes
1 arg, but the arc-tangent function can take either 1 or 2 args." Compare param, parm,
var.
Arj --- Showing that a file or program has been "compressed," and must be
"exploded" with the arj program before being either read or used. Groups of files may
be compressed together, but this is more commonly done with the zip program. See
.zip.
Armor-plated --- armor-plated: n. Syn. for bulletproof
ARPA --- Advanced Research Projects Agency Network - The precursor to
the Internet. Developed in the late 60's and early 70's by the US Department of
Defense as an experiment in wide-area-networking that would survive a nuclear war.
Also: An experimental network designed to see how well distributed, non-centralized
networks work; the basis for the later evolution of the Internet.
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ARPANet --- (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) -- The
precursor to the Internet. Developed in the late 60’s and early 70’s by the US
Department of Defense as an experiment in wide-area-networking that would survive
a nuclear war.
See Also:Internet
Article --- A message or posting to a newsgroup. Some newsreader programs
can filter out old articles that you may have read earlier.
Artificial intelligendce --- artificial intelligence - Computer
hardware and software packages that try to emulate human intelligence in order to
solve problems using reasoning and learning. First conceived as computer intelligence
in 1950 by Alan Turing, it was renamed artificial intelligence in 1955 by John
McCarthy. One of the earliest and most successful applications were computer
programs that could play chess. In 1990, a computer named Mephisto suprised the
public by checkmating Grand Master Anatoly Karpov.
Asbestos --- asbestos: adj. Used as a modifier to anything intended to
protect one from flames. Important cases of this include asbestos longjohns and
asbestos cork award, but it is used more generally.
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Asbestos cork award --- At sign or @
Asbestos cork award --- asbestos cork award: n. Once, long ago at
MIT, there was a flamer so consistently obnoxious that another hacker designed, had
made, and distributed posters announcing that said flamer had been nominated for the
`asbestos cork award'. Persons in any doubt as to the intended application of the cork
should consult the etymology under flame. Since then, it is agreed that only a select
few have risen to the heights of bombast required to earn this dubious dignity --- but
there is no agreement on *which* few.
Asbestos longjohns --- asbestos longjohns: n. Notional garments
often donned by USENET posters just before emitting a remark they expect will elicit
flamage. This is the most common of the asbestos coinages. Also `asbestos
underwear', `asbestos overcoat', etc.
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ASCII --- (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) -- This is
the de facto world-wide standard for the code numbers used by computers to
represent all the upper and lower-case Latin letters, numbers, punctuation, etc. There
are 128 standard ASCII codes each of which can be represented by a 7 digit binary
number: 0000000 through 1111111.
ASCII art --- An artform which has developed through the use of lowASCII characters. It runs the gamut from simple little doo-dads in someone's sigfile to
complicated random-dot 3D stereogram images which really work. For an example of
ASCII art click on the more button below. SEE ALSO: smileys and emoticons.
ASCII characters --- A subset of the ANSI character standard.
ASCII file --- A file consisting of alphanumeric characters only. Although
virtually every file can be converted to an ASCII file, all formatting (for example,
bold, italics, underline, font size, and so on) will be lost in the ASCII file.
ASsociate Linking --- a document with the program that created it
so that both can be opened with a single command. For example, double-clicking a
DOC file opens Word for Windows and loads the selected document.
At sign or @ --- The "at" sign has grown tremendously in popularity. It
is primarily used to separate the domain name and the user name in an Internet
address and is pronounced "at." For example, egone@interport.net is read and
pronounced as "egone at interport dot net."
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ATAPI --- Attoparsec
ATAPI --- A specification for devices to attach to EIDE buses. This
specification is almost identical to the EIDE specification.
AT command --- AT is a contraction of attention, a command used to
program SmartModems from Hayes Microcomputer Products. AT commands
program a variety of modem hardware settings and were adopted by other modem
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manufacturers who wanted to market their wares with the term Hayes-compatible. It
was considered a must to know that ATL0 turned your modem speaker down and
ATM0 turned it off. Now, however, the commands are usually hidden under a menu
option in your communication software.
AT command set --- A set of commands, originally developed by
Hayes, for modems. Its name originates from the fact that each command starts with
"AT" (attention). Today, most modems support the AT command set, enabling
Microsoft to supply the Unimodem driver with Windows 95.
ATM --- Asynchronous Transfer Mode - A high speed networking scheme and
communication protocol designed with the transfer of multimedia data in mind.
NOTE: You can't get $20 bills from here.
AtomTime95 --- AtomTime95 is a 32-bit Win95 winsock (Internet)
application which will connect to the atomic clock time server in Boulder, CO and
fetch the current atomic time value. It then compares this to your PC's time setting
and displays the difference. You then have the option of updating your PC clock to
match the atomic clock value. There are also advanced settings that allow you to have
the application run in a much more automated fashion. Note: This application will not
work unless you are running some kind of Internet access (examples would be PPP,
SLIP or even direct connection via a network).
Attached File --- also called an enclosure (Microsoft Mail) - A file(s)
that is added to an e-mail. You can attach files through almost any popular e-mail
program such as Eudora and Netscape Mail. Usually this is accomplished simply
clicking the attach file button and then browsing through your system to find and
select the desired file.
Attoparsec --- attoparsec: n. `atto-' is the standard SI prefix for
multiplication by 10^{-18}. A parsec (parallax-second) is 3.26 light-years; an
attoparsec is thus 3.26 * 10^{-18} light years, or about 3.1 cm (thus, 1 attoparsec
microfortnight equals about 1 inch/sec). This unit is reported to be in use (though
probably not very seriously) among hackers in the U.K. See micro-.
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Auditor --- Authentication
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Auditor --- To create or publish a script, program, or document. Usually this
is done with an authoring or scripting language such as C, C++, HTML, or Java.
Whatever language you choose there are usually a wide variety of authoring tools
which you can download or buy to help you.
Attachment --- also called an enclosure (Microsoft Mail) - A file(s) that
is added to an e-mail. You can attach files through almost any popular e-mail program
such as Eudora and Netscape Mail. Usually this is accomplished simply clicking the
attach file button and then browsing through your system to find and select the
desired file.
Attribute --- A property or characteristic.
Attributes (FAT) --- Settings for each file indicate if the file is used by an
operating system, has read-only status, has its archive bit set, or is a hidden file.
.
Au --- A type of audio file.
Autobogotiphobia --- autobogotiphobia: /aw'to-boh-got`*-foh'bee-*/
n. See bogotify.
Auto-Bot --- A free automation tool that checks your POP3 mail server for
new mail, downloads the waiting e-mail, sets your system clock to Internet time, and
executes timed telnet sessions.
AuP --- acceptable use policy - this is the official policy statement regarding
the use of a network or computer system.
Authentication --- Technique by which access to Internet or Intranet
resources requires the user to identify himself or herself using a name and password.
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Author --- Automagically
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Author --- A third party company that tracks, counts and verifies ad banner
deliveries (ad banners that are sent to a Web page from another location) or verifies a
Web site's proprietary ad reporting system. This differs from a "counter" which is a
company that strictly counts ad and page deliveries.
Auto answer --- A feature of e-mail, fax, or any type of communication
program which allows a call to be "picked up". Usually there is a light on the modem
itself if it's an external one or on the graphical interface of the software that indicates
that the auto answer feature is turned on. Most programs must be configured for this
to be possible
Auto arrange ---
.
(Explorer) In Explorer, auto arrange organizes the
visible icons into a regular grid pattern.
Autobot --- A free automation tool that checks your POP3 mail server for
new mail, downloads the waiting e-mail, sets your system clock to Internet time, and
executes timed telnet sessions.
Autoexec.bat --- A text file mostly used through DOS where information
was stored about the system's programs or hardware. Here memory resources - ram
drives were allocated.
Automagically --- automagically: /aw-toh-maj'i-klee/ or /aw-toh-maj'ik*l-ee/ adv. Automatically, but in a way that, for some reason (typically because it is
too complicated, or too ugly, or perhaps even too trivial), the speaker doesn't feel like
explaining to you. See magic. "The C-INTERCAL compiler generates C, then
automagically invokes `cc(1)' to produce an executable."
Avatar --- avatar: [CMU, Tektronix] n. Syn. root, superuser. There are quite
a few UNIX machines on which the name of the superuser account is `avatar' rather
than `root'. This quirk was originated by a CMU hacker who disliked the term
`superuser', and was propagated through an ex-CMU hacker at Tektronix.
.Avi --- A type of video file.
Awk --- awk: 1. n. [UNIX techspeak] An interpreted language for massaging
text data developed by Alfred Aho, Peter Weinberger, and Brian Kernighan (the name
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is from their initials). It is characterized by C-like syntax, a declaration-free approach
to variable typing and declarations, associative arrays, and field-oriented text
processing. See also Perl. 2. n. Editing term for an expression awkward to manipulate
through normal regexp facilities (for example, one containing a newline). 3. vt. To
process data using `awk(1)'.
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HIGH DENSITY COMPUTING
B
Back Door --------- Bytesexual
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
Back door --- Bare metal
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Back door --- Backbone site
Back door --- back door: n. A hole in the security of a system deliberately
left in place by designers or maintainers. The motivation for this is not always
sinister; some operating systems, for example, come out of the box with privileged
accounts intended for use by field service technicians or the vendor's maintenance
programmers.
Backbone --- A high-speed line or series of connections that forms a major
pathway within a network. The term is relative as a backbone in a small network will
likely be much smaller than many non-backbone lines in a large network.
See Also: Network
Backbone cabal --- backbone cabal: n. A group of large-site
administrators who pushed through the Great Renaming and reined in the chaos of
USENET during most of the 1980s. The cabal mailing list disbanded in late 1988
after a bitter internal catfight, but the net hardly noticed.
Backbone site --- backbone site: n. A key USENET and email site; one
that processes a large amount of third-party traffic, especially if it is the home site of
any of the regional coordinators for the USENET maps. Notable backbone sites as of
early 1991 include uunet and the mail machines at Rutgers University, UC Berkeley,
DEC's Western Research Laboratories, Ohio State University, and the University of
Texas. Compare rib site, leaf site.
Historically, back doors have often lurked in systems longer than anyone expected or
planned, and a few have become widely known. The infamous RTM worm of late
1988, for example, used a back door in the BSD UNIX `sendmail(8)' utility.
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Ken Thompson's 1983 Turing Award lecture to the ACM revealed the existence of a
back door in early UNIX versions that may have qualified as the most fiendishly
clever security hack of all time. The C compiler contained code that would recognize
when the `login' command was being recompiled and insert some code recognizing a
password chosen by Thompson, giving him entry to the system whether or not an
account had been created for him.
Normally such a back door could be removed by removing it from the source code for
the compiler and recompiling the compiler. But to recompile the compiler, you have
to *use* the compiler --- so Thompson also arranged that the compiler would
*recognize when it was compiling a version of itself*, and insert into the recompiled
compiler the code to insert into the recompiled `login' the code to allow Thompson
entry --- and, of course, the code to recognize itself and do the whole thing again the
next time around! And having done this once, he was then able to recompile the
compiler from the original sources, leaving his back door in place and active but with
no trace in the sources.
The talk that revealed this truly moby hack was published as "Reflections on Trusting
Trust", `Communications of the ACM 27', 8 (August 1984), pp. 761--763.
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Backgammon --- Backplane
Backgammon --- backgammon: See bignum, moby, and pseudoprime.
Background --- background: n.,adj.,vt. To do a task `in background' is to
do it whenever foreground matters are not claiming your undivided attention, and `to
background' something means to relegate it to a lower priority. "For now, we'll just
print a list of nodes and links; I'm working on the graph-printing problem in
background." Note that this implies ongoing activity but at a reduced level or in spare
time, in contrast to mainstream `back burner' (which connotes benign neglect until
some future resumption of activity). Some people prefer to use the term for
processing that they have queued up for their unconscious minds (a tack that one can
often fruitfully take upon encountering an obstacle in creative work). Compare amp
off, slopsucker.
Technically, a task running in background is detached from the terminal where it was
started (and often running at a lower priority); oppose foreground. Nowadays this
term is primarily associated with UNIX, but it appears to have been first used in this
sense on OS/360.
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Background operation --- A job performed by a program when
another program is in the active window. For example, printing or creating a backup
can be done by Windows 95 as a background operation.
Backplane --- A circuit board containing sockets into which other circuit
boards can be plugged in. In the context of PCs, the term backplane refers to the large
circuit board that contains sockets forexpansion cards.
Backplanes are often described as being either active or passive. Active backplanes
contain, in addition to the sockets, logical circuitry that performs computing
functions. In contrast, passive backplanes contain almost no computing circuitry.
Traditionally, most PCs have used active backplane. Indeed, the terms motherboard
and backplane have been synonymous. Recently, though, there has been a move
toward passive backplanes, with the active components such as the CPU inserted on
an additional card. Passive backplanes make it easier to repair faulty components and
to upgrade to new components.
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Backspace and overstrike --- Bag on the side
Backspace and overstrike --- backspace and overstrike: interj.
Whoa! Back up. Used to suggest that someone just said or did something wrong.
Common among APL programmers.
Backup --- A program that comes with Windows 95 and enables the user to
back up the files from a hard disk to a floppy disk, tape drive, or another computer on
a network.
Backup set --- The set of duplicate files and folders created by a backup
program (see "Backup"). This set is stored on tapes, diskettes, or other storage
medium that can be removed and stored safely away from your computer. See Full
System Backup.
Backward combatability --- backward combatability:
/bak'w*rd k*m-bat'*-bil'*-tee/ [from `backward compatibility'] n. A property of
hardware or software revisions in which previous protocols, formats, and layouts are
discarded in favor of `new and improved' protocols, formats, and layouts. Occurs
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usually when making the transition between major releases. When the change is so
drastic that the old formats are not retained in the new version, it is said to be
`backward combatable'. See flag day.
BAD --- BAD: /B-A-D/ [IBM: acronym, `Broken As Designed'] adj. Said of a
program that is bogus because of bad design and misfeatures rather than because of
bugginess. See working as designed.
Bad Thing --- Bad Thing: [from the 1930 Sellar & Yeatman parody `1066
And All That'] n. Something that can't possibly result in improvement of the subject.
This term is always capitalized, as in "Replacing all of the 9600-baud modems with
bicycle couriers would be a Bad Thing". Oppose Good Thing. British correspondents
confirm that Bad Thing and Good Thing (and prob. therefore Right Thing and Wrong
Thing) come from the book referenced in the etymology, which discusses rulers who
were Good Kings but Bad Things. This has apparently created a mainstream idiom on
the British side of the pond.
Bag on the side --- bag on the side: n. An extension to an established
hack that is supposed to add some functionality to the original. Usually derogatory,
implying that the original was being overextended and should have been thrown
away, and the new product is ugly, inelegant, or bloated. Also v. phrase, `to hang a
bag on the side [of]'. "C++? That's just a bag on the side of C ...." "They want me to
hang a bag on the side of the accounting system."
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Bagbiter --- Bang
Bagbiter --- bagbiter: /bag'bi:t-*r/ n. 1. Something, such as a program or a
computer, that fails to work, or works in a remarkably clumsy manner. "This text
editor won't let me make a file with a line longer than 80 characters! What a
bagbiter!" 2. A person who has caused you some trouble, inadvertently or otherwise,
typically by failing to program the computer properly. Synonyms: loser, cretin,
chomper. 3. adj. `bagbiting' Having the quality of a bagbiter. "This bagbiting system
won't let me compute the factorial of a negative number." Compare losing, cretinous,
bletcherous, `barfucious' (under barfulous) and `chomping' (under chomp). 4. `bite the
bag' vi. To fail in some manner. "The computer keeps crashing every 5 minutes."
"Yes, the disk controller is really biting the bag." The original loading of these terms
was almost undoubtedly obscene, possibly referring to the scrotum, but in their
current usage they have become almost completely sanitized.
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A program called Lexiphage on the old MIT AI PDP-10 would draw on a selected
victim's bitmapped terminal the words "THE BAG" in ornate letters, and then a pair
of jaws biting pieces of it off. This is the first and to date only known example of a
program *intended* to be a bagbiter.
Bamf --- bamf: /bamf/ 1. [from old X-Men comics] interj. Notional sound
made by a person or object teleporting in or out of the hearer's vicinity. Often used in
virtual reality (esp. MUD) electronic fora when a character wishes to make a dramatic
entrance or exit. 2. The sound of magical transformation, used in virtual reality fora
like sense 1. 3. [from `Don Washington's Survival Guide'] n. Acronym for `Bad-Ass
Mother Fucker', used to refer to one of the handful of nastiest monsters on an
LPMUD or other similar MUD.
Banana label --- banana label: n. The labels often used on the sides of
macrotape reels, so called because they are shaped roughly like blunt-ended bananas.
This term, like macrotapes themselves, is still current but visibly headed for
obsolescence.
Banana problem --- banana problem: n. [from the story of the little
girl who said "I know how to spell `banana', but I don't know when to stop"]. Not
knowing where or when to bring a production to a close (compare fencepost error).
One may say `there is a banana problem' of an algorithm with poorly defined or
incorrect termination conditions, or in discussing the evolution of a design that may
be succumbing to featuritis (see also creeping elegance, creeping featuritis). See item
176 under HAKMEM, which describes a banana problem in a Dissociated Press
implementation.
Bandwidth --- How much stuff you can send through a connection.
Usually measured in bits-per-second. A full page of English text is about 16,000 bits.
A fast modem can move about 15,000 bits in one second. Full-motion full-screen
video would require roughly 10,000,000 bits-per-second, depending on compression.
See Also: 56k Line , Bps , Bit , T-1
Bang --- ! - An exclamation point used to signify surprise in an online foru.
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Bang on --- Bare metal
Bang on --- bang on: vt. To stress-test a piece of hardware or software:
"I banged on the new version of the simulator all day yesterday and it didn't
crash once. I guess it is ready to release." The term pound on is synonymous.
Bang path --- bang path: n. An old-style UUCP electronic-mail address
specifying hops to get from some assumed-reachable location to the addressee, so
called because each hop is signified by a bang sign. Thus, for example, the path
...!bigsite!foovax!barbox!me directs people to route their mail to machine bigsite
(presumably a well-known location accessible to everybody) and from there
through the machine foovax to the account of user me on barbox.
In the bad old days of not so long ago, before autorouting mailers became
commonplace, people often published compound bang addresses using the { }
convention (see glob) to give paths from *several* big machines, in the hopes
that one's correspondent might be able to get mail to one of them reliably
(example: ...!{seismo, ut-sally, ihnp4}!rice!beta!gamma!me). Bang paths of 8 to
10 hops were not uncommon in 1981. Late-night dial-up UUCP links would
cause week-long transmission times. Bang paths were often selected by both
transmission time and reliability, as messages would often get lost. See Internet
address, network, the, and sitename.
Banner --- Information given to you when you log into or otherwise access a
system.
Bar --- bar: /bar/ n. 1. The second metasyntactic variable, after foo and before
baz. "Suppose we have two functions: FOO and BAR. FOO calls BAR...." 2. Often
appended to foo to produce foobar.
Bare metal --- bare metal: n. 1. New computer hardware, unadorned with
such snares and delusions as an operating system, an HLL, or even assembler.
Commonly used in the phrase `programming on the bare metal', which refers to the
arduous work of bit bashing needed to create these basic tools for a new machine.
Real bare-metal programming involves things like building boot proms and BIOS
chips, implementing basic monitors used to test device drivers, and writing the
assemblers that will be used to write the compiler back ends that will give the new
machine a real development environment. 2. `Programming on the bare metal' is also
used to describe a style of hand-hacking that relies on bit-level peculiarities of a
particular hardware design, esp. tricks for speed and space optimization that rely on
crocks such as overlapping instructions (or, as in the famous case described in
appendix A, interleaving of opcodes on a magnetic drum to minimize fetch delays
due to the device's rotational latency). This sort of thing has become less common as
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the relative costs of programming time and machine resources have changed, but is
still found in heavily constrained environments such as industrial embedded systems.
See real programmer.
In the world of personal computing, bare metal programming (especially in sense 1
but sometimes also in sense 2) is often considered a Good Thing, or at least a
necessary thing (because these machines have often been sufficiently slow and poorly
designed to make it necessary; see ill-behaved). There, the term usually refers to
bypassing the BIOS or OS interface and writing the application to directly access
device registers and machine addresses. "To get 19.2 kilobaud on the serial port, you
need to get down to the bare metal." People who can do this sort of thing are held in
high regard.
Barf ---Bit rot
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Barf --- Bi-directional printer port
Barf --- barf: /barf/ [from mainstream slang meaning `vomit'] 1. interj. Term of
disgust. This is the closest hackish equivalent of the Val\-speak "gag me with a
spoon". (Like, euwww!) See bletch. 2. vi. To say "Barf!" or emit some similar
expression of disgust. "I showed him my latest hack and he barfed" means only that
he complained about it, not that he literally vomited. 3. vi. To fail to work because of
unacceptable input. May mean to give an error message. Examples: "The division
operation barfs if you try to divide by 0." (That is, the division operation checks for
an attempt to divide by zero, and if one is encountered it causes the operation to fail
in some unspecified, but generally obvious, manner.) "The text editor barfs if you try
to read in a new file before writing out the old one." See choke, gag. In
Commonwealth hackish, `barf' is generally replaced by `puke' or `vom'. barf is
sometimes also used as a metasyntactic variable, like foo or bar.
Baseband --- A transmission method in which a network uses its entire
transmission range to send a single signal.
Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) --- A program-usually residing on a ROM-based storage device in your PC--that handles instructions
to and from the system bus.
Batch --- A method of organizing several files into a single group for
transmitting or printing which serves to increase the efficiency of the data
transmission.
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Batch program --- A text file that instructs Windows 95 to perform
one or more tasks sequentially. Used for automating the loading or execution of
programs. Batch files have a .BAT or .CMD extension.
Bezier --- A mathematically constructed curve, such as the one used in
drawing programs.
Bi-directional printer port --- Bi-directional Printer
Communications sends print files to your printer and listens for a response. Windows
quickly identifies a printer that is unable to accept a print file.
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Bignum --- Bare metal
Bignum --- bignum: /big'nuhm/ [orig. from MIT MacLISP] n. 1. [techspeak]
A multiple-precision computer representation for very large integers. More generally,
any very large number. "Have you ever looked at the United States Budget? There's
bignums for you!" 2. [Stanford] In backgammon, large numbers on the dice are called
`bignums',especially a roll of double fives or double sixes (compare moby, sense 4).
See also El Camino Bignum. Sense 1 may require some explanation. Most computer
languages provide a kind of data called `integer', but such computer integers are
usually very limited in size; usually they must be smaller than than 2^{31}
(2,147,483,648) or (on a losing bitty box) 2^{15} (32,768). If you want to work with
numbers larger than that, you have to use floating-point numbers, which are usually
accurate to only six or seven decimal places. Computer languages that provide
bignums can perform exact calculations on very large numbers, such as 1000! (the
factorial of 1000, which is 1000 times 999 times 998 times ... times 2 times 1). For
example, this value for 1000! was computed by the MacLISP system using bignums:
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Bigot --- Binhex
Bigot --- bigot: n. A person who is religiously attached to a particular
computer, language, operating system, editor, or other tool (see religious issues).
Usually found with a specifier; thus, `cray bigot', {ITS bigot}, `APL bigot', `VMS
bigot', {Berkeley bigot}. True bigots can be distinguished from mere partisans or
zealots by the fact that they refuse to learn alternatives even when the march of time
and/or technology is threatening to obsolete the favored tool. It is said "You can tell a
bigot, but you can't tel him much." Compare weenie.
Binary --- Any downloadable file that doesn't simply contain human-readable,
ASCII text. Typically it refers to a runnable program available for downloading, but it
can also refer to pictures, sounds, or movies, among others. Most Usenet newsgroups
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have sub groups specifically for binaries; a posting in comp.sys.mac.comm might
announce that a progam is available for downloading, but the binary (the file itself)
would be found in comp.sys.mac.comm.binaries. Newsgroups such as
alt.pictures.binaries contain files for download which are actually pictures. You will
need a newsreader to download and decode thes files. SEE ALSO: binary numbers.
Binary file --- Any file containing characters other than text.
Binary file transfer --- A data transfer in which files aren't
converted. Typically used with a modem to send programs or complex documents
from computer to computer.
Binary numbers --- A numbering system with a base (radix) of 2,
unlike the number system most of us use, which have bases of 10 (decimal numbers),
12 (measurement in feet and inches), and 60 (time). Binary numbers are preferred for
computers for precision and economy. Building an electronic circuit that can detect
the difference between two states (high current and low current, or 0 and 1) is easier
and less expensive than building circuits that detect the difference among 10 states (0
through 9). The word bit dervives from the phrase BInary digiT.
Binary transfer protocol --- When using a communications
program to transmit binary files, it is very important to ensure that errors are not
introduced into the data stream. Various binary transfer protocols check for matches
between the data transmitted and the data received. The most common protocols are
Xmodem, Ymodem, and Zmodem.
Binhex --- (BINary HEXadecimal) -- A method for converting non-text files
(non-ASCII) into ASCII. This is needed because Internet e-mail can only handle
ASCII.
See Also: ASCII , MIME , UUENCODE
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Bionic code --- Bit bashing
Bionic code --- A numbering system with a base (radix) of 2, unlike the
number system most of us use, which have bases of 10 (decimal numbers), 12
(measurement in feet and inches), and 60 (time). Binary numbers are preferred for
computers for precision and economy. Building an electronic circuit that can detect
the difference between two states (high current and low current, or 0 and 1) is easier
and less expensive than building circuits that detect the difference among 10 states (0
through 9). The word bit dervives from the phrase BInary digiT.
Bios --- Basic Input/Output System - The bios is what's coded into a PC's ROM
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to provide the basic instructions for controlling system hardware. The operating
system and application programs both directly access BIOS routines to provide better
compatibility for such functions as screen display. Some makers of add-in boards
such as graphics accelerator cards provide their own bios modules that work in
conjunction with (or replace) the bios on the system's motherboard.
Bit --- (Binary DigIT) -- A single digit number in base-2, in other words, either a
1 or a zero. The smallest unit of computerized data. Bandwidth is usually measured in
bits-per-second.
See Also: Bandwidth , Bps , Byte , Kilobyte , Megabyte
Bit bang --- bit bang: n. Transmission of data on a serial line, when
accomplished by rapidly tweaking a single output bit at the appropriate times.
The technique is a simple loop with eight OUT and SHIFT instruction pairs for
each byte. Input is more interesting. And full duplex (doing input and output at
the same time) is one way to separate the real hackers from the wannabees. Bit
bang was used on certain early models of Prime computers, presumably when
UARTs were too expensive, and on archaic Z80 micros with a Zilog PIO but no
SIO. In an interesting instance of the cycle of reincarnation, this technique is
now (1991) coming back into use on some RISC architectures because it
consumes such an infinitesimal part of the processor that it actually makes sense
not to have a UART.
Bit bashing --- bit bashing: n. (alt. `bit diddling' or bit twiddling)
Term used to describe any of several kinds of low-level programming
characterized by manipulation of bit, flag, nybble, and other smaller-thancharacter-sized pieces of data; these include low-level device control, encryption
algorithms, checksum and error-correcting codes, hash functions, some flavors
of graphics programming (see bitblt), and assembler/compiler code generation.
May connote either tedium or a real technical challenge (more usually the
former). "The command decoding for the new tape driver looks pretty solid but
the bit-bashing for the control registers still has bugs." See also bit bang, mode
bit.
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Bit bucket --- Bit rot
Bit bucket --- bit bucket: n. 1. The universal data sink (originally, the
mythical receptacle used to catch bits when they fall off the end of a register
during a shift instruction). Discarded, lost, or destroyed data is said to have
`gone to the bit bucket'. On UNIX, often used for /dev/null. Sometimes amplified
as `the Great Bit Bucket in the Sky'. 2. The place where all lost mail and news
messages eventually go. The selection is performed according to Finagle's Law;
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important mail is much more likely to end up in the bit bucket than junk mail,
which has an almost 100% probability of getting delivered. Routing to the bit
bucket is automatically performed by mail-transfer agents, news systems, and
the lower layers of the network. 3. The ideal location for all unwanted mail
responses: "Flames about this article to the bit bucket." Such a request is
guaranteed to overflow one's mailbox with flames. 4. Excuse for all mail that has
not been sent. "I mailed you those figures last week; they must have ended in the
bit bucket." Compare black hole. This term is used purely in jest. It is based on
the fanciful notion that bits are objects that are not destroyed but only
misplaced. This appears to have been a mutation of an earlier term `bit box',
about which the same legend was current; old-time hackers also report that
trainees used to be told that when the CPU stored bits into memory it was
actually pulling them `out of the bit box'. See also chad box.
Another variant of this legend has it that, as a consequence of the `parity
preservation law', the number of 1 bits that go to the bit bucket must equal the
number of 0 bits. Any imbalance results in bits filling up the bit bucket. A
qualified computer technician can empty a full bit bucket as part of scheduled
maintenance.
Bit decay --- bit decay: n. See bit rot. People with a physics background
tend to prefer this one for the analogy with particle decay. See also computron,
quantum bogodynamics.
Bit map --- A screen page in memory. Most bit maps represent some sort of
viewable graphics. You can use a "paint" program to edit graphic bit maps and make
modifications to them. However, although objects such as rectangles and circles may
appear in a graphic bit map, these objects cannot be edited as objects. You must
modify these objects one bit at a time using the paint tools in the program.
Bit rot --- bit rot: n. Also bit decay. Hypothetical disease the existence of
which has been deduced from the observation that unused programs or features
will often stop working after sufficient time has passed, even if `nothing has
changed'. The theory explains that bits decay as if they were radioactive. As time
passes, the contents of a file or the code in a program will become increasingly
garbled.
There actually are physical processes that produce such effects (alpha particles
generated by trace radionuclides in ceramic chip packages, for example, can
change the contents of a computer memory unpredictably, and various kinds of
subtle media failures can corrupt files in mass storage), but they are quite rare
(and computers are built with error-detecting circuitry to compensate for them).
The notion long favored among hackers that cosmic rays are among the causes
of such events turns out to be a myth; see the cosmic rays entry for details.
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The term software rot is almost synonymous. Software rot is the effect, bit rot
the notional cause.
Bit twiddling --- Bogon filter
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Bit twiddling --- BITNET
Bit twiddling --- bit twiddling: n. 1. (pejorative) An exercise in tuning
in which incredible amounts of time and effort go to produce little noticeable
improvement, often with the result that the code has become incomprehensible.
2. Aimless small modification to a program, esp. for some pointless goal. 3.
Approx. syn. for bit bashing; esp. used for the act of frobbing the device control
register of a peripheral in an attempt to get it back to a known state.
Bitblt --- bitblt: /bit'blit/ n. [from BLT, q.v.] 1. Any of a family of closely
related algorithms for moving and copying rectangles of bits between main and
display memory on a bit-mapped device, or between two areas of either main or
display memory (the requirement to do the Right Thing in the case of overlapping
source and destination rectangles is what makes BitBlt tricky). 2. Synonym for blit or
BLT. Both uses are borderline techspeak.
Bitmap --- Any picture you see on a Web page is a bitmap. Bitmaps come in
many file formats such as GIF, JPEG, TIFF, BMP, PICT, PCX, and DIB (device
independent bitmap, which allows the image to be. They can be read and edited by
paint programs and image editors such as Adobe Photoshop or Paint Shop Pro. As its
name suggests, a bitmap is a map of dots or "pixels". If you zoom in on or try to scale
up a bitmap, it will look blocky.
BITNET --- (Because It’s Time NETwork (or Because It’s There
NETwork)) -- A network of educational sites separate from the Internet, but e-mail is
freely exchanged between BITNET and the Internet. Listservs, the most popular form
of e-mail discussion groups, originated on BITNET. BITNET machines are usually
mainframes running the VMS operating system, and the network is probably the only
international network that is shrinking.
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Bit-paired keyboard --- Bit-paired keyboard
Bit-paired keyboard --- bit-paired keyboard: n. obs. (alt. `bitshift keyboard') A non-standard keyboard layout that seems to have originated
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with the Teletype ASR-33 and remained common for several years on early
computer equipment. The ASR-33 was a mechanical device (see EOU), so the
only way to generate the character codes from keystrokes was by some physical
linkage. The design of the ASR-33 assigned each character key a basic pattern
that could be modified by flipping bits if the SHIFT or the CTRL key was
pressed. In order to avoid making the thing more of a Rube Goldberg kluge than
it already was, the design had to group characters that shared the same basic bit
pattern on one key.
Looking at the ASCII chart, we find:
high low bits
bits 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001
010 ! " # $ % & ' ( )
011 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
This is why the characters !"#$%&'() appear where they do on a Teletype
(thankfully, they didn't use shift-0 for space). This was *not* the weirdest
variant of the QWERTY layout widely seen, by the way; that prize should
probably go to one of several (differing) arrangements on IBM's even clunkier
026 and 029 card punches.
When electronic terminals became popular, in the early 1970s, there was no
agreement in the industry over how the keyboards should be laid out. Some
vendors opted to emulate the Teletype keyboard, while others used the flexibility
of electronic circuitry to make their product look like an office typewriter. These
alternatives became known as `bit-paired' and `typewriter-paired' keyboards.
To a hacker, the bit-paired keyboard seemed far more logical --- and because
most hackers in those days had never learned to touch-type, there was little
pressure from the pioneering users to adapt keyboards to the typewriter
standard.
The doom of the bit-paired keyboard was the large-scale introduction of the
computer terminal into the normal office environment, where out-and-out
technophobes were expected to use the equipment. The `typewriter-paired'
standard became universal, `bit-paired' hardware was quickly junked or
relegated to dusty corners, and both terms passed into disuse.
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Bits --- .Bmp
Bits --- bits: n.pl. 1. Information. Examples: "I need some bits about file
formats." ("I need to know about file formats.") Compare core dump, sense 4. 2.
Machine-readable representation of a document, specifically as contrasted with paper:
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"I have only a photocopy of the Jargon File; does anyone know where I can get the
bits?". See softcopy, source of all good bits See also bit.
Bits per second (bps) --- A measurement of data transmission
speed, usually over a serial data link. Roughly equivalent to baud rate. A single
character requires approximately 10 bits, so a transfer rate of 9600 baud results in
about 960 characters per second (cps) being transferred. This speed, however, varies
depending on the make of your modem.
Bitty box --- bitty box: /bit'ee boks/ n. 1. A computer sufficiently small,
primitive, or incapable as to cause a hacker acute claustrophobia at the thought of
developing software for it. Especially used of small, obsolescent, single-tasking-only
personal machines such as the Atari 800, Osborne, Sinclair, VIC-20, TRS-80, or IBM
PC. 2. [Pejorative] More generally, the opposite of `real computer' (see Get a real
computer!). See also mess-dos, toaster, and toy.
BIX --- One of the smaller on-line service, specializing in computer
professionals, but also having general users. Recently sold, along with delphi, back to
the original creators.
.Bmp --- A Microsoft Windows bitmap format. The images you see when
Windows starts up and closes, and the wallpaper that adorns your desktop, are all in
BMP format.
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BNF --- BNF
BNF --- BNF: /B-N-F/ n. 1. [techspeak] Acronym for `Backus-Naur Form', a
metasyntactic notation used to specify the syntax of programming languages,
command sets, and the like. Widely used for language descriptions but seldom
documented anywhere, so that it must usually be learned by osmosis from other
hackers. Consider this BNF for a U.S. postal address:
<postal-address> ::= <name-part> <street-address> <zip-part>
<personal-part> ::= <name> | <initial> "."
<name-part> ::= <personal-part> <last-name> [<jr-part>] <EOL> | <personal-part>
<name-part>
<street-address> ::= [<apt>] <house-num> <street-name> <EOL>
<zip-part> ::= <town-name> "," <state-code> <ZIP-code> <EOL>
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This translates into English as: "A postal-address consists of a name-part, followed by
a street-address part, followed by a zip-code part. A personal-part consists of either a
first name or an initial followed by a dot. A name-part consists of either: a personalpart followed by a last name followed by an optional `jr-part' (Jr., Sr., or dynastic
number) and end-of-line, or a personal part followed by a name part (this rule
illustrates the use of recursion in BNFs, covering the case of people who use multiple
first and middle names and/or initials). A street address consists of an optional
apartment specifier, followed by a street number, followed by a street name. A zippart consists of a town-name, followed by a comma, followed by a state code,
followed by a ZIP-code followed by an end-of-line." Note that many things (such as
the format of a personal-part, apartment specifier, or ZIP-code) are left unspecified.
These are presumed to be obvious from context or detailed somewhere nearby. See
also parse. 2. The term is also used loosely for any number of variants and extensions,
possibly containing some or all of the regexp wildcards such as `*' or `+'. In fact the
example above isn't the pure form invented for the Algol-60 report; it uses `[]', which
was introduced a few years later in IBM's PL/I definition but is now universally
recognized. 3. In science-fiction fandom, BNF means `Big-Name Fan' (someone
famous or notorious). Years ago a fan started handing out black-on-green BNF
buttons at SF conventions; this confused the hacker contingent terribly.
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Boa --- Bogon filter
Boa --- boa: [IBM] n. Any one of the fat cables that lurk under the floor in a
dinosaur pen. Possibly so called because they display a ferocious life of their own
when you try to lay them straight and flat after they have been coiled for some time. It
is rumored within IBM that channel cables for the 370 are limited to 200 feet because
beyond that length the boas get dangerous --- and it is worth noting that one of the
major cable makers uses the trademark `Anaconda'.
Board --- board: n. 1. In-context synonym for bboard; sometimes used even
for USENET newsgroups. 2. An electronic circuit board (compare card).
Boat anchor --- boat anchor: n. 1. Like doorstop but more severe; implies
that the offending hardware is irreversibly dead or useless. "That was a working
motherboard once. One lightning strike later, instant boat anchor!" 2. A person who
just takes up space.
Body --- Can either be the part of an e-mail message you are sending which
contains just the message itself without all the header and server information, or it is
refferred to in HTML as the section of a Web page which contains all the text and
graphics you see in a browser window. In HTML this section is designated by the use
of a <body> tag.
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Bogometer --- bogometer: /boh-gom'-*t-er/ n. See bogosity. Compare the
`wankometer' described in the wank entry; see also bogus.
Bogon --- bogon: /boh'gon/ [by analogy with proton/electron/neutron, but
doubtless reinforced after 1980 by the similarity to Douglas Adams's `Vogons'; see
the Bibliography] n. 1. The elementary particle of bogosity (see quantum
bogodynamics). For instance, "the Ethernet is emitting bogons again" means that it is
broken or acting in an erratic or bogus fashion. 2. A query packet sent from a TCP/IP
domain resolver to a root server, having the reply bit set instead of the query bit. 3.
Any bogus or incorrectly formed packet sent on a network. 4. By synecdoche, used to
refer to any bogus thing, as in "I'd like to go to lunch with you but I've got to go to the
weekly staff bogon". 5. A person who is bogus or who says bogus things. This was
historically the original usage, but has been overtaken by its derivative senses
1--4. See also bogosity, bogus; compare psyton.
Bogon filter --- bogon filter: /boh'gon fil'tr/ n. Any device, software or
hardware, that limits or suppresses the flow and/or emission of bogons. "Engineering
hacked a bogon filter between the Cray and the VAXen, and now we're getting fewer
dropped packets." See also bogosity, bogus.
Bogon flux --- Bottom-up implementation
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Bogon flux --- Bogotify
Bogon flux --- bogon flux: /boh'gon fluhks/ n. A measure of a supposed
field of bogosity emitted by a speaker, measured by a bogometer; as a speaker starts
to wander into increasing bogosity a listener might say "Warning, warning, bogon
flux is rising". See quantum bogodynamics.
Bogosity --- bogosity: /boh-go's*-tee/ n. 1. The degree to which something is
bogus. At CMU, bogosity is measured with a bogometer; in a seminar, when a
speaker says something bogus, a listener might raise his hand and say "My bogometer
just triggered". More extremely, "You just pinned my bogometer" means you just said
or did something so outrageously bogus that it is off the scale, pinning the bogometer
needle at the highest possible reading (one might also say "You just redlined my
bogometer"). The agreed-upon unit of bogosity is the microLenat /mi:k`roh-len'*t/
(uL). The consensus is that this is the largest unit practical for everyday use. 2. The
potential field generated by a bogon flux; see quantum bogodynamics. See also bogon
flux, bogon filter, bogus.
Historical note: The microLenat was invented as a attack against noted computer
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scientist Doug Lenat by a tenured graduate student. Doug had failed the student on an
important exam for giving only "AI is bogus" as his answer to the questions. The slur
is generally considered unmerited, but it has become a running gag nevertheless.
Some of Doug's friends argue that *of course* a microLenat is bogus, since it is only
one millionth of a Lenat. Others have suggested that the unit should be redesignated
after the grad student, as the microReid.
Bogo-sort --- bogo-sort: /boh`goh-sort'/ n. (var. `stupid-sort') The
archetypical perversely awful algorithm (as opposed to bubble sort, which is merely
the generic *bad* algorithm). Bogo-sort is equivalent to repeatedly throwing a deck
of cards in the air, picking them up at random, and then testing whether they are in
order. It serves as a sort of canonical example of awfulness. Looking at a program and
seeing a dumb algorithm, one might say "Oh, I see, this program uses bogo-sort."
Compare bogus, brute force.
Bogotify --- bogotify: /boh-go't*-fi:/ vt. To make or become bogus. A
program that has been changed so many times as to become completely disorganized
has become bogotified. If you tighten a nut too hard and strip the threads on the bolt,
the bolt has become bogotified and you had better not use it any more. This coinage
led to the notional `autobogotiphobia' defined as `the fear of becoming bogotified';
but is not clear that the latter has ever been `live' jargon rather than a self-conscious
joke in jargon about jargon. See also bogosity, bogus.
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Bogue out --- Bomb
Bogue out --- bogue out: /bohg owt/ vi. To become bogus, suddenly and
unexpectedly. "His talk was relatively sane until somebody asked him a trick
question; then he bogued out and did nothing but flame afterwards." See also
bogosity, bogus.
Bogus --- bogus: adj. 1. Non-functional. "Your patches are bogus." 2. Useless.
"OPCON is a bogus program." 3. False. "Your arguments are bogus." 4. Incorrect.
"That algorithm is bogus." 5. Unbelievable. "You claim to have solved the halting
problem for Turing Machines? That's totally bogus." 6. Silly. "Stop writing those
bogus sagas."
Astrology is bogus. So is a bolt that is obviously about to break. So is someone who
makes blatantly false claims to have solved a scientific problem. (This word seems to
have some, but not all, of the connotations of random --- mostly the negative ones.)
It is claimed that `bogus' was originally used in the hackish sense at Princeton in the
late 1960s. It was spread to CMU and Yale by Michael Shamos, a migratory
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Princeton alumnus. A glossary of bogus words was compiled at Yale when the word
was first popularized (see autobogotiphobia under bogotify). The word spread into
hackerdom from CMU and MIT. By the early 1980s it was also current in something
like the hackish sense in West Coast teen slang, and it had gone mainstream by 1985.
A correspondent from Cambridge reports, by contrast, that these uses of `bogus' grate
on British nerves; in Britain the word means, rather
specifically, `counterfeit', as in "a bogus 10-pound note".
Bohr bug --- Bohr bug: /bohr buhg/ [from quantum physics] n. A repeatable
bug; one that manifests reliably under a possibly unknown but well-defined set of
conditions.
Antonym of heisenbug; see also mandelbug.
Boink --- boink: /boynk/ [USENET: ascribed there to the TV series "Cheers"
and "Moonlighting"] 1. To have sex with; compare bounce, sense 3. (This is
mainstream slang.) In Commonwealth hackish the variant `bonk' is more common. 2.
After the original Peter Korn `Boinkon' USENET parties, used for almost any net
social gathering, e.g., Miniboink, a small boink held by Nancy Gillett in 1988;
Minniboink, a Boinkcon in Minnesota in 1989; Humpdayboinks, Wednesday gettogethers held in the San Francisco Bay Area. Compare @-party. 3. Var of `bonk'; see
bonk/oif.
Bomb --- bomb: 1. v. General synonym for crash (sense 1) except that it is not
used as a noun; esp. used of software or OS failures. "Don't run Empire with less than
32K stack, it'll bomb." 2. n.,v. Atari ST and Macintosh equivalents of a UNIX `panic'
or Amiga guru (sense 2), where icons of little black-powder bombs or mushroom
clouds are displayed, indicating that the system has died. On the Mac, this may be
accompanied by a decimal (or occasionally hexadecimal) number indicating what
went wrong, similar to the Amiga GURU MEDITATION number (see guru).
MS-DOS machines tend to get locked up in this situation.
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Bondage-and-discipline language --- Book titles
Bondage-and-discipline language --- bondage-anddiscipline language: A language (such as Pascal, Ada, APL, or Prolog) that, though
ostensibly general-purpose, is designed so as to enforce anauthor's theory of `right
programming' even though said theory is demonstrably inadequate for systems
hacking or even vanilla general-purpose programming. Often abbreviated `B&D';
thus, one may speak of things "having the B&D nature". See Pascal; oppose
languages of choice.
Bonk/oif --- bonk/oif: /bonk/, /oyf/ interj. In the MUD community, it has
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become traditional to express pique or censure by `bonking' the offending person.
There is a convention that one should acknowledge a bonk by saying `oif!' and a myth
to the effect that failing to do so upsets the cosmic bonk/oif balance, causing much
trouble in the universe. Some MUDs have implemented special commands for
bonking and oifing. See also talk mode, posing.
Book titles --- book titles: There is a tradition in hackerdom of informally
tagging important textbooks and standards documents with the dominant color of
their covers or with some other conspicuous feature of the cover. Many of these are
described in this lexicon under their own entries. See Aluminum Book, Blue Book,
Cinderella Book, Devil Book, Dragon Book, Green Book, Orange Book, Pink-Shirt
Book, Purple Book, Red Book, Silver Book, White Book, Wizard Book, Yellow
Book, and bible.
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Bookmark --- Boot
Bookmark --- A bookmark is considered by some to be the best thing
about surfing the Web. By "bookmarking" a Web site while you visit it, you can
easily return to it at a later time with a simple mouse selection rather than
remembering or typing in very long and sometimes cryptic URLs. The World Wide
Web can be seen as a HUGE library of information. Finding your way around can be
confusing at first. Bookmarks are just one way of personalizing the Web experience,
by enabling you to quickly return to areas of the Web which interest you. Customarily
Web sites have a "links" section which are really just a collection of bookmarks and
are sometimes called hot lists.
Boolean --- or "boolean logic" is a system for searching and retreiving
information from computers by using and combining terms such as AND, OR, and
NOT to sort data.
Boolean logic --- A system of math that uses operators such as "and,"
"or," "not," "if...then," which permit computation. This system is named after George
Boole, an English mathematician who introduced the logic in 1847.
On the Web you will come across the chance to use boolean logic when using a
search engine. These operators, when used in conjuction with your keywords (for
example: recipe AND chocolate AND cookies NOT walnuts) enable the search
engine to retrieve more specific results from your query, thus producing recipes for
chocolate chip cookies which do not contain walnuts. See the AltaVista Advanced
Search Tips page for more examples of how to use boolean when searching.
Boot --- boot: [techspeak; from `by one's bootstraps'] v.,n. To load and
initialize the operating system on a machine. This usage is no longer jargon (having
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passed into techspeak) but has given rise to some derivatives that are still jargon.
The derivative `reboot' implies that the machine hasn't been down for long, or that the
boot is a bounce intended to clear some state of wedgitude. This is sometimes used of
human thought processes, as in the following exchange: "You've lost me." "OK,
reboot. Here's the theory...."
This term is also found in the variants `cold boot' (from power-off condition) and
`warm boot' (with the CPU and all devices already powered up, as after a hardware
reset or software crash).
Another variant: `soft boot', reinitialization of only part of a system, under control of
other software still running: "If you're running the mess-dos emulator, control-altinsert will cause a soft-boot of the emulator, while leaving the rest of the system
running."
Opposed to this there is `hard boot', which connotes hostility towards or frustration
with the machine being booted: "I'll have to hard-boot this losing Sun." "I recommend
booting it hard."
Historical note: this term derives from `bootstrap loader', a short program that was
read in from cards or paper tape, or toggled in from the front panel switches. This
program was always very short (great efforts were expended on making it short in
order to minimize the labor and chance of error involved in toggling it in), but was
just smart enough to read in a slightly more complex program (usually from a card or
paper tape reader), to which it handed control; this program in turn was smart enough
to read the application or operating system from a magnetic tape drive or disk drive.
Thus, in successive steps, the computer `pulled itself up by its bootstraps' to a useful
operating state. Nowadays the bootstrap is usually found in ROM or EPROM, and
reads the first stage in from a fixed location on the disk,
called the `boot block'. When this program gains control, it is powerful enough to
load the actual OS and hand control over to it.
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Boot partition --- Bottom-up implementation
Boot partition --- The hard-disk partition that contains the operating
system.
Bot --- Robot - A bot is a program that runs on a computer [usually] 24 hours a
day 7 days a week that automates mundane tasks for the owner, even if the owner is
not logged in. Bots are used on the Internet in a variety of ways, most popular is its
use in IRC and Web search engines.
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IRC bots are programs that connect to an IRC network and interacts with IRC in very
much the same way a normal users does (in fact, IRC servers treat bots as regular
users). Most IRC bots are used for channel control. Bots have also been called
automatons but that term isn't used as much as it was in the past. Many long time
users & IRC ops have a strong dislike for bots. Because of the system resources they
use, very few bots are used for much more than vanity channel control, and many bots
have been used for annoying or trouble making purposes. While it's true bots have not
lived up to their full potential, new bot coders should try to think of ways their
creation can add value and service to IRC and not just be a system drag.
In the world of Web searching, bots are also called spiders and crawlers. They
explore the World Wide Web by retrieving a document and following all the
hyperlinks in it; then they generate catalogs that can be accessed by search engines.
Popular search sites like Alta Vista, Excite, and Lycos use this method.
Bottom-up implementation --- bottom-up implementation: n.
Hackish opposite of the techspeak term `top-down design'. It is now received wisdom
in most programming cultures that it is best to design from higher levels of
abstraction down to lower, specifying sequences of action in increasing detail until
you get to actual code. Hackers often find (especially in exploratory designs that
cannot be closely specified in advance) that it works best to *build* things in the
opposite order, by writing and testing a clean set of primitive operations and then
knitting them together.
Bixie --- Bozotic
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Bixie --- Bletch
Bixie --- bixie: /bik'see/ n. Variant emoticons used on BIX (the Byte
Information eXchange). The smiley bixie is <@_@>, apparently intending to
represent two cartoon eyes and a mouth. A few others have been reported.
Black art --- black art: n. A collection of arcane, unpublished, and (by
implication) mostly ad-hoc techniques developed for a particular application or
systems area (compare black magic). VLSI design and compiler code optimization
were (in their beginnings) considered classic examples of black art; as theory
developed they became deep magic, and once standard textbooks had been written,
became merely heavy wizardry. The huge proliferation of formal and informal
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channels for spreading around new computer-related technologies during the last
twenty years has made both the term `black art' and what it describes less common
than formerly. See also voodoo programming.
Black hole --- black hole: n. When a piece of email or netnews disappears
mysteriously between its origin and destination sites (that is, without returning a
bounce message) it is commonly said to have `fallen into a black hole'. "I think there's
a black hole at foovax!" conveys suspicion that site foovax has been dropping a lot of
stuff on the floor lately (see drop on the floor). The implied metaphor of email as
interstellar travel is interesting in itself. Compare bit bucket.
Black magic --- black magic: n. A technique that works, though nobody
really understands why. More obscure than voodoo programming, which may be done
by cookbook. Compare also black art, deep magic, and magic number (sense 2).
Blast --- blast: 1. vt.,n. Synonym for BLT, used esp. for large data sends over a
network or comm line. Opposite of snarf. Usage: uncommon. The variant `blat' has
been reported. 2. vt. [HP/Apollo] Synonymous with nuke (sense 3). Sometimes the
message `Unable to kill all processes. Blast them (y/n)?' would appear in the
command window upon logout.
Blat --- blat: n. 1. Syn. blast, sense 1. 2. See thud.
Blatherer --- A user who takes three screens to say something where three
words suffice.
Bletch --- bletch: /blech/ [from Yiddish/German `brechen', to vomit, poss. via
comic-strip exclamation `blech'] interj. Term of disgust. Often used in "Ugh, bletch".
Compare barf.
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Bletcherous --- Blinkenlights
Bletcherous --- bletcherous: /blech'*-r*s/ adj. Disgusting in design or
function; esthetically unappealing. This word is seldom used of people. "This
keyboard is bletcherous!" (Perhaps the keys don't work very well, or are misplaced.)
See losing, cretinous, bagbiter, bogus, and random. The term bletcherous applies to
the esthetics of the thing so described; similarly for cretinous. By contrast, something
that is `losing' or `bagbiting' may be failing to meet objective criteria. See also bogus
and random, which have richer and wider shades of meaning than any of the above.
Blinkenlights --- blinkenlights: /blink'*n-li:tz/ n. Front-panel diagnostic
lights on a computer, esp. a dinosaur. Derives from the last word of the famous
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blackletter-Gothic sign in mangled pseudo-German that once graced about half the
computer rooms in the English-speaking world. One version ran in its entirety as
follows:
ACHTUNG! ALLES LOOKENSPEEPERS! Das computermachine ist nicht fuer
gefingerpoken und mittengrabben. Ist easy schnappen der springenwerk, blowenfusen
und poppencorken mit spitzensparken. Ist nicht fuer gewerken bei das dumpkopfen.
Das rubbernecken sichtseeren keepen das cotten-pickenen hans in das pockets muss;
relaxen und watchen das blinkenlichten.
This silliness dates back at least as far as 1959 at Stanford University and had already
gone international by the early 1960s, when it was reported at London University's
ATLAS computing site. There are several variants of it in circulation, some of which
actually do end with the word `blinkenlights'.
In an amusing example of turnabout-is-fair-play, German hackers have developed
their own versions of the blinkenlights poster in fractured English, one of which is
reproduced here:
ATTENTION This room is fullfilled mit special electronische equippment.
Fingergrabbing and pressing the cnoeppkes from the computers is allowed for die
experts only! So all the "lefthanders" stay away and do not disturben the
brainstorming von here working intelligencies. Otherwise you will be out thrown and
kicked anderswhere! Also: please keep still and only watchen astaunished the
blinkenlights.
See also geef.
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Blit --- Block transfer computations
Blit --- blit: /blit/ vt. 1. To copy a large array of bits from one part of a
computer's memory to another part, particularly when the memory is being used to
determine what is shown on a display screen. "The storage allocator picks through the
table and copies the good parts up into high memory, and then blits it all back down
again." See bitblt, BLT, dd, cat, blast, snarf. More generally, to perform some
operation (such as toggling) on a large array of bits while moving them. 2. Allcapitalized as `BLIT': an early experimental bit-mapped terminal designed by Rob
Pike at Bell Labs, later commercialized as the AT&T 5620. (The folk etymology from
`Bell Labs Intelligent Terminal' is incorrect.)
Blitter --- blitter: /blit'r/ n. A special-purpose chip or hardware system built to
perform blit operations, esp. used for fast implementation of bit-mapped graphics.
The Commodore Amiga and a few other micros have these, but in 1991 the trend is
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away from them (however, see cycle of reincarnation). Syn. raster blaster.
Blivet --- blivet: /bliv'*t/ [allegedly from a World War II military term
meaning "ten pounds of manure in a five-pound bag"] n. 1. An intractable problem. 2.
A crucial piece of hardware that can't be fixed or replaced if it breaks. 3. A tool that
has been hacked over by so many incompetent programmers that it has become an
unmaintainable tissue of hacks. 4. An out-of-control but unkillable development
effort. 5. An embarrassing bug that pops up during a customer demo.
This term has other meanings in other technical cultures; among experimental
physicists and hardware engineers of various kinds it seems to mean any random
object of unknown purpose (similar to hackish use of frob). It has also been used to
describe an amusing trick-the-eye drawing resembling a three-pronged fork that
appears to depict a three-dimensional object until one realizes that the parts fit
together in an impossible way.
Block --- block: [from process scheduling terminology in OS theory] 1. vi. To
delay or sit idle while waiting for something. "We're blocking until everyone gets
here." Compare busy-wait. 2. `block on' vt. To block, waiting for (something).
"Lunch is blocked on Phil's arrival."
Block transfer computations --- block transfer
computations: n. From the television series "Dr. Who", in which it referred to
computations so fiendishly subtle and complex that they could not be performed by
machines. Used to refer to any task that should be expressible as an algorithm in
theory, but isn't.
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Bounce --- Box
Bounce --- bounce: v. 1. [perhaps from the image of a thrown ball
bouncing off a wall] An electronic mail message that is undeliverable and
returns an error notification to thesender is said to `bounce'. See also bounce
message. 2. [Stanford] To play volleyball. At the now-demolished D. C. Power
Lab building used by the Stanford AILab in the 1970s, there was a volleyball
court on the front lawn. From 5 P.M. to 7 P.M. was the scheduled maintenance
time for the computer, so every afternoonat 5 the computer would become
unavailable, and over the intercom a voice would cry, "Now hear this: bounce,
bounce!" followed by Brian McCune loudlybouncing a volleyball on the floor
outside the offices of known volleyballers. 3. To engage in sexual intercourse;
prob. from the expression `bouncing the mattress',but influenced by Piglet's
psychosexually loaded "Bounce on me too, Tigger!" from the "Winnie-thePooh" books. Compare boink. 4. To casually reboot a system inorder to clear up
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a transient problem. Reported primarily among VMS users. 5. [IBM] To power
cycle a peripheral in order to reset it.
2)When e-mail cannot get to its recipient, it bounces back to the original sender
unless it goes off into the ether, never to be found again.
Bounce message --- bounce message: [UNIX] n. Notification message
returned to sender by a site unable to relay email to the intended Internet address
recipient or the next link in a bang path (see bounce). Reasons might include a
nonexistent or misspelled username or a down relay site. Bounce messages can
themselves fail, with occasionally ugly results; see sorcerer's apprentice mode. The
term `bounce mail' is also common.
Bound media --- In networks, this refers to traditional cabling
connecting the nodes of a network together, and to a server, if any. See also unbound
media.
Box --- box: n. 1. A computer; esp. in the construction `foo box' where foo is
some functional qualifier, like `graphics', or the name of an OS (thus, `UNIX box',
`MS-DOS box', etc.) "We preprocess the data on UNIX boxes before handing it up to
the mainframe." 2. [within IBM] Without qualification but within an SNA-using site,
this refers specifically to an IBM front-end processor or FEP /F-E-P/. An FEP is a
small computer necessary to enable an IBM mainframe to communicate beyond the
limits of the dinosaur pen. Typically used in expressions like the cry that goes up
when an SNA network goes down: "Looks like the box has fallen over." (See fall
over.) See also IBM, fear and loathing, fepped out, Blue Glue.
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Boxed comments --- Bozotic
Boxed comments --- boxed comments: n. Comments (explanatory
notes attached to program instructions) that occupy several lines by themselves; so
called because in assembler and C code they are often surrounded by a box in a style
something like this:
/*************************************************
*
* This is a boxed comment in C style
*
*************************************************/
Common variants of this style omit the asterisks in column 2 or add a matching row
of asterisks closing the right side of the box. The sparest variant omits all but the
comment delimiters themselves; the `box' is implied. Oppose winged comments.
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Boxen --- boxen: /bok'sn/ [by analogy with VAXen] pl.n. Fanciful plural of
box often encountered in the phrase `UNIX boxen', used to describe commodity
UNIX hardware. The connotation is that any two UNIX boxen are interchangeable.
Boxology --- boxology: /bok-sol'*-jee/ n. Syn. ASCII art. This term implies
a more restricted domain, that of box-and-arrow drawings. "His report has a lot of
boxology in it." Compare macrology.
Bozo filter --- A program that filters e-mail from or posting by individuals
who are on your b-list (bozo list).
Bozotic --- bozotic: /boh-zoh'tik/ or /boh-zo'tik/ [from the name of a TV
clown even more losing than Ronald McDonald] adj. Resembling or having the
quality of a bozo; that is, clownish, ludicrously wrong, unintentionally humorous.
Compare wonky, demented. Note that the noun `bozo' occurs in slang, but the
mainstream adjectival form would be `bozo-like' or (in New England) `bozoish'.
Blow an EPROM --- Broken link
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Blow an EPROM --- Blue Book
Blow an EPROM --- blow an EPROM: /bloh *n ee'prom/ v. (alt.
`blast an EPROM', `burn an EPROM') To program a read-only memory, e.g. for use
with an embedded system. This term arises because the programming process for the
Programmable Read-Only Memories (PROMs) that preceded present-day Erasable
Programmable Read-Only Memories (EPROMs) involved intentionally blowing tiny
electrical fuses on the chip. Thus, one was said to `blow' (or `blast') a PROM, and the
terminology carried over even though the write process on EPROMs is
nondestructive.
Blow away --- blow away: vt. To remove (files and directories) from
permanent storage, generally by accident. "He reformatted the wrong partition and
blew away last night's netnews." Oppose nuke.
Blow out --- blow out: vi. Of software, to fail spectacularly; almost as
serious as crash and burn. See blow past, blow up.
Blow past --- blow past: vt. To blow out despite a safeguard. "The server
blew past the 5K reserve buffer."
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Blow up --- blow up: vi. 1. [scientific computation] To become unstable.
Suggests that the computation is diverging so rapidly that it will soon overflow or at
least go nonlinear. 2.
Syn. blow out.
BLT --- BLT: /B-L-T/, /bl*t/ or (rarely) /belt/ n.,vt. Synonym for blit. This is
the original form of blit and the ancestor of bitblt. It referred to any large bit-field
copy or move operation (one resource-intensive memory-shuffling operation done on
pre-paged versions of ITS, WAITS, and TOPS-10 was sardonically referred to as
`The Big BLT'). The jargon usage has outlasted the PDP-10 BLock Transfer
instruction from which BLT derives; nowadays, the assembler mnemonic BLT almost
always means `Branch if Less Than zero'.
Blue Book --- Blue Book: n. 1. Informal name for one of the three standard
references on the page-layout and graphics-control language PostScript (`PostScript
Language Tutorial and Cookbook', Adobe Systems, Addison-Wesley 1985,
QA76.73.P67P68, ISBN 0-201-10179-3); the other two official guides are known as
the Green Book and Red Book. 2. Informal name for one of the three standard
references on Smalltalk: `Smalltalk-80: The Language and its Implementation', David
Robson, Addison-Wesley 1983, QA76.8.S635G64, ISBN 0-201-11371-63 (this is
also associated with green and red books). 3. Any of the 1988 standards issued by the
CCITT's ninth plenary assembly. Until now, they have changed color each review
cycle (1984 was Red Book, 1992 would be Green Book); however, it is rumored that
this convention is going to be dropped before 1992. These include, among other
things, the X.400 email spec and the Group 1 through 4 fax standards. See also book
titles.
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Blue Glue --- BPS
Blue Glue --- Blue Glue: [IBM] n. IBM's SNA (Systems Network
Architecture), an incredibly losing and bletcherous communications protocol widely
favored at commercial shops that don't know any better. The official IBM definition
is "that which binds blue boxes together." See fear and loathing. It may not be
irrelevant that Blue Glue is the trade name of a 3M product that is commonly used to
hold down the carpet squares to the removable panel floors common in dinosaur pens.
A correspondent at U. Minn. reports that the CS department there has about 80 bottles
of the stuff hanging about, so they often refer to any messy work to be done as `using
the blue glue'.
Blue goo --- blue goo: n. Term for `police' nanobots intended to prevent gray
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goo, denature hazardous waste, destroy pollution, put ozone back into the
stratosphere, prevent halitosis, and promote truth, justice, and the American way, etc.
See nanotechnology.
BPS --- bits per second - The amount of data that can be transmitted over a
communications medium; not to be confused with baud.
A measurement of how fast data is moved from one place to another. A 28.8 modem
can move 28,800 bits per second.
See Also: Bandwidth , Bit
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Brain dump --- Break
Brain dump --- brain dump: n. The act of telling someone everything one
knows about a particular topic or project. Typically used when someone is going to
let a new party maintain a piece of code. Conceptually analogous to an operating
system core dump in that it saves a lot of useful state before an exit. "You'll have to
give me a brain dump on FOOBAR before you start your new job at HackerCorp."
See core dump (sense 4). At Sun, this is also known as `TOI' (transfer of
information).
Brain-damaged --- brain-damaged: 1. [generalization of `Honeywell
Brain Damage' (HBD), a theoretical disease invented to explain certain utter
cretinisms in Honeywell Multics] adj. Obviously wrong; cretinous; demented. There
is an implication that the person responsible must have suffered brain damage,
because he should have known better. Calling something brain-damaged is really bad;
it also implies it is unusable, and that its failure to work is due to poor design rather
than some accident. "Only six monocase characters per file name? Now *that's* braindamaged!" 2. [esp. in the Mac world] May refer to free demonstration software that
has been deliberately crippled in some way so as not to compete with the commercial
product it is intended to sell. Syn. crippleware.
Braino --- braino: /bray'no/ n. Syn. for thinko.
Branch to Fishkill --- branch to Fishkill: [IBM: from the location of
one of the corporation's facilities] n. Any unexpected jump in a program that produces
catastrophic or just plain weird results. See jump off into never-never land,
hyperspace.
Brand brand brand --- brand brand brand: n. Humorous catchphrase from BartleMUDs, in which players were described carrying a list of objects,
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the most common of which would usually be a brand. Often used as a joke in talk
mode as in "Fred the wizard is here, carrying brand ruby brand brand brand kettle
broadsword flamethrower". A brand is a torch, of course; one burns up a lot of those
exploring dungeons. Prob. influenced by the famous Monty Python "Spam" skit.
BRB --- Be Right Back - A shorthand appended to a comment written in an
online forum or e-mail. To see more e-mail shorthand click here
Break --- break: 1. vt. To cause to be broken (in any sense). "Your latest patch
to the editor broke the paragraph commands." 2. v. (of a program) To stop
temporarily, so that it may debugged. The place where it stops is a `breakpoint'. 3.
[techspeak] vi. To send an RS-232 break (125 msec of line high) over a serial comm
line. 4. [UNIX] vi. To strike whatever key currently causes the tty driver to send
SIGINT to the current process. Normally, break (sense 3) or delete does this. 5.
`break break' may be said to interrupt a conversation (this is an example of verb
doubling).
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Breath-of-life packet --- Broadband
Breath-of-life packet --- breath-of-life packet: [XEROX PARC] n.
An Ethernet packet that contained bootstrap (see boot) code, periodically sent out
from a working computer to infuse the `breath of life' into any computer on the
network that had happened to crash. The machines had hardware or firmware that
would wait for such a packet after a catastrophic error.
Breedle --- breedle: n. See feep.
Bridge --- In networks, a device that joins two separate LANs but restricts
LAN frame traffic to either side of the bridge (unless forwarding is required). Bridges
process LAN frames (not network packets) and are governed by IEEE standards. A
bridge should not be confused with a router (see "router"), which uses an entirely
different layer of protocol and information for forwarding packets (not frames).
Bring X to its knees --- bring X to its knees: v. To present a
machine, operating system, piece of software, or algorithm with a load so extreme or
pathological that it grinds to a halt. "To bring a MicroVAX to its knees, try twenty
users running vi --- or four running EMACS." Compare hog.
Brittle --- brittle: adj. Said of software that is functional but easily broken by
changes in operating environment or configuration, or by any minor tweak to the
software itself. Also, any system that responds inappropriately and disastrously to
expected external stimuli; e.g., a file system that is usually totally scrambled by a
power failure is said to be brittle. This term is often used to describe the results of a
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research effort that were never intended to be robust, but it can be applied to
commercially developed software, which displays the quality far more often than it
ought to. Oppose robust.
Broadband --A high-speed, high-capacity transmission channel. Broadband channels are carried on
coaxial or fiber-optic cables that have a wider bandwidth than conventional telephone
lines, giving them the ability to carry video, voice, and data simultaneously. The
@Home network is an example of broadband connectivity.
broadband - a definition circa 1994
A transmission method in which the networks range of transmission frequencies is
divided into separate channels and each
channel is used to send a different signal. Broadband is often used to send different
types of signals simultaneously.
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Broadcast storm --- Broken link
Broadcast storm --- broadcast storm: n. An incorrect packet broadcast
on a network that causes most hosts to respond all at once, typically with wrong
answers that start the process over again. See network meltdown.
Broken --- broken: adj. 1. Not working properly (of programs). 2. Behaving
strangely; especially (when used of people) exhibiting extreme depression.
Broken arrow --- broken arrow: [IBM] n. The error code displayed on
line 25 of a 3270 terminal (or a PC emulating a 3270) for various kinds of protocol
violations and "unexpected" error conditions (including connection to a down
computer). On a PC, simulated with `->/_', with the two center characters overstruck.
In true luser fashion, the original documentation of these codes (visible on every 3270
terminal, and necessary for debugging network problems) was confined to an IBM
customer engineering manual.
Note: to appreciate this term fully, it helps to know that `broken arrow' is also military
jargon for an accident involving nuclear weapons....
Broken graphic --- A link or hyperlink which no longer works when a
page loads, or when it is "clicked on" or does not take the user to the destination it
was supposed too. This can also apply to a graphic which does not "load" on to a
page. This can occur for several reasons, among them being that the server hosting
the Web site has shut down temporarily or has been restarted, the Web site has moved
to an entirely new server, the file or files have been moved or deleted, or the HTML
code for the hyperlink is incorrect. Here's a look at some of the potential things you
will see when a link is broken: You should note however, that the broken graphics
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image can also appear when you have your browser's graphics turned off or if you hit
the STOP button before the page finishes loading and the transfer gets interrupted.
Broken link --- A link or hyperlink which no longer works when a page
loads, or when it is "clicked on" or does not take the user to the destination it was
supposed too. This can also apply to a graphic which does not "load" on to a page.
This can occur for several reasons, among them being that the server hosting the Web
site has shut down temporarily or has been restarted, the Web site has moved to an
entirely new server, the file or files have been moved or deleted, or the HTML code
for the hyperlink is incorrect. Here's a look at some of the potential things you will
see when a link is broken:
You should note however, that the broken graphics image can also appear when you
have your browser's graphics turned off or if you hit the STOP button before the page
finishes loading and the transfer gets interrupted.
Broken pipe --- Buffer overflow
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Broken pipe --- Browser
Broken pipe --- This term is usually seen in an error message by
programs such as Netscape Navigator to let the user know that the stream of
information which was downloading at the time has been forcibly cut. This can occur
for many reasons, most commonly because you are on a very crowded network or
your access provider is experiencing heavy traffic.
Broket --- broket: /broh'k*t/ or /broh'ket`/ [by analogy with `bracket': a
`broken bracket'] n. Either of the characters `<' and `>', when used as paired enclosing
delimiters. This word originated as a contraction of the phrase `broken bracket', that
is, a bracket that is bent in the middle. (At MIT, and apparently in the Real World as
well, these are usually called angle brackets.)
Brooks's Law --- Brooks's Law: prov. "Adding manpower to a late
software project makes it later" --- a result of the fact that the advantage from
splitting work among Nprogrammers is O(N) (that is, proportional to N), but the
complexity and communications cost associated with coordinating and then
merging their work is O(N^2) (that is, proportional to the square of N). The
quote is from Fred Brooks, a manager of IBM's OS/360 project and author of
`The Mythical Man-Month' (Addison-Wesley, 1975, ISBN 0-201-00650-2), an
excellent early book on software engineering. The myth in question has been
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most tersely expressed as "Programmer time is fungible" and Brooks
established conclusively that it is not. Hackers have never forgotten his advice;
too often, management does. See also creationism, second-system effect.
Brownout --- In 'net terms, when a system is overloaded by requests that it
slows down to the point of near unusability, it is suffering a "brownout."
Browse --- A program that allows users to access documents on the World
Wide Web (WWW). Browsers can be either text or graphic. They read HTML coded
pages that reside on a server and interpret the coding into what we see as Web pages.
Netscape Navigator or Microsoft Internet Explorer are examples of Web browsers.
SEE ALSO: browser compatibility and browser support.
Browser --- Short for Web Browser; it's the tool (program) that allows you
to surf the web. You probably used your Web Browser to locate this page. The most
popular Web Browsers right now are Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer.
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Browser compatibility --- BRS
Browser compatibility --- A term which means the comparing of
the way a Web page looks on one WWW browser as opposed to another. Usually this
is done with Microsoft Internet Explorer (MIE) and Netscape Navigator, but can also
refer to cross platform compatibilty, which is for example is the way a page renders
or displays in Navigator on a Windows system as opposed to Navigator on a Mac.
The reason these incompatibilities exist is due to the way a browser intreprets the
Web page's code (HTML). The differences are usually very slight, however just
enough to annoy some Web designers and sometimes even their clients to the point in
which great time and energy is spent in making a Web site compatible with any
browser on any type of system.
Browser compatibilty is also used in conjuction and should not be confused with the
term browser support which refers to the abilty of a particular browser to even
recognize and interpret certain HTML or other Web page codes at all (for example:
Netscape Navigator 1.0 did not have the abilty to render a page layout in frames this
feature did not come along until version 2.0, therefore it can be said that Navigator
1.0 did not "support" frames.
Browser support --- A term which means the comparing of the way a
Web page looks on one WWW browser as opposed to another. Usually this is done
with Microsoft Internet Explorer (MIE) and Netscape Navigator, but can also refer to
cross platform compatibilty, which is for example is the way a page renders or
displays in Navigator on a Windows system as opposed to Navigator on a Mac. The
reason these incompatibilities exist is due to the way a browser intreprets the Web
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page's code (HTML). The differences are usually very slight, however just enough to
annoy some Web designers and sometimes even their clients to the point in which
great time and energy is spent in making a Web site compatible with any browser on
any type of system.
Browser compatibilty is also used in conjuction and should not be confused with the
term browser support which refers to the abilty of a particular browser to even
recognize and interpret certain HTML or other Web page codes at all (for example:
Netscape Navigator 1.0 did not have the abilty to render a page layout in frames this
feature did not come along until version 2.0, therefore it can be said that Navigator
1.0 did not "support" frames.
BRS --- BRS:
/B-R-S/ n. Syn. Big Red Switch. This
abbreviation is fairly common on-line.
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Brute force --- Brute force
Brute force --- brute force: adj. Describes a primitive programming style,
one in which the program mer relies on the computer's processing power instead of
using his or her own intelligence to simplify the problem, often ignoring problems of
scale and applying na"ive methods suited to small problems directly to large ones.
The canonical example of a brute-force algorithm is associated with the `traveling
salesman problem' (TSP), a classical NP-hard problem: Suppose a person is in, say,
Boston, and wishes to drive to N other cities. In what order should he or she visit
them in order to minimize the distance travelled? The brute-force method is to simply
generate all possible routes and compare the distances; while guaranteed to work and
simple to implement, this algorithm is clearly very stupid in that it considers even
obviously absurd routes (like going from Boston to Houston via San Francisco and
New York, in that order). For very small N it works well, but it rapidly becomes
absurdly inefficient when N increases (for N = 15, there are already
1,307,674,368,000 possible routes to consider, and for N = 1000 --- well, see
bignum). See also NP-.
A more simple-minded example of brute-force programming is finding the smallest
number in a large list by first using an existing program to sort the list in ascending
order, and then picking the first number off the front.
Whether brute-force programming should be considered stupid or not depends on the
context; if the problem isn't too big, the extra CPU time spent on a brute-force
solution may cost less than the programmer time it would take to develop a more
`intelligent' algorithm. Alternatively, a more intelligent algorithm may imply more
long-term complexity cost and bug-chasing than are justified by the speed
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improvement.
Ken Thompson, co-inventor of UNIX, is reported to have uttered the epigram "When
in doubt, use brute force". He probably intended this as a ha ha only serious, but the
original UNIX kernel's preference for simple, robust, and portable algorithms over
brittle `smart' ones does seem to have been a significant factor in the success of that
OS. Like so many other tradeoffs in software design, the choice between brute force
and complex, finely-tuned cleverness is often a difficult one that requires both
engineering savvy and delicate esthetic judgment.
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Brute force and ignorance --- Bucky bits
Brute force and ignorance --- brute force and ignorance: n. A
popular design technique at many software houses --- brute force coding unrelieved
by any knowledge of how problems have been previously solved in elegant ways.
Dogmatic adherence to design methodologies tends to encourage it. Characteristic of
early larval stage programming; unfortunately, many never outgrow it. Often
abbreviated BFI: "Gak, they used a bubble sort! That's strictly from BFI." Compare
bogosity.
BSD --- A common group of UNIX programs, including FreeBSD, an OS for
pc's (386 & later).
BTW --- (By The Way) -- A shorthand appended to a comment written in an
online forum.
See Also: IMHO , TTFN
Bubble sort --- bubble sort: n. Techspeak for a particular sorting
technique in which pairs of adjacent values in the list to be sorted are compared and
interchanged if they are out of order; thus, list entries `bubble upward' in the list until
they bump into one with a lower sort value. Because it is not very good relative to
other methods and is the one typically stumbled on by na"ive and untutored
programmers, hackers consider it the canonical example of a na"ive algorithm. The
canonical example of a really *bad* algorithm is bogo-sort. A bubble sort might be
used out of ignorance, but any use of bogo-sort could issue only from brain damage
or willful perversity.
Bucky bits --- bucky bits: /buh'kee bits/ n. 1. obs. The bits produced by the
CONTROL and META shift keys on a SAIL keyboard, resulting in a 9-bit keyboard
character set. The MIT AI TV (Knight) keyboards extended this with TOP and
separate left and right CONTROL and META keys, resulting in a 12-bit character set;
later, LISP Machines added such keys as SUPER, HYPER, and GREEK (see spacefile:///C|/WINDOWS/Desktop/acrobat%20glossary/glossary/glossary-b.htm (34 of 41) [4/11/01 4:09:30 PM]
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cadet keyboard). 2. By extension, bits associated with `extra' shift keys on any
keyboard, e.g., the ALT on an IBM PC or command and option keys on a Macintosh.
It is rumored that `bucky bits' were named for Buckminster Fuller during a period
when he was consulting at Stanford. Actually, `Bucky' was Niklaus Wirth's nickname
when *he* was at Stanford; he first suggested the idea of an EDIT key to set the 8th
bit of an otherwise 7-bit ASCII character. This was used in a number of editors
written at Stanford or in its environs (TV-EDIT and NLS being the best-known). The
term spread to MIT and CMU early and is now in general use. See double bucky,
quadruple bucky.
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Bulletin Board System (BBS) --- Buffer overflow
Bulletin Board System (BBS) --- An electronic service that
can be accessed via a modem. BBS typically includes collections of files, notes from
other computer users, and many other services. Examples of commercial BBSs
include CompuServe, Prodigy, Delphi, GEnie, and America Online (AOL).
Information about Windows 95 and Windows 95 applications can be found on all
these BBSs.
Burst mode --- A mode used in MCA and EISA computers and devices to
facilitate greater flow of data through the bus. When bus mastering is employed, a bus
master and its slave can establish a connection and send large blocks of data without
CPU intervention. Without burst mode, each byte requires CPU attention to gain
control of the bus, and send a byte of data.
Bus --- The interface between devices in a computer. PC's incorporate bus
designs, including ISA, EISA, MCA, PCI, and VLB (VESA Local Bus).
Bus mastering --- A function used to off-load I/O processing to a processor
on the interface card. Bus mastering is only truly effective when used with a bus
design that can control bus master access to the computer bus, as is the case in EISA,
MCA, and PCI computers. Bus mastering alone does not fully utilize the capabilities
of this design unless implemented in conjunction with accessing the 32-bit burst
mode and streaming data modes of EISA, MCA, and PCI computers.
Bus network --- One of various network topologies. A Bus network is
one in which all of the computers on the network are connected to the main wire of
the network.
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Buffer overflow --- buffer overflow: n. What happens when you try to
stuff more data into a buffer (holding area) than it can handle. This may be due to a
mismatch in the processing rates of the producing and consuming processes (see
overrun), or because the buffer is simply too small to hold all the data that must
accumulate before a piece of it can be processed. For example, in a text-processing
tool that crunches a line at a time, a short line buffer can result in lossage as input
from a long line overflows the buffer and trashes data beyond it. Good defensive
programming would check for overflow on each character and stop accepting data
when the buffer is full up. The term is used of and by humans in a metaphorical sense.
"What time did I agree to meet you? My buffer must have overflowed." Or "If I
answer that phone my buffer is going to overflow." See also spam, overrun screw.
Buffer page --- Bytesexual
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Buffer page --- Bug
Buffer page --- An alternate or "extra" Web page. Can sometimes be
either a warning of some kind or a page you come to after clicking on an ad banner,
instead of going directly to the advertiser's home page. In the latter, this page serves
to highlight or upsell the special offer mentioned in the ad banner. This page is
typically hosted or kept on the server where the ad banner is served and not on the
advertiser's or actual Web site's server. Not to be confused with a splash page.
Bug --- bug: n. An unwanted and unintended property of a program or
hardware, esp. one that causes it to malfunction. Antonym of feature. Examples:
"There's a bug in the editor: it writes things out backwards." "The system
crashed because of a hardware bug." "Fred is a winner, but he has a few bugs"
(i.e., Fred is a good guy, but he has a few personality problems).
Historical note: Some have said this term came from telephone company usage,
in which "bugs in a telephone cable" were blamed for noisy lines, but this
appears to be an incorrect folk etymology. Admiral Grace Hopper (an early
computing pioneer better known for inventing COBOL) liked to tell a story in
which a technician solved a persistent glitch in the Harvard Mark II machine by
pulling an actual insect out from between the contacts of one of its relays, and
she subsequently promulgated bug in its hackish sense as a joke about the
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incident (though, as she was careful to admit, she was not there when it
happened). For many years the logbook associated with the incident and the
actual bug in question (a moth) sat in a display case at the Naval Surface
Warfare Center. The entire story, with a picture of the logbook and the moth
taped into it, is recorded in the `Annals of the History of Computing', Vol. 3, No.
3 (July 1981), pp. 285--286.
The text of the log entry (from September 9, 1945), reads "1545 Relay #70 Panel
F (moth) in relay. First actual case of bug being found". This wording seems to
establish that the term was already in use at the time in its current specific sense.
Indeed, the use of `bug' to mean an industrial defect was already established in
Thomas Edison's time, and `bug' in the sense of an disruptive event goes back to
Shakespeare! In the first edition of Samuel Johnson's dictionary one meaning of
`bug' is "A frightful object; a walking spectre"; this is traced to `bugbear', a
Welsh term for a variety of mythological monster which (to complete the circle)
has recently been reintroduced into the popular lexicon through fantasy roleplaying games.
In any case, in jargon the word almost never refers to insects. Here is a plausible
conversation that never actually happened:
"There is a bug in this ant farm!"
"What do you mean? I don't see any ants in it."
"That's the bug."
[There has been a widespread myth that the original bug was moved to the
Smithsonian, and an earlier version of this entry so asserted. A correspondent
who thought to check discovered that the bug was not there. While investigating
this, your editor discovered that the NSWC still had the bug, but had
unsuccessfully tried to get the Smithsonian to accept it --- and that the present
curator of the History of American Technology Museum didn't know this and
agreed that it would make a worthwhile exhibit. Thus, the process of
investigating the original-computer-bug bug may have fixed it in an entirely
unexpected way, by making the myth true! --- ESR]
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Bugs --- Bump
Bugs --- A programming error that causes a program or computer system to
perform erratically, produce incorrect results, or crash. The term bug was coined
when a real insect was discovered to have fouled up one of the circuits of the first
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electronic digital computer, the ENIAC. To report any High Density TM bugs, click
here. Not to be confused with a glitch, which refers to a hardware problem.
Bug-compatible --- bug-compatible: adj. Said of a design or revision
that has been badly compromised by a requirement to be compatible with fossils or
misfeatures in other programs or (esp.) previous releases of itself. "MS-DOS 2.0 used
\ as a path separator to be bug-compatible with some cretin's choice of / as an option
character in 1.0."
Bug-for-bug compatible --- bug-for-bug compatible: n. Same
as bug-compatible, with the additional implication that much tedious effort went
into ensuring that each (known) bug was replicated.
Buglix --- buglix: /buhg'liks/ n. Pejorative term referring to DEC's
ULTRIX operating system in its earlier *severely* buggy versions. Still used to
describe ULTRIX, but without venom. Compare HP-SUX.
Bullet --- In HTML, a bullet is a large dot used to separate listed items on a
Web page. For example: The circle that appears on the left side of this text is called a
bullet.
Bulletproof --- bulletproof: adj. Used of an algorithm or implementation
considered extremely robust; lossage-resistant; capable of correctly recovering from
any imaginable exception condition. This is a rare and valued quality. Syn. armorplated.
Bum --- bum: 1. vt. To make highly efficient, either in time or space, often
at the expense of clarity. "I managed to bum three more instructions out of that
code." "I spent half the night bumming the interrupt code." 2. To squeeze out
excess; to remove something in order to improve whatever it was removed from
(without changing function; this distinguishes the process from a featurectomy).
3. n. A small change to an algorithm, program, or hardware device to make it
more efficient. "This hardware bum makes the jump instruction faster." Usage:
now uncommon, largely superseded by v. tune (and n. tweak, hack), though none
of these exactly capture sense 2. All these uses are rare in Commonwealth
hackish, because in the parent dialects of English `bum' is a rude synonym for
`buttocks'.
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Bump --- bump: vt. Synonym for increment. Has the same meaning as C's
++ operator. Used esp. of counter variables, pointers, and index dummies in
`for', `while', and `do-while' loops.
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Burble --- Button
Burble --- burble: [from Lewis Carroll's "Jabberwocky"] v. Like flame,
but connotes that the source is truly clueless and ineffectual (mere flamers can
be competent). A term of deep contempt. "There's some guy on the phone
burbling about how he got a DISK FULL error and it's all our comm software's
fault."
Buried treasure --- buried treasure: n. A surprising piece of code
found in some program. While usually not wrong, it tends to vary from crufty to
bletcherous, and has lain undiscovered only because it was functionally correct,
however horrible it is. Used sarcastically, because what is found is anything
*but* treasure. Buried treasure almost always needs to be dug up and removed.
"I just found that the scheduler sorts its queue using bubble sort! Buried
treasure!"
Burn-in period --- burn-in period: n. 1. A factory test designed to
catch systems with marginal components before they get out the door; the theory
is that burn-in will protect customers by outwaiting the steepest part of the
bathtub curve (see infant mortality). 2. A period of indeterminate length in
which a person using a computer is so intensely involved in his project that he
forgets basic needs such as food, drink, sleep, etc. Warning: Excessive burn-in
can lead to burn-out. See hack mode, larval stage.
Burst page --- burst page: n. Syn. banner, sense 1.
Busy-wait --- busy-wait: vi. Used of human behavior, conveys that the
subject is busy waiting for someone or something, intends to move instantly as
soon as it shows up, and thus cannot do anything else at the moment. "Can't talk
now, I'm busy-waiting till Bill gets off the phone."
Technically, `busy-wait' means to wait on an event by spinning through a tight
or timed-delay loop that polls for the event on each pass, as opposed to setting up
an interrupt handler and continuing execution on another part of the task. This
is a wasteful technique, best avoided on time-sharing systems where a busywaiting program may hog the processor.
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Button --- A graphic which a user can "click on" to do something, like
download a program or go to another Web page. Also refers to a small (100 X 45) ad
banner.
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Buzz --- Bytesexual
Buzz --- buzz: vi. 1. Of a program, to run with no indication of progress and
perhaps without guarantee of ever finishing; esp. said of programs thought to be
executing tight loops of code. A program that is buzzing appears to be catatonic, but
you never get out of catatonia, while a buzzing loop may eventually end of its own
accord. "The program buzzes for about 10 seconds trying to sort all the names into
order." See spin; see also grovel. 2. [ETA Systems] To test a wire or printed circuit
trace for continuity by applying an AC rather than DC signal. Some wire faults will
pass DC tests but fail a buzz test. 3. To process an array or list in sequence, doing the
same thing to each element. "This loop buzzes through the tz array looking for a
terminator type."
BWQ --- BWQ: /B-W-Q/ [IBM: acronym, `Buzz Word Quotient'] The
percentage of buzzwords in a speech or documents. Usually roughly proportional to
bogosity. See TLA.
By hand --- by hand: adv. Said of an operation (especially a repetitive,
trivial, and/or tedious one) that ought to be performed automatically by the computer,
but which a hacker instead has to step tediously through. "My mailer doesn't have a
command to include the text of the message I'm replying to, so I have to do it by
hand." This does not necessarily mean the speaker has to retype a copy of the
message; it might refer to, say, dropping into a subshell from the mailer, making a
copy of one's mailbox file, reading that into an editor, locating the top and bottom of
the message in question, deleting the rest of the file, inserting `>' characters on each
line, writing the file, leaving the editor, returning to the mailer, reading the file in, and
later remembering to delete the file. Compare eyeball search.
Byte --- A set of Bits that represent a single character. Usually there are 8 Bits
in a Byte, sometimes more, depending on how the measurement is being made.
See Also: Bit
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Bytesexual --- bytesexual: /bi:t`sek'shu-*l/ adj. Said of hardware, denotes
willingness to compute or pass data in either big-endian or little-endian format
(depending, presumably, on a mode bit somewhere).
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HIGH DENSITY COMPUTING
C
Cache --------- Cybored
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
Cache ---Client Errors
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Cache --- Cascading menu
Cache --- Cache (pronounced cash) actually has several different technical
meanings. But the most important one in regard to the Web has to do with trying to
speed things up.Remember--every request you send over the Internet for a picture or
text takes time. The Cache is a file on your reader's computer where their system
stores a copy of things they've asked for recently. Then, if the reader asks for the
same thing again, instead of issuing another Internet request, the reader's computer
can simply use the copy from the Cache, sometimes saving as much as 10 or 20
seconds. How big is the Cache and how often is it emptied? Well, that's up to each
reader. Some save copies only during onesession-- others may save it for weeks. You
don't have to worry about them getting old information, though--the system is smart
enough to check and see if it has the most current before displaying it from the cache.
(It takes a lot less time to just check the dates than it does to send the whole file over
again.)
Cache RAM --- A small collection of very high speed RAM. In general,
modern microprocessors can process information much faster than standard dynamic
RAM can even supply the information. Nevertheless, fast dynamic RAM is very
expensive. Instead, a very small amount (typically 256K or 512K) of very fast "cache
RAM" acts as a buffer between the CPU and the dynamic RAM. If the information
needed by the CPU is in the cache, it can be processed without waiting to retrieve it
from the dynamic RAM.
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Calculator --- A program that comes with Windows 95 and enables you to
perform standard or scientific calculations.
Capture text --- In Hyperterminal, this refers to capturing and saving the
text that appears in the terminal window to either a file or the printer. This is handy
when reviewing the session at a later time.
Cardfile --- A program that comes with Window 95 and enables you to
record information cards and sort through them by using their index lines.
Cascade (Windows) --- To arrange all the windows so that they are
neatly stacked; only the title bars show behind the active window.
Cascading menu --- A submenu that appears (usually to the left or
right of the main menu item) when a menu selection is made.
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CD File System (CDFS) --- Certificate Authority
CD File System (CDFS) --- An optimized, 32-bit, protected
mode file system that significantly improves the throughput of data from a CD ROM
drive.
CD Player --- A program packaged withWindows 95. CD player lets you
play audio CDs from your CD drive in the background while you are working in
another application. It offers many of the controls found in standalone audio CD
players. As a result, it looks and operates in a similar fashion. In addition, it allows
you to edit your playlist that corresponds to the audio CD being played. Thus, the
tracks play in the order you want.
CD ROM Drive --- A CD ROM drive uses discs (not "disks") as the
storage media. These discs look much like audio CDs, but can store about 600M of
data on a single disc. They can only be read by a normal CD ROM drive (hence Read
Only Memory portion of the device's name), and take special equipment to create
(write) one of them. CD ROM drives are rated in multiples of the original (1x) drives
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that transfer data at the same rate as audio CD Players (150kb/sec). Today, 1x drives
no longer exist, and 2x drives (300-330kb/sec) are cheap. 3x (450 kbs), 4x (600
kb/sec) and even 6x (900kb/sec) drives are available. 4x drives fulfill basic
requirements needed to achieve decent performance when playing animations from a
CD ROM.
Cello --- a WWW browser for fast SLIP and PPP accounts (slower accounts
may use it, but graphics will take twice as long to form at 14,400, 3 times as long at
9600 -- and it may take as long as 10 minutes to form even at 28800 to start with!).
Certificate Authority --- An issuer of Security Certificates used in
SSL connections.
See Also: Security Certificate , SSL
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CGI --- Character-based
CGI --- (Common Gateway Interface) -- A set of rules that describe how a Web
Server communicates with another piece of software on the same machine, and how
the other piece of software (the “CGI program”) talks to the web server. Any piece of
software can be a CGI program if it handles input and output according to the CGI
standard.
Usually a CGI program is a small program that takes data from a web server and does
something with it, like putting the content of a form into an e-mail message, or
turning the data into a database query.
You can often see that a CGI program is being used by seeing “cgi-bin” in a URL, but
not always.
See Also: cgi-bin , Web
Cgi-bin --- The most common name of a directory on a web server in which
CGI programs are stored.
The “bin” part of “cgi-bin” is a shorthand version of “binary”, because once upon a
time, most programs were refered to as “binaries”. In real life, most programs found
in cgi-bin directories are text files -- scripts that are executed by binaries located
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elsewhere on the same machine.
See Also: CGI
Chaingang --- A group of homepages which mainly merely link to each
other.
Character formatting --- In word processing, this refers to
formatting that is applied to individual characters. This type of formatting includes
font, effects, size, and color.
Character-based --- Usually used when referring to non-Windows
applications. Character-Based applications display information using the ASCII
character set, or characters normally found on the keyboard. Also known as
"textbased."
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Chat Room --- Choose
Chat Room --- A place on the Internet where people go to "chat" with
other people in the room. Actually there are thousands of these Chat Rooms. The
rooms are usually organized by topic. For example in a Michigan Room you would
expect that most of the participants in the room are probably from Michigan or a Gay
room, where the participants are usually gay. When you're in a Chat Room you can
view all of the conversations taking place at once on your screen. You can also get
into a private chat room where only you and one or two others may talk. This can be
an inexpensive way to keep up with friends and relatives who are online.
Check box --- A square dialog box item that takes an off or on value.
Clicking in a check box adds or removes an X in the box, indicating whether the
setting is on (checked) or off (unchecked).
Checksum --- A method for creating a calculated number, frequently used
as a part of an error-detection protocol. Normally, a checksum is calculated against a
copy of a file or other data, and compared to the checksum calculated for the original
file/data. If the two numbers match, then it is very likely that the copy matches the
original. Checksums are used in some forms of transmission protocols (for example,
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Xmodem) as well as part of the Anti-virus program.
Cheese --- The content of a commercial site that mainly consists of pictures of
the products or other equally unuseful information.
Chocolate --- A crucial computer term. Chocolate is what you eat when you
get frustrated with web functions such as searching for specific items, writing web
pages, or just being a Newbie.
Choose --- A term used in documentation and in in Windows that usually
means opening a menu and clicking a command. Also can refer to dialog box items,
such as in "Choose LPT1 from the drop-downlist."
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CI$ --- Client Errors
CI$ --- Nickname for compuserv interactive system.
ClariNet --A commercial news service that provides tailored news reports via the Internet. You
can access ClariNet news within Usenet newsgroups. There is a whole series of them,
dedicated to a wide range of broad topics. In general, you can find them on news
servers at clari.*.
Clear --- Typically refers to turning off the X in an option or check box.
Click through rate --- Percentage of users who click on a viewed
advertisement. This is a good indication of the effectiveness of this ad.
A Client program (software) that is used to look at various kinds of Internet resources.
Clicking --- Quickly pressing and releasing the mouse button.
Client --- A software program that is used to contact and obtain data from a
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Server software program on another computer, often across a great distance. Each
Client program is designed to work with one or more specific kinds of Server
programs, and each Server requires a specific kind of Client. A Web Browser is a
specific kind of Client.
See Also: Browser , Server
Client application --- In OLE context, a program that uses an object
(such as a graphic) supplied by another application (the server application).
Client Errors --- An error occurring due to an invalid request by the
visitor's browser. Client errors are in the 400-range. See "Return Code" definition.
See Also: Client , URL , WWW , Netscape , Mosaic , Home Page (or Homepage)
Client/server ---Country Code
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Client/server --- Clock
Client/server --- Computer technology that separates computers and their
users into two categories: clients or servers. When you want information from a
computer on the Internet, you are a client. The computer that delivers the information
is the server. A server both stores information and makes it available to any
authorized client who requests the information. You may hear this one frequently,
especially if someone says, "You can't contact us today because our Web server is
down."
Client/server networking --- As opposed to peer to peer
networking, an arrangement in which central computers called servers supply data
and peripherals for use by client computers (workstations). Typically, a server
contains a large, hard disk that supplies not only data, but also programs. It even
executes programs. A server might also supply printers and modems for clients to use
on the network. In other words, client/server refers to an architecture for distributed
processing wherein subtasks can be distributed between services, CPUs, or even
networked computers for more efficient execution.
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Clip art --- A collection of images you can use in your documents. Clip art is
often distributed on CD-ROM in large collections (thousands of clip art pieces)
organized into categories. Various clip art formats are sold,and the most popular are
CGM, WMF, BMP, and GIF format files.
Clipboard --- A temporary storage area in all versions of Windows used
for storing various types of data (for example, text, graphics, sound, and video). The
clipboard can hold one piece of information at a time for use in a program or to pass
information between programs.
Clipboard Viewer --- A Windows 95 program enabling you to store
and save more than the single item that the clipboard can hold.
Clock --- An area at the far right edge of the task bar that displays the time
(and date if you leave the mouse pointer over the time). You can configure the task
bar to show or hide the clock.
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Close button --- Color scheme
Close button --- A button in the upper right corner of a Window with an
"x" in it. When clicked, it closes the program running in the current window.
Cluster --- Segment of space on a hard drive. Each file, no matter how small
in actual size, takes up at least one cluster on the hard drive. As drive sizes increase,
so does the cluster size. Thus, if you have a large drive and many small files, you may
waste a significant amount of space on your drive. To avoid this, physically partition
the drive into multiple "logical drives" of a smaller size. These smaller, logical drives
also use smaller cluster sizes, wasting less space.
Coaxial cable --- A type of shielded cable used in wiring networks
together. Although coaxial cable sufficiently shields network signals from outside
electrical noise, "coax" is stiff and difficult to work with, and more difficult to run
through walls and ceilings than twisted pair cable (see twisted pair).
Codec --- A technique for compressing and decompressing files, typically
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sound and animation files. Common codecs include Cinepak, Indeo, Video 1, MPEG
(see MPEG) QuickTime (see QuickTime) and RLE.
Collapse folders --- To hide additional directory (folder) levels below
the selected directory (folder) levels. In Explorer, you can collapse the view of a
folder to hide the folders stored within by double-clicking the folder in the left pane
(tree view) of Explorer. When a folder contains no additional folders, a minus sign (-)
appears next to the folder.
Color pattern --- A color selection made up of two other colors.
Color rendering intent --- Provides the best ICM settings for
three of the major uses of color printing, for example, presentations, photographs, and
true color screen display printing.
Color scheme --- A selection of colors that Windows 95 uses for screen
display of applications, dialog boxes, and so forth. The color scheme is set from the
Control Panel.
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Component --- Compressed volume file (CVF)
Component --- A portion of Windows 95. When installing Windows 95,
you have the option of installing (or not) various components. For example, you
might choose to not install Hyperterminal (you might have a better terminal program).
Later, you can go back and add/remove components using the original install disks or
CD-ROM.
CoM --- Refers to the serial port, usually to attach a mouse and/or a modem to
the computer. Most computers have two serial ports, labeled COM1 and COM2. The
serial port transmits data in a single bit stream. This serial transmission of bits gives
the port its name.
Command --- Usually an option from an application's menus. Also refers
to commands typed in from a command-prompt session or from the Run dialog box
from the Start Menu. In essence, it's a way of telling an application or Windows 95 to
perform a major chore, such as running an application or utility program.
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Command button --- A dialog box item that causes an action when
clicked.
Compare files --- Compares the files in a backup set to make sure they
match the source files on the hard disk.
Complex document --- See compound document.
Compound document --- A document (created using OLE) that
includes multiple types of data. For example, a Word processing document that
includes a Paint picture is a compound document.
Compressed volume file (CVF) --- A file, created by
DriveSpace (see DriveSpace) which is treated like another "volume" (logical disk
drive)--it even has a drive letter (for example, "D:") assigned to it. When you save or
retrieve files compressed by DriveSpace, they are written or read from the
compressed volume file. The compressed volume file exists on a hard drive (called a
"host drive"), and looks like a regular file to the FAT (see File Allocation Table).
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Compuserv --- Control Panel
Compuserv --- A very large (and a fairly expensive) on-line service -nick-named CI$ because of the cost. It was recently purchased by AOL, but it's
supposed to stay a separate system.
Conferencing --- an irc-like discussion, limited to the host on-line
service. Called "CB" on CI$.
Config.sys --- A file used in DOS to allocate the systems devices and
hardware.
Configuration --- The way something is set up, I.e. --- hardware,
programs, the operating system or the internet. It can be the way your computer is
customized.
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Counter --- A number on many web pages that will count the number of hits.
Basically it counts the number of people that have visited that page.
Connection --- (Hyperterminal) In Hyperterminal, a connection sets and
saves all the configuration parameters for one party you wish to contact.
Container object --- An object that contains another object or several
objects. For example, a Word document might be the container object that holds the
Excel object. See also compound document.
Control menu --- A menu that exists in every window and enables you
to modify its parameters or take global actions, such as closing or moving the
window.
Control Panel --- A program that comes with Windows 95 that enables
you to make settings for many Windows 95 actions, such as changing network,
keyboard, printer, and regional settings. Some programs (including many video card
drivers) may add sections to the control panel for you to use to configure that
program.
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Conventional memory --- Country Code
Conventional memory --- Memory located in the first 640K.
Cookie --- The most common meaning of “Cookie” on the Internet refers to a
piece of information sent by a Web Server to a Web Browser that the Browser
software is expected to save and to send back to the Server whenever the browser
makes additional requests from the Server.
Depending on the type of Cookie used, and the Browser’s settings, the Browser may
accept or not accept the Cookie, and may save the Cookie for either a short time or a
long time.
Cookies might contain information such as login or registration information, online
“shopping cart” information, user preferences, etc.
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When a Server receives a request from a Browser that includes a Cookie, the Server is
able to use the information stored in the Cookie. For example, the Server might
customize what is sent back to the user, or keep a log of particular user’s requests.
Cookies are usually set to expire after a predetermined amount of time and are usually
saved in memory until the Browser software is closed down, at which time they may
be saved to disk if their “expire time” has not been reached.
Cookies do not read your hard drive and send your life story to the CIA, but they can
be used to gather more information about a user than would be possible without them.
See Also: Browser , Server
CUrrent directory --- The directory that activates if you log onto the
drive at the command prompt by typing the drive letter and pressing Enter. When you
switch drives, the operating system remembers the directory that was current when
you switched away. It will still be the active/current directory when you switch back;
it becomes the default directory. Applications will store or look for files on that drive
if they're not specifically told which directory to use. This concept also works in
Explorer: when you switch back to a drive, the last active directory (or folder) is still
the active one.
Country Code --- Two characters that are added to the end of a users
domain name that denote there country of origin. Ex: A user from Argentina may
have a address similar to this user.domain.com.ar. For a complete listing of country
codes click here.
Cover page --- Cylinder/Head/Sector (CHS)
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Cover page --- Cyberpunk
Cover page --- The page preceding a fax message. The cover page often
includes such information as your name, company, telephone, and return fax number.
Windows 95 includes a program (Fax Cover Page Editor) that enables you to create
your own fax cover pages.
Cross-linked file --- A disk error (which can be found using
ScanDisk) in which at least two files are linked to data in the same cluster.
CUrrent window --- The windows that you are using. It appears in
front of all other open windows (see active window).
CUrsor --- The representation of the mouse on the screen. It may take many
different shapes.
CUSEEME --- A program which allows a static video picture to be sent or
received (ie, about 1 frame per second -- if you're lucky), really only useful at this
time at speeds over 56k, but still kind of fun. This is also one of the few things on the
'net which currently has better software for mac users -- there is a new version for the
pc which is supposed to be equal to the mac programming, but it crashes my system
every time I try to use it, and so I can't really evaluate it.
Cybercafe --- Establishment with both coffee and internet access. Trendy
in some places, unknown in others.
Cyberpunk --- Cyberpunk was originally a cultural sub-genre of science
fiction taking place in a not-so-distant, dystopian, over-industrialized society. The
term grew out of the work of William Gibson and Bruce Sterling and has evolved into
a cultural label encompassing many different kinds of human, machine, and punk
attitudes. It includes clothing and lifestyle choices as well.
See Also: Cyberspace
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Cyber-rattling --- Cylinder/Head/Sector
(CHS)
Cyber-rattling --- Threats and angry responses sent through cyberspace
(play on "sabre-rattling")
Cyberspace --- Term originated by author William Gibson in his novel
Neuromancer the word Cyberspace is currently used to describe the whole range of
information resources available through computer networks.
CPU --- Central processing unit. Also known as a microprocessor (see
microprocessor) or processor (see processor). The 80386, 80486, and Pentium are
examples of CPUs built by Intel.
Cybersex --- Any type of active sexual activity that takes place on-line.
Cybored --- State one quickly gets in while waiting for the screen to change
on busy (or just plain slow) WWW sites. When you're planning extended work on the
web or downloading large files, might I suggest having a good book nearby?
Cylinder/Head/Sector (CHS) --- An addressing scheme that
allows IDE drives to exceed the original 512 megabyte (1/2 gigabyte) size limit. With
CHS, an IDE drive can be up to 8.4 gigabytes.
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HIGH DENSITY COMPUTING
D
Daemon
--------- -Dynamic node addressing
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
Daemon --- Dial-up connection
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Daemon --- Data glove
Daemon --- A
harmless UNIX program that waits in the
background and runs when a request is made on the port
that it is watching. It normally works out of sight of
the user. On the Internet, it is most likely encountered
only when e-mail is not delivered to the recipient.
You'll receive your original message plus a message from
a "mailer daemon."
DARPA --- Online Entity --- Defense Advanced Research
Projects Agency - Federal agency that conducts research for the Defense Department.
It began as ARPA but became so dominated with defense work its name was
changed. Work funded by DARPA led to the creation of the Internet.
Decommissioned in 1990, it became ARPA once again.
Data --- Any information - facts, concepts, sensations - represented in a formal
manner, suitable for communicating, interpreting, or processing. As futurist Marshall
Mcluhan said, "The electric light is pure information," everything perceptible is data.
The word data is plural; the singular form is datum.
Database --- A file or group of related files that are designed to hold
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recurring data types as if the files were lists.
Data bits --- The number of bits used to transmit a piece of information.
Usually 7 or 8.
Database front end --- In the context of the Internet, this is an
interface which integrates WWW applications with sophisticated database programs.
For example: This is the front end query form for Webcrawler, an Internet search
engine:
Data glove --- A glove you wear on your hand that has sensors on it. These
sensors transmit coordinate information to a computer in order to track what the hand
is doing. Most often used within a virtual world.
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Datagram --- DDE
Datagram --- A packet of information, consisting of data and a header that
is placed within network frames for delivery over the network. The datagram's header
shows the source, destination, and type of data it contains, as well as its relation to
any other datagrams being sent. This header information enables the data to be
transported from router to router to its destination; datagrams are unique to the
particular protocol being applied.
Data packets --- Pieces
of information that gets sent
out over a network or the Internet. A packet can contain
your ip address, email address, domain etc.
Data traffic --- The
number of TCP/IPpackets traversing
a network.
Data warehousing --- A generic term for a system for storing, retrieving and
managing large amounts of any type of data. Data warehouse software often includes
sophisticated compression and hashing techniques for fast searches, as well as
advanced filtering.
A database, often remote, containing recent snapshots of corporate data. Planners and
researchers can use this database freely without worrying about slowing down day-today operations of the production database.
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DeC Printer Utility --- The DEC printer utility adds features to the
standard Windows 95 print window and updated printer drivers. The utility includes a
very detailed help file for configuring both local and network printers. Additionally, it
creates an enhanced set of property menus for configuring DEC printers.
DDE --- See Dynamic Data Exchange.
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Delphi --- Dedicated line
Delphi --- A once-large on-line service. However, they tried forming a new
service with MCI, which failed, and who can tell what will happen or what it will
soon look like? NewsCorp has since sold delphi back to the original creators and new
investors. One big change has been to supply members who pay the $3 a month fee
with a 10 meg (!) space for a web page, certainly a good deal. The access for creating
the web pages is a bit clunky (and to edit them on-line is a nightmare -- or at least it
was when I was till a member), but that is a minor problem. To access the list of all
delphi users' delphi homepages (and the delphi service itself), press here.
Many of the delphi-operated forums are publically available on the web (with ads to
pay the costs) as well as via traditional direct access via modem & telnet.
DCI --- The Drive Control Interface is a display driver interface which allows
fast, direct access to the video frame buffer in Windows. Also, it allows games and
video to take advantage of special hardware support in video devices, which improves
the performance and quality of video.
Decode --- The converting of encoded data to its original form. The process
which you must perform in order to see images that are downloaded from newsgroups
such as alt.binaries.pictures.
Decryption --- To convert indecipherable gibberish into plain English that
everyone can understand. SEE ALSO:
encryption.
Dedicated line --- A telecommunications line that lets your computer
have a direct, permanent connection to the Internet.
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Default --- Density
Default --- A computer software setting or preference a user has the option to
set. This setting states what the user wants to have automatically happen in the event
that another preference is NOT stated or asked for. For example, your computer might
have a default setting to open up or "start" Microsoft Internet Explorer whenever an
HTML or Web page file is "clicked" on. If you prefer to use Netscape Navigator you
can change the default by checking the box which asks when you the application
starts.
Default button --- The command button in a dialog box that activates
when you press the Enter key. This button is indicated by a dark border.
Default printer --- The printer, which is established using the Printer
settings, that documents will be sent to if the user doesn't specify another printer.
Deferred printing --- This enables people with laptop computers to
print even though their laptop is not in a docking station. Once connected in a
docking station, it will automatically print. This also refers to computers whose only
printer access is to a network printer, and the computer is temporarily disconnected
from the network. When the network connection is reestablished, the print job starts.
Defrag --- To UN-scramble data on the hard drive and place in a sequential
order so the heads can read information faster.
Density --- Density is a brightness control to lighten or darken a printout to
more closely reflect its screen appearance and to compensate for deficiencies in toner
or paper quality.
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Desktop --- Desktop video
Desktop --- The screen area on which the windows are displayed.
Desktop pattern --- A bit map decorating your desktop. You can
select one of Windows 95's patterns or create one of your own.
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Destination document --- The document into which a linked or
embedded document is placed.
Default browser --- The World Wide Web browser you want your
computer system to automatically open up or launch when an HTML or Web page
file is clicked on or needs to be read.
Deja News --- This is a search engine that is similar to WebCrawler,
however, it is a tool for searching Usenet, the largest information utility in existence.
Quite simply it is the search engine for the newsgroups.
Denizen --- A
low citizen on the Internet.
Desktop --- The
screen area on which the windows are
displayed.
Desktop video --- Desktop video (DTV), the merging of the camcorder
and the home computer, is at the forefront of ideomaking technology. Made possible
by advances in home computing power and affordability, DTV opens up a wealth of
new possibilities for both the videomaker and the PC enthusiast. SEE ALSO:
CUSeeMe.
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Device driver --- Dial-up connection
Device driver --- A program that provides the operating system with the
information it needs to work with a specific device, such as a printer.
DHTML --- Dynamic HTML - The next generation of HTML, the language
that describes how text and images are displayed on a Web page. Dynamic HTML,
developed by Netscape and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), is based
entirely on industry-standard HTML and Java. New features in Dynamic HTML, such
as absolute positioning and layers, give designers and developers much greater
control over the look and feel of Web pages.
Dial-up account --- A basic type of Internet account that allows you to
to dial-up an Internet Service Provider's computer with a modem. These types of
accounts usually have a UNIX or other command-line interface.
Dial-up connection --- The most popular form of Net connection for
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the home user, this is a connection from your computer to a host computer over
standard telephone lines. SEE ALSO: ISP
Dialog box --- Document Menu
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Dialog box --- Direct Memory Access (DMA)
Dialog box --- An on-screen message box that conveys or requests
information from the user.
Dial Up Networking --- Dialing into a network from a remote sight
using a modem.
Diaferential backup --- A differential backup backs up only those
files that have changed since the time a backup was made. Normally, a backup
philosophy will involve making a full system backup (which includes all files on the
hard drive), and then making periodic differential backups. Windows 95 can
determine which files have changed (or been created) since the last backup by the
condition of the archive bit (see archive bit). To restore a system that has been backed
up using this philosophy, first restore using the full system backup, and then
successively apply the differential backups in the same order they were made.
Disk Defragmenter --- As you use your hard drive, blocks of
information for a file spread across the hard drive, wherever there is room. This
"fragmentation" of the information in a file can lead to a significant slow-down in file
access times because the disk's read/write head must move all over the disk, looking
for the various portions of a file. Disk Defragmenter arranges the blocks of
information for a file into adjacent blocks on your hard drive, which may significantly
improve file access times.
Dither pattern --- A pattern of dots used to simulate an unavailable
color or gray scale in a printout or graphic. Most frequently used when specifying a
printout of a color graphic on a monochrome printer or simulating more colors in a
graphic than are available in the current graphics mode.
Direct Memory Access (DMA) --- A PC has eight DMA
channels that are used for rapidly transferring data between memory and peripherals
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such as a hard disks, sound cards, tape backups, scanners, and SCSI controllers. DMA
is very fast because it doesn't need the computer's microprocessor to access memory.
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DigiCash --- Digital audio
DigiCash --- Founded in 1990, DigiCash has pioneered development of
electronic payment mechanisms for open, closed and network systems that provide
security and privacy. DigiCash's technology is based on patented advances in public
key cryptography developed by the Company's founder and Chairman, Dr. David
Chaum. Throughout its history DigiCash has developed leading edge products and
partnered with companies to provide advanced payment systems technology to the
market.
Electronic cash (Ecash) by DigiCash is a new concept in payment systems. It
combines computerized convenience with security and privacy that improve on paper
cash. It adds value to any service involving payment. And its versatility opens up a
host of new markets and applications.
Digital --- A form of representation in which distinct objects, or digits, are
used to stand for something in the real world, so that counting and other operations
can be performed precisely. Data represented digitally can be manipulated to produce
a calculation, a sort, or some other computation. In digital electronic computers, two
electrical states correspond to the 1's and the 0's of binary numbers, which are
manipulated by computer programs.
Digital audio --- sound represented by a binary system (0's and 1's) that
are read by audio software. On the Internet, digital audio takes on many formats.
Technologies such as RealAudio, MediaCast, as well as file formats such as .au and
.wav which can be downloaded are all forms of digital audio. For a listing of digital
audio links click on the more button below.
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Digital cash --- Discussion group
Digital cash --- Founded in 1990, DigiCash has pioneered development of
electronic payment mechanisms for open, closed and network systems that provide
security and privacy. DigiCash's technology is based on patented advances in public
key cryptography developed by the Company's founder and Chairman, Dr. David
Chaum. Throughout its history DigiCash has developed leading edge products and
partnered with companies to provide advanced payment systems technology to the
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market.
Electronic cash (Ecash) by DigiCash is a new concept in payment systems. It
combines computerized convenience with security and privacy that improve on paper
cash. It adds value to any service involving payment. And its versatility opens up a
host of new markets and applications.
Digiterati --- The digital version of literati, it is a reference to a vague cloud
of people seen to be knowlegeable, hip, or otherwise in-the-know in regards to the
digital revolution.
Direct connection --- A permanent connection between your
computer system and the Internet. This is sometimes referred to as a leased-line
connection because the line is leased from the telephone company.
Directory --- Best thought of as the table of contents of all files contained
on or in a specific section of a computer disk. A directory often shows file name, file
size, date and time created, file type, and author. Sometimes called a folder.
Discussion group --- A group of people who exchange messages
about particular topics. Often associated with newsgroups, they can also take the form
of interactive message boards, thread message forums, and e-mailing lists. Dubbed as
"online encounters with your own kind" discussion groups vary widely in their
variety and format.
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Distribution --- DNS
Distribution --- A way to limit where Usenet postings go. Handy for
such things as "for sale" messages or discussions of regional politics.
Dial-in --- An Internet account that can connect any stand-alone PC directly to
the Internet. The account is used by having a PC-based (most often, Windows-based)
software application dial-in to an Internet service provider (ISP). The software
connects with the ISP and establishes a TCP/IP link to the Internet that enables your
software to access Internet information. The PC that accesses a dial-in connection
needs either a modem to connect via a regular phone line or a terminal adapter (TA)
to connect via an ISDN phone line.
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Dial-up --- Modem link to an internet access provider, where you use their
computer system/network to access the internet (an indirect internet link). If you are
accessing this via gnofn, the odds are you're using their dial-up services.
Digerati --- The digital version of literati, it is a reference to a vague cloud of
people seen to be knowledgeable, hip, or otherwise in-the-know in regards to the
digital revolution.
DNS --- Domain Name System - A database system that translates an IP address
into a domain name. For example, a numeric IP address like 207.219.116.4 is
converted into high-density.com.
The DNS is a static, hierarchical name service and it uses TCP/IP hosts, and is housed
on a number of servers on the Internet. Basically, it maintains this database for
figuring out and finding (or resolving) host names and IP addresses. This allows users
to specify remote computers by host names rather than numerical IP addresses.
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Document --- Document source
Document --- 1.)When used in reference to the World Wide Web, a
document is any file containing text, media or hyperlinks that can be transferred from
an HTTP server to a client program.
2.) A file created using an application. For example, you might create a text document
using a word processing application (such as WordPad) or a picture document using a
graphic application (such as Paint).
Document formatting --- In word processing, this refers to
formatting that is applied to a whole document. Document formatting includes
margins, headers and footers, and paper size.
Document info --- A feature of Netscape Navigator which gives you
mounds of information about the Web page you are currently looking at. Choosing
this menu item, produces a page with a document's structure, composition, and
security status. Structure information contains the URLs of images within the
document. Composition information includes location, file MIME type, source, local
cache file, modification and expiration dates, content length and charset. Security
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information informs you about encryption and certification.
You can select this menu item by pulling down the VIEW menu and highlighting
Document Info.
Document source --- In Netscape Navigator you can view what is
called the document source. This feature will open a window which displays the
source code (HTML, Javascript etc.) of whatever Web page you're currently looking
at. To copy the contents of this file with Windows, press CTRL-A to select the
contents, followed by CTRL-C to copy, and CTRL-V to paste into another document.
On the Mac the source code is automatically saved into a text file on the desktop each
time you view a document source.
You can select this menu item by pulling down the VIEW menu and highlighting
Document Source.
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Doom --- Document Menu
Doom --- A fast-moving virtual reality game in which you are plunged into a
brutal 3-D world. To escape alive, you must outfight legions of grisly fiends and
solve lethal puzzles. You play a marine equipped with a variety of weapons and
technological artifacts, but in the end it comes down to who's tougher Doom's
popularity on the Internet is in part due to it's abilty to allow two players to compete
via a modem. So you could in essence play with a friend anywhere in the world.
There are countless archives and World Wide Web sites devoted to Doom. They offer
everything from hints on game levels, cheat codes to almost entirely new games and
scenery. Doom is available as shareware and add on levels are available for both the
original Doom and Doom II.
Dot address --- Also "dotted decimal notation" this is the common
notation for IP addresses (160.230.54.10). In the form A.B.C.D, each letter
represents, in decimal, one byte of a four byte IP address.
Dot file --- A file on a Unix public-access system that alters the way you or
your messages interact with that system. For example, your .login file contains
various parameters for such things as the text editor you get when you send a
message. When you do an ls command, these files do not appear in the directory
listing; do `ls -a' to list them.
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Domain Name --- The unique name that identifies an Internet site.
Domain Names always have 2 or more parts, separated by dots. The part on the left is
the most specific, and the part on the right is the most general. A given machine may
have more than one Domain Name but a given Domain Name points to only one
machine. For example, the domain names:
matisse.net
mail.matisse.net
workshop.matisse.net
can all refer to the same machine, but each domain name can refer to no more than
one machine.
Usually, all of the machines on a given Network will have the same thing as the righthand portion of their Domain Names ( matisse.net in the examples above). It is also
possible for a Domain Name to exist but not be connected to an actual machine. This
is often done so that a group or business can have an Internet e-mail address without
having to establish a real Internet site. In these cases, some real Internet machine must
handle the mail on behalf of the listed Domain Name.
See Also: IP Number
Domain Name Lookup --- The process of converting a numeric
IP address into a text name (for example, 204.245.240.194 is converted to www.highdensity.com).
Document Menu --- Functions
that can be preformed
on a given document or file, usually in Windows 95 or 98.
In windows 95 or 98, one can right click on the actual
icon of the document and choose "properties" The list
that comes up is the document menu.
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Docking station --- Dynamic node addressing
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Docking station --- Drag
Docking station --- For a portable computer, an external device that
provides additional resources such as speakers, CD ROM, keyboard, empty card slots,
and so on. A docking station is typically plugged into a portable computer using the
port replicator connection.
Document window --- The window in which a document appears.
DoS --- A term used to refer to any variation of the Disk Operating System (for
example, MS-DOS and PC-DOS).
Double buffering --- The process of displaying the screen currently in
the frame buffer while painting the next screen in another portion of RAM. Then the
new screen is quickly copied to the frame buffer. This makes video playback and
animation appear much smoother.
Double-click --- To press the mouse button twice in rapid succession
while keeping the mouse pointer motionless between clicks.
Down --- When a public-access site runs into technical trouble, and you can no
longer gain access to it, it is said to be "down".
Download --- The transfer of information from the Internet to your
computer. Every time you instruct your computer system to retrieve your mail, you
are downloading your mail to your computer. You may also download programs to
your computer. However, be careful about downloading files or programs from a site
in which you are not familiar. You could download a virus and never know it until it's
too late.
Drag and drop --- "Drag and drop" describes a particular action you
can make with the mouse. Click an object, such as a folder, then hold down the mouse
button as you drag the object to a new location. You drop the object by releasing the
mouse button.
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Drag --- To move an object on the screen from one place to another by clicking
it with the mouse, holding the mouse button down, and pulling it to where you want it
to be.
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DriveSpace --- Dual boot
DriveSpace --- DriveSpace is a program included with Windows 95. It
enables you to compress your disks and free up more space. DriveSpace for Windows
supports drives that were compressed using DoubleSpace (which was included in MSDOS versions 6.0 and 6.2) as well as DriveSpace for MS-DOS (which was included
in MS-DOS version 6.22). You can use DriveSpace and DoubleSpace drives
interchangeably. For example, you can use floppy disks that were compressed using
either DoubleSpace or DriveSpace. However, such floppy disks can be used only in
computers that have DriveSpace for Windows or DoubleSpace installed. If you have
drives that were compressed using either DoubleSpace or DriveSpace, you can
configure them by using DriveSpace for Windows.
Dpi --- dots
per inch - A metric used to measure print
and screen resolution.
Drop list or drop down menu --- or
drop down menu
- A list of options that drops down when you click on a
down arrow button.
Drop-down list --- A dialog box item showing only one entry until its
drop down arrow is clicked.
DTV --- Desktop video (DTV), the merging of the camcorder and the home
computer, is at the forefront of videomaking technology. Made possible by advances
in home computing power and affordability, DTV opens up a wealth of new
possibilities for both the videomaker and the PC enthusiast. SEE ALSO: CUSeeMe.
Dual boot --- The ability to reboot and enter either Windows 95 or
Windows 3.1 (or whatever version of Windows you had running before installing
Windows 95). This option is offered during installation, and involves not installing
Windows 95 over your previous Windows installation. If you choose dual boot, you
will have to reinstall your Windows programs under Windows 95.
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Duplex --- Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE)
Duplex --- Sometimes referred to as full duplex which is simulataneous
bidirectional communications. Both sides send and receive with virtually no
turnaround time. OR Data transmission that takes place in two directions
simultaneously as opposed to half duplex which also allows transmission in two
directions but only one at a time and simplex in which transmission can only be sent
in one direction.
When used in reference to sound cards and Internet phones such as WebPhone and
IPhone this means the ability to send and receive audio at the same time like a
standard telephone. Some sound cards and systems require a special full duplex audio
driver which is software usually available from either the manufacturer of the sound
card or the program itself.
If you are searching for duplex drivers for your system, then try using Alta Vista with
a search string of: full duplex {name of software} {type of hardware}.
DVD --- (latest info says "DVD" no longer stands for anything! It used to
mean "digital versatile disc" - and before that it meant
"digital video disc")(Also known as hdCD in Europe.) A new type of 12-centimeter
(4.72") compact disc (same size as audio
CDs and CD-ROMs) that holds 10 times the information. Capable of holding fulllength movies and a video game based on
the movie, or a movie and its soundtrack, or two versions of the same movie - all in
sophisticated discrete digital audio
surround sound. The DVD standard specifies a laminated single-sided, single-layer
disc holding 4.7 gigabytes, and 133 minutes
of MPEG-2 compressed video and audio. It is backwards compatible, and expandable
to two-layers holding 8.5 gigabytes.
Ultimately two discs could be bounded together yielding two-sides, each with twolayers, for a total of 17 gigabytes. There are
three versions: DVD-Video (movies), DVD-Audio (music-only) and DVD-ROM
(games and computer use). The DVD-Audio
standard is still being defined. Meanwhile a fourth member has joined the family:
DVD-RAM defines specs for a rewritable
system, opening the door for recording.
Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) --- A feature of
Windows 95 that allows programs to communicate and actively pass information and
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commands.
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Dynamic HTML --- Dynamic node addressing
Dynamic HTML --- Dynamic HTML - The next generation of
HTML, the language that describes how text and images are displayed on a Web
page. Dynamic HTML, developed by Netscape and the World Wide Web Consortium
(W3C), is based entirely on industry-standard HTML and Java. New features in
Dynamic HTML, such as absolute positioning and layers, give designers and
developers much greater control over the look and feel of Web pages.
Dynamic rotation --- The delivery of ad banners on a rotating,
random basis as opposed to static placement of an ad on the same page all the time
(hardwired). Dynamic Rotation offers the potential for each user to see a different
message and for ads to be seen in more than one place on a site. A component of
dynamic rotation advertising is the abilty to place ads on Web pages that are relevant
to what the user is doing. For example, if you do a search on Yahoo! for employment,
chances are a job related Web site's ad banner will appear on the top of the page. Also
known as dynamic delivery.
Dynamic node addressing --- A technique enabling nodes to
automatically select a unique network address.
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HIGH DENSITY COMPUTING
E
Easter egg --------- E-zine
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
Easter egg --- E-World
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Easter egg --- EcP
Easter egg ---A hidden suprise in a program or on a Web site (like this one!
- hint! ). A special feature which is not otherwise madeobvious but when
"discovered" or clicked on offers something special. This could be in the form of an
extra game level or secret area or an animation or a message of some kind.
Programmers often "bury" easter eggs in their programs to add a certain extra depth
to their program or Website and to challenge users to find it.
Ecash --- Developed by DigiCash and the Mark Twain Bank ecash is the abilty
to use real money in a electronic purchasing system over the World Wide Web. The
process involves you sending a check to Mark Twain Bank which in turn sends you
software which gives you access to the Ecash Mint where you draw funds to your
hard drive for use when purchasing goods and services on the Internet. SEE ALSO:
digital cash.
Echoing keystrokes --- In a communications program, you may
type information at your terminal. If the receiving system doesn't "echo" your
keystroke back to your terminal, then you can't see what you type. By setting your
own system to echo keystrokes, you can see what you have typed. Systems that echo
your keystrokes for you are termed "full duplex"; systems that do not echo your
keystrokes are termed "half duplex".
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Eckert, John Presper --- As a grad student studying at the Moore
School in 1943, John Eckert met John Mauchly, who spoke about the idea of an
electronic version of the Ganged Calculator. Mauchley needed someone tooversee the
design and construction of the ENIAC computer, and it was J. Presper Eckert who
rose to the challenge.
They completed the first general purpose digital computer in 1946. Later that year,
Eckert and Mauchly started a business partnership that become the Eckert-Mauchly
Corp. Eckert died on June 3, 1995, from complications relating to leukemia. He was
76. To read an interview with Eckert from Feb 1988, click on the more button below.
Ecitor --- A
program used to write and edit HTML code.
EcP --- An ECP is an Excessively Cross-Posted ad, ie SPAM that is crossposted to a lot of USENET newsgroups.
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Editable fax --- EMAC
Editable fax --- An editable fax is, essentially, a file transfer between
computers, with the addition of a cover page optionally. Once received, the "editable
fax" can be edited in the application that created it--or another application capable of
reading that file type. For example, if you send a document created in Microsoft
Word for Windows, which is a .DOC file, the recipient can open it in Word,
WordPad, AmiPro, or WordPerfect, using import filters if necessary.
E-journal --- An electronic publication, similar to an e-zine or zine. An ejournal, however, is typically found in academic circles and is a regularly published
journal either published solely in electronic form or made available in electronic
form.
Electronic mall --- A
virtual shopping mall where you
can browse and buy products and services online.
EMAC --- Editing MACroS - The ne plus ultra of hacker editors, a
programmable text editor with an entire LISP system inside it. It was originally
written by Richard Stallman in TECO under ITS at the MIT AI lab; AI Memo 554
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described it as "an advanced, self-documenting, customizable, extensible real-time
display editor". It has since been reimplemented any number of times, by various
hackers, and versions exist that run under most major operating systems. Perhaps the
most widely used version, also written by Stallman and now called "GNU EMACS"
or GNUMACS, runs principally under UNIX. It includes facilities to run compilation
subprocesses and send and receive mail; many hackers spend up to 80% of their tube
time inside it. Other variants include GOSMACS, CCA EMACS, UniPress EMACS,
Montgomery EMACS, jove, epsilon, and MicroEMACS.
Some EMACS versions running under window managers iconify as an overflowing
kitchen sink, perhaps to suggest the one feature the editor does not (yet) include.
Indeed, some hackers find EMACS too heavyweight and baroque for their taste, and
expand the name as `Escape Meta Alt Control Shift' to spoof its heavy reliance on
keystrokes decorated with bucky bits. Other spoof expansions include `Eight
Megabytes And Constantly Swapping', `Eventually `malloc()'s All Computer
Storage', and `EMACS Makes A Computer Slow'. See also vi.
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EMbedded object --- E-Mail shorthand
EMbedded object --- Data stored in a document that originated from
another application. Differing from a linked object, this type of object doesn't have its
own file on the disk. However, it runs its source application for editing when you
double-click it. For example, a Paint drawing embedded in a Word document.
Ellipsis --- Three dots (...). An ellipsis after a menu item or button text
indicates that selecting the menu or clicking the button will display an additional
dialog box or window from which you can choose options or enter data.
E-mail --- (Electronic Mail) -- Messages, usually text, sent from one person to
another via computer. E-mail can also be sent automatically to a large number of
addresses (Mailing List).
See Also: Listserv , Maillist, E-mail shorthand
E-Mail address --- electronic mail - Electronically transmitted
messages. Linked by high speed data connections that cross international boundaries,
e-mail lets you compose messages and transmit them in seconds to one or more
recipients anywhere in the world. Some of the more popular e-mail programs are
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Eudora and Pegasus as well as those found with an online service. Old fashioned
regular mail is tended to be called "snail mail". SEE ALSO: e-mail address and
Hotmail.
E-Mail shorthand --- Acronyms for commonly used phrases that one
would otherwise type. Some of the most popular ones are:
IMHO: In My Humble Opinion
BTW: By The Way
RTM: Read The Manual
LOL: Laughing Out Loud
FWIW: For What It's Worth
ROFL: Rolling On The Floor Laughing
Click here for a more complete list
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EMbedded hyperlink --- ENclosure
EMbedded hyperlink --- A hyperlink that is incorporated into a
line of text.
EMissary --- An Internet suite from Attachmate which incorporates some
of the latest technology into a Web browser, FTP, e-mail , and newsreader program.
Emissary also features an exclusive "drag and drop" capability allowing users to
download a file into any directory of their choosing. There is also an e-mail and
newsgroup encoding and decoding of documents.
EMotags --- Mock HTML tags, such as <smile>, <smirk> used in WWWrelated e-mail and newsgroups in place of
ASCII emoticons. For example: "<flame>Someone tell that jerk to shut up, I'm sick
of his vapid
whining!</flame>."
EMoticon --- A symbol to compensate for the absence of nonverbal clues
when communicating on the Internet. For example <g> signifies a "grin", :} or :-} a
"smile", when inserted in the text of an e-mail message and alerts the reader not to
take it seriously. SEE ALSO: e-mail shorthand
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ENcapsulated PostScript (EPS) file --- . A file format
for storing PostScript- style images that allow a PostScript printer or program capable
of importing such files to print a file in the highest resolution equipped by the printer.
EMP --- An EMP is an Excessively Multi-Post ad, ie SPAM that is posted to email addresses or USENET newsgroups day
after day (or even more often).
ENclosure --- also called an enclosure (Microsoft Mail) - A file(s) that is
added to an e-mail. You can attach files through almost any popular e-mail program
such as Eudora and Netscape Mail. Usually this is accomplished simply clicking the
attach file button and then browsing through your system to find and select the
desired file.
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ENcryption --- ENhanced Integrated Electronics
(EIDE)
ENcryption --- A way of making data unreadable to everyone except the
receiver. An increasingly common way of
sending credit card numbers over the Internet when conducting commercial
transactions. SEE
ALSO: PGP (Pretty Good Privacy)
ENhanced CU-SeeME --- is White Pine Software's desktop video
conferencing program for real time person-to-person or group conferencing. You can
use CU-SeeMe over the Internet or any TCP/IP network giving you the power to
communicate globally without expensive hardware. This software only solution runs
on both Windows and Macintosh computers offering full-color video, audio, chat
window, and white board communications. You can participate in 'Live over the
Internet' conferences, broadcasts or chats. CU-SeeMe can be launched directly from
Web pages with your favorite Web browser. All of this and more over your 28.8k
modem, ISDN link or better. For audio-only telephony use, CU-SeeMe works
effectively over a 14.4k modem. SEE ALSO: desktop video.
ENS --- Encapsulated
Postscript - A type of graphics
file written in the PostScript language.
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Ethernet --- One of the earliest and least expensive network types. Ethernet
is capable of speeds of 10Mb/s, and employs Bus and Star network types. When
attempting to transmit over an Ethernet network, the transmitting workstation must
"listen" to the network line to ensure that it is clear (another workstation is not
currently transmitting). If the line is not clear, the workstation must wait until the line
clears.
See Also: Bandwidth , LAN
ENhanced Integrated Electronics (EIDE) --- A
design that improves on the Drive limitations of the IDE design. EIDE designs can
use up to four devices (split into two pairs). For each pair of devices, one of the
devices is the master; the drive electronics on the master control both the master drive
and (if applicable) the secondary slave unit attached. Unlike IDE, EIDE supports
devices in addition to hard drives, including CD-ROM drives and tape drives. EIDE
devices can be up to 8 gigabytes in size, improving on the 524 megabyte limit of IDE
devices. As with IDE, this type of drive is interfaced to a computer bus with an EIDE
host adapter, not a controller. However, most newer computers include an EIDE host
adapter right on the motherboard.
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ENhanced Meta File (EMF) --- E-World
ENhanced Meta File (EMF) --- The process of converting
generic Spooling print instructions to the instruction set "understood" best by a
particular printer. This conversion has the capability to create faster printouts of better
quality.
Enhanced Small Device Interface (ESDI) --- A
drive controller type that utilizes a hard drive as a slave unit. ESDI controllers
generally drive only two disk drives and have an on-board processor to translate drive
geometry, manage I/O requests, and provide caching.
Europe Online --- A European on-line service.
Eudora --- The #1 e-mail application on the Internet. It is manufactured
and distributed by Qualcomm Enterprises. The Eudora e-mail application is available
for Windows, Macintosh, and Newton users. Eudora Pro is the commercial version
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and includes special features that are not in Eudora Light, the freeware version.
E-World --- Former on-line service for Mac users. Once believed to have
over 100,000 members. It has it been ended, with a few services being retained on a
web-server.
Pages Pages
94 - 96
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94
Expanded memory --- Escape codes
Expanded memory --- Memory that conforms to the LIM 4.0
standard for memory access. Windows 95 has the capability of converting extended
memory (see extended memory) to expanded memory (using EMM386.EXE) for
programs that require it. However, most modern programs no longer use expanded
memory.
Exit --- When you are finished running Windows applications and Windows,
you must not turn off the computer until you correctly exit Windows. Windows stores
some data in memory and does not write it to your hard disk until you choose the exit
command. If you turn off the computer without correctly exiting, this data may be
lost. See also shutdown.
Expand folders --- Views the structure of folders that are stored inside
other folders. In Explorer, you can expand the view of a folder that has a plus sign (+)
next to it to see the folders stored within by double-clicking the folder in the left pane
(tree view) of Explorer. When a folder does not contain any additional folders, a
minus sign (-) appears next to the folder.
E-text --- A
text document in electronic form. An e-text
may take the form of a short pamphlet, a README
file or a note.
Escape codes --- A set of codes that appear in a text string on a terminal
(see terminal emulation). Although these escape codes (which provide formatting
information) aren't visible in terminal emulation, they will show up as non-text
characters if you capture the text to the screen or printer. In fact, some escape codes
may cause the printed output to skip pages, switch into bold mode, and other
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undesirable effects because they may coincide with printer command codes.
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Extensions --- External viewer
Extensions --- The characters after the dot in a file's name are considered
it's extension. This is used to determine how the file is formatted and viewed. For
example a file named high-density.html means that the file is coded in HTML and
therefore must be viewed with a compatible program such as a Web browser in order
to see it properly. On the Internet you will come across many different file extensions
such as .dcr, .mov, .avi and .au. In order to properly handle these files your browser
must be configured to recognize these extensions. SEE ALSO: MIME.
A program that comes with Windows 95 that helps you view and manage your files.
Extended Industry Standard Architecture
(EISA) --- A computer bus and interface card design based on 32-bit bus
mastering. EISA is an extension to ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) bus design
and enables EISA and ISA interface cards to be used in a single type of bus interface
slot in the computer.
Extended memory --- Memory that can be accessed by Windows 95
beyond the first megabyte of memory in your system.
External command --- Unlike an internal command, a command
that requires a separate file to run.
External viewer --- This is the program that is launched or used by
Web browsers such as Mosaic for presenting graphics, audio, video, VRML, and
other multimedia found on the Internet. Sometimes referred to as helper applications.
Usually when you initially setup your browser you configure what external viewers
you want to use by associating a program with a file type or extension. This way the
browser knows what to do when these files are "clicked on" by the user.
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Extranet --- [ENTER]course
Extranet --- The connecting of two or more intranets. If you think of an
intranet as a company's internal Web site which allows users inside the company to
communicate and exchange information, now imagine connecting that virtual space
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with another company's intranet, thus allowing these two (or more) companies to
share resources and communicate over the Internet in their own virtual space. This
technology greatly enhances business to business communications.
Companies like Netscape, Hewlett-Packard, Sun Microsystems and VeriSign
announced support for a
core set of open standards for enabling external networks (extranets). To learn more
about this click on the more button below.
E-zine --- electronic magazine - sometimes reffered to as just zine it is an
electronic publication or a magazine published in electronic form. An online
magazine. There are dozens of e-zines published on a regular basis on the Internet.
Topics range from science-fiction-inspired poetry to the angst of living in the digital
age, and beyond. SEE ALSO: e-journal.
.Edu --- A type of Internet domain assigned to URLs which are university or
other educational institutions (for example, www.pepperdine.edu). There is also .com,
.gov, .net, and .org. SEE ALSO: country codes.
E-dress --- Your on-line address.
[ENTER]course --- On-line computer sex, esp. via e-mail.
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HIGH DENSITY COMPUTING
F
F2F --------- FYI
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
FAT --- Forms
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Pages 97 --101
FAT --- FDDI
FAT --- File
allocation table. One of several file
systems and the most popular amongst DOS and windows
users.It stores information about all the files in a
dedicated region of the hard drove. There can be as many
as 64 FAT's on a single hard drive.
FAT32 --- An
improvement upon the standard FAT which
was only 16 bit.
Fat binary --- When
you see a download or another
program labeled "fat binary," it means that the program
is a little larger than a regular application. This is
because a fat binary program can take full advantage of
two hardware platforms: the Macintosh and the Power Mac.
FAQ --- (Frequently Asked Questions) -- FAQs are documents that list and
answer the most common questions on a particular subject. There are hundreds of
FAQs on subjects as diverse as Pet Grooming and Cryptography. FAQs are usually
written by people who have tired of answering the same question over and over.
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Feedback form --- sometimes called a feedback form or interactive
form - Sections of Web pages that accept user input. You can usually input
comments, order products, or search for information with these forms. For example:
Fire off --- An
expression used around the office meaning
to send out an e-mail. For example: "I've got to fire off
an e-mail to New York by noon!"
FastCGI --- An
open extension to CGI that provides
higher performance by reusing processes to handle
multiple requests.
FDDI --- Fiber Distributed Data Interchange is a network type that requires
fiber optic cable (see fiber optic). Although expensive, it is immune to electrical
interference and can achieve speeds of 100 Mb/s.
FDDI --- (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) -- A standard for transmitting data
on optical fiber cables at a rate of around 100,000,000 bits-per-second (10 times as
fast as Ethernet, about twice as fast as T-3).
See Also: Bandwidth , Ethernet , T-1 , T-3
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Fetch
--- File
allocation table (FAT)
Fetch --- A
Macintosh program that uses FTP (file
transfer protocol) to transfer files from your computer
onto a server, or vice versa. This allows you to write
files on your local computer in whatever editor you like,
and then place the files on the server when finished.
NOTE: Windows users see FTP for more information.
Fiber optic --- A type of cable which transmits information via light
signals. Although both the cable and the decoders are expensive, such cabling is
immune to electrical noise, and capable of much higher transmissions rates than
electrical (coaxial or twisted pair) cables.
Fiber-optics --- A
method of transmitting light beams
along optical fibers. A light beam, such as that produced
by a laser, can be modulated to carry information.
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FiDO --- Framework
for Interdisciplinary Design
Optimization - A general programming environment for
automating the distribution of complex computing tasks
over a networked system of heterogeneous computers.
Fidonet --- An older system, where BBS's shared files and e-mail via
telephone. Slower and slightly more expensive than the
Internet, it is still very popular outside the US. There are other, smaller BBS
networks, too.
FiFO buffers --- First in, first out buffers. In communications programs
that use FIFO buffers, the first information added to the buffer is the also the first
information transmitted when the transmission restarts.
File allocation table (FAT) --- The native DOS file system
that uses a table, called the file allocation table, to store information about the sizes,
locations, and properties of files stored on the disk.
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File compression --- File name
File compression --- This
makes computer data smaller
so less is needed to represent the same information and,
consequently, the information takes up less disk or file
space and may be transmitted in less time. Files which
contain more sophisticated data such as those to produce
audio, video, JAVA, VRML, Shockwave and other multimedia
are usually compressed quite thoroughly before made
accessible over the Internet.
Many shareware or freeware programs found on the Internet
come compressed in one of many different formats like
.ZIP, .HQX, .BIN or in a self-extracting EXE form.
Programs such as StuffIt are available to make the
decompression of a compressed file easy and fast.
File converter --- File converters take the file format and transform it to
a format that the application can read. During a file conversion, text enhancements,
font selections, and other elements are usually preserved. Sometimes, however, these
elements are converted to a similar format, and then converted to ASCII format.
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File extension --- The
group of letters after a period
or "dot" in a file name, is called the file extension.
This extension refers to the type of file it is, for
example, if the filename is readme.txt, the extension txt
denotes this is a text file and can be viewed using a
text editor such as notepad or simple text.
Operating systems such as MAC OS or Windows 95 will refer
to a file's extension when choosing which application to
launch when a user clicks on a particular file name. film
at 11 One reaction to an overwrought argument: "Imminent
death of the Net predicted. Film at 11."
File name --- The name that a file system or operating system gives to a file
when its stored on disk. File names in Windows 95's file system can be 256 characters
long. Additionally, Windows 95 assigns a file name compatible with older DOS (8
characters with a 3 character extension) naming conventions.
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File name extension --- Flame War
File name extension --- The 3 character extension that you can add
to a filename - either the standard 8 characters of DOS and Windows 3.1, or the long
filenames of Windows 95. The file name extension is only visible in Explorer if you
enable the appropriate option. Otherwise, the extension is hidden. Nevertheless, the
extension is still part of the filename, even when you can't see it--it is this extension
that Windows 95 (as well as earlier Windows) uses to associate a document with the
application that created it.
File set --- In the Windows 95 Backup program, a collection of files to back
up and the destination to back them up to. By saving a file set in Backup, you won't
have to reselect the files to back up the next time.
File utility --- A program that can directly manipulate the information
available on the disk that defines where files are found, sized, and other attributes. It
is important to NOT use file utilities that were designed for earlier version of
Windows, as Windows 95 stores some file information in different places--and earlier
file utilities could scramble the file information, destroying the file.
Finger --- An Internet software tool for locating people on other Internet sites.
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Finger is also sometimes used to give access to non-personal information, but the
most common use is to see if a person has an account at a particular Internet site.
Many sites do not allow incoming Finger requests, but many do.
Fire Wall --- A combination of hardware and software that separates a LAN
into two or more parts for security purposes.
See Also: Network , LAN
Flame bait --- An
intentionally inflammatory posting in
a newsgroup or discussion group designed to elicit a
strong reaction thereby creating a flame war.
Flame War --- When an online discussion degenerates into a series of
personal attacks against the debators, rather than discussion of their positions. A
heated exchange.
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See Also: Flame
Flame --- Forms
Flame --- Originally, flame meant to carry forth in a passionate manner in the
spirit of honorable debate. Flames most often involved the use of flowery language
and flaming well was an art form. More recently flame has come to refer to any kind
of derogatory comment no matter how witless or crude.
See Also: FlameWar
Fixed space font --- Fonts that have a fixed amount of space between
the characters in the font.
Folder --- Folders represent directories on your drives. Folders can contain
files, programs, and even other folders.
Folder window --- A window in Explorer that displays the contents of a
folder.
Follow up --A Usenet posting that is a response to an earlier
message.
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Font --- A description of how to display a set of characters. The description
includes the shape of the characters, spacing between characters, effects (for example,
bold, italics, and underline) and the size of the characters.
Foreground operation --- The program in the active window.
Forms --- An HTML page which passes variables back to the server. These
pages are used to gather information from users.
Fortune cookie --- F2F
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Pages 102 --105
Fortune cookie --- Frame source
Fortune cookie --- An inane/witty/profound comment that can be found
around the net.
Forum --- On Microsoft Network, a folder with a collection of related
documents and sub-folders.
Foo/foobar --- A
sort of online algebraic place
holder, for example: "If you want to know when another
site is run by a for-profit company, look for an address
in the form of <foo@foobar.com>."
FQDN --- -(Fully Qualified Domain Name) The "official" name assigned to a
computer. Organizations register names, such as "ibm.com" or "utulsa.edu." They
then assign unique names to their computers, such as "watson5.ibm.com" or
"hurricane.cs.utulsa.edu."
Fractal --- A word coined in 1975 by Benoit B. Mandlebrot from the Latin
fractus ("to break"), is, in the words of one fractal creator, a shape with the property
of "self-similarity".
A magnified section of a fractal looks like the same as a larger section of it over a
wide range of scales.
Frame relay --- This ANSI/ITU-T-standard packet interface protocol has
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a few advantages over ISDN. For one thing, you can purchase frame relay lines in
increments between 56kbps and 1.5 mbps (equivalent to a T1 connection). The
protocol also has a flat-rate billing structure instead of a per-hour usage charge. But
frame relay is designed for data transfer only, so it's not well suited to
videoconferencing or any other voice application. Frame relay is sometimes confused
with a leasedline. Both are used primarily to extend a local area network (LAN)
between business branches. However, a leased line is a dedicated line permanently
connected between sites, and frame relay uses the telephone company's shared
network on an as-needed basis.
Frame source --- The same as documentsource but relating to a
particular frame on a Web site.
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Frame --- Freenet
Frame --- A unit of data that is exchanged on a LAN. Frame formatting
implements an access protocol for the purpose of enabling communications between
nodes on a LAN (Ethernet, Token Ring, and so on). A frame should not be confused
with a packet, which is encapsulated within a frame for transport across the LAN.
Frames --- A term used to describe a viewing and layout style of a World
Wide Web site, it refers to the simultaneous loading of 2 or more Web pages at the
same time within the same screen. Originally developed by Netscape and
implemented in their Navigator 2.0 browser, today many other popular Web browsers
support this feature.
Some Web sites come in two versions; a "frames" and "no frames" version. The
frames version usually takes a little longer to load and may contain other "enhanced"
features such as Java and Animation.
Free Agent --- A
popular online/offline news and mail
reader product for Windows. The Agent products are
designed to help you navigate around the world of Usenet.
These Agents make it easy and efficient to collect and
organize your news, AND they can save you money by
allowing you to read news and mail messages offline! Free
Agent and Agent are your guides to a universe of news,
fun, and information.
Freenet --- Community-based computer system, allowing dial-up accounts
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into the "Freenet's" internet connection (usually for an hour a day) either free or at
low cost ($5 to $20). Most are connected to NPR (National Public Radio) -- UNO has
developed "The Greater New Orleans Freenet," which this document is on! SLIP and
PPP connections to Freenets are also growing. Many may be telnetted into from other
systems, so that the systems may be used by members outside the local dialing area
without calling long-distance. The author of this document, for example, is based in
New Orleans, but is currently also a member of the Los Angles freenet as well the the
Greater New Orleans Freenet.
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Freeware --- Full system backup
Freeware --- Free software available on the Internet that can be
downloaded, used and redistributed at no cost to the user as opposed to shareware
which are programs that require a registration fee be paid after a certain amount of
time.
FTP site -----
File Transfer Protocol
The common procedure or protocol used for
downloading and uploading files via the Internet.
With FTP you can login to another Internet site and transfer files. Some sites have
public file archives that you can access by using FTP with the account name
"anonymous" and your e-mail address as password. This type of access is called
anonymous ftp. Macintosh users use a program called Fetch and one of the best FTP
programs for Windows is WS-FTP.
FTP --- (File Transfer Protocol) -- A very common method of moving files
between two Internet sites. FTP is a special way to login to another Internet site for
the purposes of retrieving and/or sending files. There are many Internet sites that have
established publicly accessible repositories of material that can be obtained using
FTP, by logging in using the account name anonymous, thus these sites are called
anonymous ftp servers.
Full system backup --- A backup set (see Backup Set) that contains
all the files on your hard drive, including Windows 95 system files, the registry, and
all other files necessary to completely restore your system configuration on a new
hard drive.
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Full duplex --- F2F
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Full duplex --- Means the same as duplex which is simulataneous
bidirectional communications. Both sides send and receive with virtually no
turnaround time. OR Data transmission that takes place in two directions
simultaneously as opposed to half duplex which also allows transmission in two
directions but only one at a time and simplex in which transmission can only be sent
in one direction.
When used in reference to sound cards and Internet phones such as WebPhone and
IPhone this means the ability to send and receive audio at the same time like a
standard telephone. Some sound cards and systems require a special full duplex audio
driver which is software usually available from either the manufacturer of the sound
card or the program itself.
If you are searching for duplex drivers for your system, then try using Alta Vista with
a search string of: full duplex {name of software} {type of hardware}.
FYI --- For Your Information - A shorthand appended to a comment written in
an online forum.
F2F --- Face
to Face - A shorthand appended to a comment
written in an online forum.
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HIGH DENSITY COMPUTING
G
Gateway
--------- GZip
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
Gateway --- GZip
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Pages 106 --109
Gateway --- GIF animation
Gateway --- The technical meaning is a hardware or software set-up that
translates between two dissimilar protocols, for example Prodigy has a gateway that
translates between its internal, proprietary e-mail format and Internet e-mail format.
Another, sloppier meaning of gateway is to describe any mechanism for providing
access to another system, e.g. AOL might be called a gateway to the Internet.
GEnie --- The oldest on-line service, no matter what CI$ claims. First
operated by General Electric (of course) as an in-house bbs-- probably #7 in size, it
recently totally revamped its pricing structure, which has caused a number of unhappy
users. It has been recently sold, and is being remodeled as a pure gaming network.
GIF --- GIF - Graphics Interchange Format; Developed by Compuserve, this
imageformat is designed for images with limited color palletes, such as line drawings,
grayscale images, and images that represent text. GIF images can be one of two types:
GIF87a or GIF89a (a newer format which allows transparent backgrounds). GIFs can
also be assembled to form animations. GIF animations are used for banner
advertisements and other simple animations. For photorealistic images, the JPEG
format should be used.
GIF animation --- or animated GIF or multi block GIF - a type of
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GIF format which allows a series of images to be displayed one after another or on
top of each other. Since its implementation in Netscape Navigator 2.0, GIF animation
has been one of the best and easiest ways to put animation. Animated GIFs have been
around since the introduction of the GIF89a format in 1989. The reason animated
GIFs didn't appear on the Web at that time is that Netscape Navigator or any other
Web browsers around at that time didn't support GIF89a's animation features.
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GIF89a --- GIF89a
GIF89a --- Graphics Interchange Format --Developed by Compuserve using compression technology from Unisys. On the World
Wide Web pictures and graphics you see on Web pages are usually in GIF format
because the files are small and download quickly. Another type of graphics format
used commonly are JPEG these files download even faster and contain a better
resolution but cannot be interlaced so many Web page authors tend to opt for using
GIF's instead to get that "melting" onto the screen effect that happens with interlaced
images.
Transparent GIF --- -
Transparent GIFs are useful because they
appear to blend in smoothly with the user's display, even if the user has set a
background color that differs from that the developer expected. They do this by
assigning one color to be transparent -- if the Web browser supports transparency,
that color will be replaced by the browser's background color, whatever it may be.
Interlaced GIF --- Interlaced GIFs appear first with poor
resolution and then improve in resolution until the entire image has arrived, as
opposed to arriving linearly from the top row to the bottom row. This is great to get a
quick idea of what the entire image will look like while waiting for the rest. This
doesn't do much for you if your Web browser doesn't support progressive display as
the image is downloaded, but non-progressive-display Web browsers will still display
interlaced GIFs once they have arrived in their entirety.
You can make transparent and interlaced GIFs through the Web without running any
utility software on your own system through the Visioneering image manipulation
page, which will access your image through the Web and produce an enhanced
version for you to save. For more information on the different types of GIF's click on
the more button below.
For Windows PCs, try Lview Pro
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GIF89a, GIF animation, or multi block GIF --a type of GIF format which allows a series of images to be displayed one after
another or on top of each other. For more info on GIF animation go here.
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Gigabyte --- Grid
Gigabyte --- 1000 Megabytes
See Also: Byte , Gigabyte
GNU --- Gnu's
Not Unix - A project of the Free Software
Foundation to write a free version of the Unix operating
system.
Gopher --- A widely successful method of making menus of material
available over the Internet. Gopher is a Client and Server style program, which
requires that the user have a Gopher Client program. Although Gopher spread rapidly
across the globe in only a couple of years, it has been largely supplanted by
Hypertext, also known as WWW (World Wide Web). There are still thousands of
Gopher Servers on the Internet and we can expect they will remain for a while.
See Also: Client , Server , WWW , Hypertext
Graphical user interface --- Graphical
User
Interface - this term refers to a software front-end
meant to provide an attractive and easy to use interface
between a computer user and an application.
Grid --- A background pattern that defines regular intervals--for example, a
1/4" grid displays dots in the background every quarter inch on in a rectangular
pattern. Many graphics programs make a grid available. Even when turned on, a grid
won't print. When you "snap to grid", your graphic endpoints are constrained to fall
on a grid point.
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GSM --- GZip
GSM --- Global Standard for Mobile Communications --- This set of
standards is widely used in Europe for cellular communications. The audio encoding
subset of the GSM standard is best known to computer users because its data
compression and decompression techniques are also being used for Web-phone
communication and encoding .wav and .aiff files.
GUI --- GUI=Graphic Users Interface, all those pretty icons, etc. which make
macs, windows, x-windows, etc. look the way
they do.
Guru --- A more experienced user who helps a newer user (ie, a newbie).
GZip --- A free compression program commonly available as a UNIX
command for file compression, GZip, which is also available for MSDos, compresses
files and appends either ".z" or ".gz" to the file name.
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HIGH DENSITY COMPUTING
H
Hacker
--------- Hypermedia
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
Hacker ethic --- HP JetAdmin
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Pages 110 --114
Hacker ethic --- Hardwired
Hacker ethic --- A
set of moral principles common to
the first generation hacker community. According to
hacker ethic, all technical information should, in
principle, be freely available to all. However,
destroying, altering, or moving data in a way that could
cause injury or expense to others is always unethical.
Hacker jargon --- High
Density used expressively by
hackers.
Hacker --- A
computer enthusiast who enjoys learning
everything about a computer system and, through clever
programming, pushes the system to it's highest possible
level of performance. Also known as crackers, these
computer hobbyists are also skilled programmers with a
mischievous bent who break into secured computer systems.
In 1989, the New York Times published an article
headlined "Invasion of the Data Snatchers" culminating in
a ridiculous series of Secret Service raids in which
federal agents confiscated the computer systems of these
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"dangerous" individuals.
Hayes compatible --- A
type of modem that uses the
AT command set.
HAGO --- Have
A Good One - - A shorthand appended to
a comment written in an online forum or e-mail that
originates in New York City.
Handle --- Remember
CB radio? Your online nickname or
the name you go by in a chat room. Sometimes referred to
as a username.
Handshake --- Two
modems trying to connect first do
this to agree on how to transfer data.
Hang --- When
a modem fails to hang up.
Hardware --- The physical components of a computer system, i.e.:
monitor, printer, keyboard, mouse etc.
Hardwired --- Online
ads set in a fixed position on a
page and delivered each time that page is delivered (the
opposite of dynamic rotation).
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111
HdCD (high density compact disc) --- Help
HdCD (high density compact disc) --- See:
DVD
Hdtv --- High
Definition Television - A video system
with better color and better audio than any existing TV
standard.
Header --- The
portion of a packet which contains the
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source and destination addresses, error checking, and
other information. A header is also the part of an e-mail
message that precedes the body of the message and
contains, among other things, the message originator,
date and time, and subject lines.
Header information --- Data sent to a printer to define aspects of
the printout and prepare the printer prior to printing. PostScript documents include
header information.
Heap --- An area of memory (also known as the "System Resources area") that
Windows uses to store system information (such as menus) about running
applications. If the "heap" fills up, you may get an "out of memory" error, despite the
fact that you have plenty of regular memory (RAM) available. In Windows 95, you
have a much less chance of getting an "out of memory" error. Although Windows 95
still uses a 64K heap to store systems information for 16-bit applications, a lot of the
information that was stored in this area by older versions of Windows is now stored
elsewhere. As a result, there is much less chance of your application failing due to
this error.
Hearts --- A card game included with Windows 95 for up to four players. The
winner is the player who has the fewest points.
Help --- A program that gives you information about how to run Windows 95
and its programs, including how to use the Help program.
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Helper application --- Hit
Helper application --- or
helper app is a
supplementary program that enables a Web browser to
handle multimedia files, such as animation, audio and
video. Most helper apps are freeware or shareware but do
not come with Web browsers, so users must hunt down the
ones the want and go through the tedious task of
installing them and configuring so the browser will
launch the particular helper app when it encounters a
multimedia file.
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The RealAudio Player, Nettoob, and LViewPro are examples
of helper applications. For more information on how to
set up helper applications with Netscape Navigator, click
on the more button below.
Hertz (Hz) --- A
unit of measurement of electrical
vibrations; one Hz is equal to one cycle per second.
Hexadecimal --- A base-16 numbering scheme with values ranging from
0 to 9, and A to F. Used in many programming languages. Not particularly relevant to
users, except that memory address areas are frequently stated in hexadecimal. Hex is
used whenever the actual internals of the computer are being revealed as in memory
addresses and I/O ports.
Hidden file --- A characteristic of a file that indicates that the file is not
visible in Explorer under normal circumstances. However, by selecting the View
Option to view all files, hidden files will still be visible.
Hierarchical --- A way of displaying text or graphics in a structure. In a
hierarchical structure, items closer to the top of the structure are considered "parents"
of items connected to them, but which are lower down in the structure. The tree
structure of Windows Explorer is an example of a hierarchical structure.
Hit --- As used in reference to the World Wide Web, “hit” means a single
request from a web browser for a single item from a web server; thus in order for a
web browser to display a page that contains 3 graphics, 4 “hits” would occur at the
server: 1 for the HTML page, and one for each of the 3 graphics.
“hits” are often used as a very rough measure of load on a server, e.g. “Our server has
been getting 300,000 hits per month.” Because each “hit” can represent anything from
a request for a tiny document (or even a request for a missing document) all the way
to a request that requires some significant extra processing (such as a complex search
request), the actual load on a machine from 1 hit is almost impossible to define.
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Hops --- HotBot
Hops --- The number of different servers a packet must travel through to reach
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its destination. For example, open a dos window and type in tracert www.highdensity.com it will show you exactly how many servers your quest has to travel
through.
HotDog --- The
HotDog Professional Web Editor is an
HTML Authoring tool for Windows 95. Even though HotDog is
tremendously powerful and feature-rich, the program is
very user-friendly thanks to the superb built-in help
files, detailed tutorials and intuitive interface. You
can download a free fully-functional evaluation copy of
HotDog now and try this Web editor for 14 days.
Hotmail --- Hotmail
is a Web based free e-mail system.
It is based on the premise that e-mail access should be
easy and possible from any computer connected to the
World Wide Web. By adhering to the universal HTTP
standard Hotmail eliminates all the disparities that
exist in different e-mail systems today. Sending and
receiving e-mail using Hotmail is as easy as browsing to
the Hotmail Web site, logging on and sending an e-mail
message. By using a Web browser as your e-mail program,
Hotmail brings your personal e-mail to you in a globally
retrievable form.
Holywar --- Arguments
that involve certain basic
tenets of faith, about which one cannot disagree without
setting one of these off. For example: IBM PCs are
inherently superior to Macintosh's.
HotBot --- A
search engine developed by HotWired and
HotBot exploits NOW (Network of Workstations) parallel computing technology, to
achieve scalable, supercomputer-class performance from clusters of reliable,
commodity workstations and high-speed local-area networks (LANS).
This NOW technology enables a low-cost system, with
unlimited scalability: we can increase the performance or
database size simply by adding more commodity building
blocks (machines, disks, or memory) to the collection. We
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cost servers, to scale with the rapid growth of the
Internet.
Search Tip - The best way to get the most out of a search
engine is to understand its features. Always check the
sites help page when you arrive to find out what it's
features are. Be Specific: If you are looking for
information about the 'Virginia state motto', enter all
three of those words in your search. A search for just
'Virginia motto' will give you more than 600 pages that
you don't want. Use phrases: You can narrow your search
further by specifying that the phrase "state motto" must
also appear. Do this by using the pop-up menus in the
'modify' options, or by enclosing the phrase in double
quotes ("").
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114
Hierarchy --- HP JetAdmin
Hierarchy --- In
USENET, a category of newsgroups
or the way newsgroups are internally categorized.
Home Page (or Homepage) --- Several meanings. Originally,
the web page that your browser is set to use when it starts up. The more common
meaning refers to the main web page for a business, organization, person or simply
the main page out of a collection of web pages, e.g. “Check out so-and-so’s new
Home Page.”
Another sloppier use of the term refers to practically any web page as a “homepage,”
e.g. “That web site has 65 homepages and none of them are interesting.”
See Also: Browser , Web
Host drive --- The physical hard drive upon which a DriveSpace
compressed volume file exists (see compressed volume file). You can choose to either
show or hide the host drive when working with Explorer.
Home Page URL --- The local path or Internet URL to the default
page of the Web site for which WebTrends reports will be generated.
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Host --- Any computer on a network that is a repository for services available to
other computers on the network. It is quite common to have one host machine provide
several services, such as WWW and USENET.
See Also: Node , Network
HP JetAdmin --- The HP JetAdmin Utility is a tool that can be used to
install and configure networked Hewlett-Packard printers using the HP JetDirect
network interface. The HP JetAdmin utility appears as a substitute for the Windows
standard Printer window. This utility can also be used to interface printers connected
to a NetWare LAN.
Hot docking --- Hyperlink
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Pages 115 --- 117
Hot docking --- Hypertext Markup Language
(HTML)
Hot docking --- For a portable computer, "hot docking" refers to the
ability to insert the computer into a docking station (which may provide additional
resources such as a CD-ROM, speakers, hard drive, and so on) and have the computer
recognize that the new resources of the docking station are now available.
Hot plugging --- The
ability to add and remove devices
to a computer while the computer is running and have the
operating system automatically recognize the change. Two
new external bus standards-Universal Serial Bus (USB) and
FireWire support hot plugging. This is also a feature of
PCMCIA.
Hot swapping --- For a portable computer, or any other computer that
uses PC cards, "hot swapping" refers to the ability to remove a PC card and/or insert a
new card, and have the computer recognize the change.
Hotlist --- A
list of frequently accessed World Wide Web
sites. Usually the names of the sites are coded as
hypertext making them hyperlinks and letting the user
simply "click on" the name of the site in order to be
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taken there.
HTML --- (HyperText Markup Language) -- The coding language used to
create Hypertext documents for use on the World Wide Web. HTML looks a lot like
old-fashioned typesetting code, where you surround a block of text with codes that
indicate how it should appear, additionally, in HTML you can specify that a block of
text, or a word, is linked to another file on the Internet. HTML files are meant to be
viewed using a World Wide Web Client Program, such as Netscape or Mosaic.
See Also: Client , Server , WWW
HTTP --- (HyperText Transport Protocol) -- The protocol for moving
hypertext files across the Internet. Requires a HTTP client program on one end, and
an HTTP server program on the other end. HTTP is the most important protocol used
in the World Wide Web (WWW).
See Also: Client , Server , WWW
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116
Hub
--- Hypertext
Markup Language (HTML)
Hub --- This
piece of hardware is used to network
computers together (usually over an ethernet connection).
It serves as a common wiring point so that information
can flow through one central location to any other
computer on the network. Hubs may be active or passive.
Hue --- The numerical representation of the colors of a color wheel. It is almost
always seen with saturation and brightness.
Hyperlink --- A link in a document that, when activated (often by clicking
it), links--or jumps to--another document or graphic.
Hypermedia --- Media (such as pictures, videos, and audio), on a web
page that links the user to another web page by clicking on the media.
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Hypertext --- Generally, any text that contains links to other documents words or phrases in the document that can be chosen by a reader and which cause
another document to be retrieved and displayed.
Hyperterminal --- HyperTerminal is a program included with
Windows 95, which enables you to easily connect to a remote computer, a bulletin
board, or an online service. It replaces Terminal from Windows version 3.1.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) --- A
hypertext language used to create the hypertext documents that make up the World
Wide Web.
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Hyperlink --- Hyperlink
Hyperlink --- or
link is text you find on a Web site
which can be "clicked on" with a mouse which in turn will
take you to another Web page or a different area of the
same Web page. Hyperlinks are created or "coded" in HTML.
They are also used to load multimedia files such as AVI
movies and AU sound files. SEE ALSO: broken links.
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HIGH DENSITY COMPUTING
I
ICQ--------- ISP
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
I-beam --- Information superhighway
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Pages 118 --122
I-beam --- Image color matching (ICM)
I-beam --- The shape the cursor takes in the area of a window where text can
be entered.
ICQ --- I
Seek You - A user-friendly Internet program
that tells you who's online at all times. No longer will
you search in vain for friends and associates on the Net.
ICQ does the searching for you, alerting you in real time
when friends or colleagues sign on. With ICQ, you can
chat, send messages and files, play games, or just hang
out with your fellow netizens as you surf the Net.
I-bahn --- or
I-bahn - the information superhighway
ICon --- A small graphic symbol used to represent a folder, program, shortcut,
resource, or document.
IETF --- Internet
Engineering Task Force - An open
community of networkers who manage and shape the
Internet.
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Imagemap --- Internet
Message Access Protocol - A
method of accessing e-mail or bulletin board messages
that are kept on a mail server. IMAP permits a "client" email program to access remote messages as if they were on
a the users local machine. E-mail stored on an IMAP
server can be manipulated from a desktop computer at
home, a workstation at the office, and a notebook
computer while traveling, without the need to transfer
messages or files back and forth between these computers,
as is usually the case with the POP style mail access
protocol. For more on IMAP VS POP click on the more
button below.
IIRC --- IIRC="If I Remember Correctly" (just in case you want to cover
yourself when stating something).
Image color matching (ICM) --- Image Color Matching
(ICM), a technology developed by Kodak, creates an image environment that treats
color from the screen to the printed page. Microsoft licensed ICM from Kodak to be
able to repeatedly and consistently reproduce color matched images from source to
destination.
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Import --- Inactive
Import --- An OLE term. In Object Packager, you can import a file into a
package and later embed it into a destination document.
Impressions --- In
regard to online advertising, it is
the number of times an ad banner is downloaded and
presumably seen by users. Guaranteed impressions refers
to the minimum number of times an ad banner will be seen
by users.
IMAP --- Internet
Message Access Protocol - A method
of accessing e-mail or bulletin board messages that are
kept on a mail server. IMAP permits a "client" e-mail
program to access remote messages as if they were on a
the users local machine. E-mail stored on an IMAP server
can be manipulated from a desktop computer at home, a
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workstation at the office, and a notebook computer while
traveling, without the need to transfer messages or files
back and forth between these computers, as is usually the
case with the POP style mail access protocol. For more on
IMAP VS POP click on the more button below.
IMO --- IMO=In My Opinion; IMHO adds "humble," and is often seen as
sarcastic.
IMHO --- (In My Humble Opinion) -- A shorthand appended to a comment
written in an online forum, IMHO indicates that the writer is aware that they are
expressing a debatable view, probably on a subject already under discussion. One of
may such shorthands in common use online, especially in discussion forums.
See Also: TTFN , BTW
Inktomi --- A
research project at U.C. Berkely which is
a prototype for a commercial search engine. The
technology used exploits parallel computing technology.
Inactive --- An open window that is not currently in use. On the task bar, the
active window looks like a pressed button, inactive windows are represented by
unpressed buttons.
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In box --- Interface
In box --- Inbox holds incoming and outgoing messages and Faxes that are
sent or received over Microsoft Exchange.
Incremental backup --- See differential backup.
Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) --- This term
describes the design of the 8/16-bit AT bus (sometimes called the "classic bus")
developed by IBM in the original IBM PC.
In place editing --- A feature of OLE 2. With in place editing, you may
edit an embedded or linked object WITHOUT that object being placed into an
additional window (the way it was in OLE 1.0). Instead of creating an additional
window, the tools for the object you want to edit appear in the toolbar for the
container object, (see container object). Also, the menus for the object you want to
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edit replace the menus of the container object. In place editing is less disruptive; it is
much simpler to ensure that the changes you make to an embedded or linked object
are updated to the original complex document.
Insertion point --- A flashing vertical line showing where text will be
inserted.
Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) --- A later drive
design that incorporated an embedded controller on a smaller (3 1/2 inch) disk drive.
IDE drives can be connected together, but the second drive must be a slave to the
first, using the primary disk controller and not its own embedded controller. This type
of drive is interfaced to a computer bus with an IDE host adapter, not a controller.
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) --A special phone line that supports modem speeds up to 64Kbps. However, these
phone lines can be quite expensive to acquire. Many ISDN adapters support twochannel access.
Interface --- The visible layer enabling a user to communicate with a
computer. In DOS, the interface consisted largely of typed commands and characterbased feedback, Windows 95 is an entirely graphical interface, using a mouse, menus,
windows, and icons to allow the user to communicate his instructions and
requirements to the computer.
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Internal command --- Information packet
Internal command --- A command embedded in CMD.EXE, the
command interpreter for Windows 95, or in COMMAND.EXE, the MS-DOS
equivalent. Internal commands don't require additional support files.
Internet Explorer --- A web browser bundled with the Windows 95
Plus kit. It takes advantage of features in Windows 95, such as shortcuts and long file
names.
Internet Protocol (IP) --- A network protocol that provides
routing services across multiple LANs and WANs that is used in the TCP/IP protocol
stack. IP packet format is used to address packets of data from ultimate source and
destination nodes (host) located on any LAN or WAN networked with TCP/IP
protocol. IP provides routing services in conjunction with IP routers, which are
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incorporated into many computer systems and most version of UNIX. IP Packet
format is supported in NetWare 3.11 and 4.0 operating systems, and is used
throughout the Department of Defense Internet--a network of thousands of computers
internetworked worldwide.
Interoperability --- Compatibility, or the capability for equipment to
work together. Industry standards are agreed upon or used by vendors to make their
equipment work with other vendor's equipment.
Interrupt request line (IRQ) --- A line (conductor) on the
internal bus of the computer (typically on the motherboard) over which a device such
as a port, disk controller, or modem can get the attention of the CPU to process some
data.
Interframe compression --- A technique that achieves
compression of a video file by eliminating redundant data between successive
compressed frames
Information packet --- A
bundle of data sent over a
network. The protocol used determines the size and makeup
of the packet.
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Index --- Information superhighway
Index --- Can
refer to a file or directory found on a
server. The file usually contains information about the
directory or Web site as well as access privileges
required, dates, and even a list of other indexes
(indices). This is usually the first place you check when
you're looking for a file. A file called index.html is
usually the starting point or home page for a Web site. A
server is usually configured to display automatically the
index.html or .htm file when a request for a certain
directory comes to the server, therefore, the "default"
page that comes up when you type in a URL like
http://www.high-density.com would be http://www.highdensity.com/index.html.
Indices --- Loosely
a plural of index. A listing or
directory of more than one index. An index of indexes or
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a directory of directories.
Initialization string --- A
gets a modem into
You must know the
your computer for
according to type
with your ISP.
string of characters that
action, usually "AT" for "attention."
initialization string when setting up
Internet access, these strings vary
of computer and type of modem, check
Internaut --- Yet
another term for someone who uses
the Internet.
Information superhighway --- or
I-way - this is a
buzzword from a speech by Vice President Al Gore that
refers to the Clinton/Gore administration's plan to
deregulate communication services and widen the scope of
the Internet by opening carriers, such as television
cable, to data communication. The term is widely used to
mean the Internet, also referred to as the infobahn (Ibahn).
Infoseek --- IP Address
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Pages 123 --127
Infoseek --- ifoSpace
Infoseek --- A
service that searches the Web for pages
that mention a word or phrase you specify.
Internet Society --- Information
travelling on the
Internet usually takes a circuitous route through several
intermediary computers to reach any destination computer.
The actual route your information takes to reach its
destination is not under your control. As your
information travels on Internet computers, any
intermediary computer has the potential to eavesdrop and
make copies. An intermediary computer could even deceive
you and exchange information with you by misrepresenting
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itself as your intended destination. These possibilities
make the transfer of confidential information such as
passwords or credit card numbers susceptible to abuse.
This is where Internet security comes in and why it has
become a rapidly growing concern for all who use the
Internet. SEE ALSO Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), and secure
channel.
InContext WebAnalyzer --- A
Windows 95 software
program for managing an #internet"">Internet or intranet Web
site for business or personal reasons. InContext
WebAnalyzer gives you all the diagnostic and statistical
tools you need to manage an error-free Web site with
ease. If you've got broken links, WebAnalyzer detects
them immediately and tells you what pages to fix to get
your Web site working perfectly.
Infobahn --- or
I-bahn - the information superhighway
ifoSpace --- A
service that enable users to easily and
instantly locate listings of people, businesses,
government offices, toll-free numbers, fax numbers, email addresses, maps and URLs, all integrated into one
Web site with nearly 100% accuracy. InfoSpace has
developed a patent pending technology that fully
integrates all of it's services, providing users with one
comprehensive solution.
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iline image --- Internet Explorer
iline image --- A
built-in graphic that is dislayed by a
Webbrowser as part of an HTML document and is retrieved
along with it.
Internet account --- An
account with an ISP (internet
service provider) that allows you to access the Internet.
Internet backbone --- This
superfast network spanning
the world from one major metropolitan area to another is
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provided by a handful of national Internet service
providers (ISPs). These companies and organizations use
connections running at approximately 45 MB per second (T3
lines) linked up at specified interconnection points
called national access points. Local ISPs connect to this
backbone through routers so that data can be carried
though the backbone to its destination.
Internet Connection --- The
way one gains access to
the Internet. For the average person a simple phone line
is used. This is also known as a Dial Up connection. The
others include digital lines such as a T1 or a T3 which
large companies or ISP's use. ISDN is an other popular
connection and is in a way an in between solution to dial
up or digital
Internet Explorer --- Microsoft's
Web browser. One of
the rival browsers of Netscape, Internet Explorer
supports many of the Netscape HTML extensions, as well as
some innovative ones of its own (such as bgsound src,
allowing a sound file to automatically load when a Web
page is accessed). The Explorer is available for
Macintosh computers as well as Windows 3.1, Windows NT
and Windows 95.
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Internet security --- Inline
Internet security --- Information
travelling on the
Internet usually takes a circuitous route through several
intermediary computers to reach any destination computer.
The actual route your information takes to reach its
destination is not under your control. As your
information travels on Internet computers, any
intermediary computer has the potential to eavesdrop and
make copies. An intermediary computer could even deceive
you and exchange information with you by misrepresenting
itself as your intended destination. These possibilities
make the transfer of confidential information such as
passwords or credit card numbers susceptible to abuse.
This is where Internet security comes in and why it has
become a rapidly growing concern for all who use the
Internet. SEE ALSO Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), and secure
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channel.
Internet site --- A site on the Internet which can be either http, or ftp or
even a Usenet group.
Internet traffic report --- The Internet Traffic Report monitors
the flow of data around the world. It then displays a value between zero and 100.
Higher values indicate faster and more reliable connections
http://www.internettrafficreport.com/
http://traffic.mci.com/
Internetworking --- The
term "network" has many
different meanings depending on the person or company,
and the context in which the network is being used. One
well accepted definition is "a configuration of data
processing devices and software connected for information
storage and interchange". Then an "internetwork" might be
defined as "communication between data processing devices
on one network and other possibly dissimilar devices on
another network".
Inline --- Along with "image," how graphics appear to graphic web-browsers.
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Internet --- Internet Society
Internet --- (Upper case I) The vast collection of inter-connected networks
that all use the TCP/IP protocols and that evolved from the ARPANET of the late 60’s
and early 70’s. The Internet now (July 1995) connects roughly 60,000 independent
networks into a vast global internet.
See Also: internet
internet --- (Lower case i) Any time you connect 2 or more networks
together, you have an internet - as in inter-national or inter-state.
See Also: Internet , Network
Intranet --- A private network inside a company or organization that uses the
same kinds of software that you would find on the public Internet, but that is only for
internal use.
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As the Internet has become more popular many of the tools used on the Internet are
being used in private networks, for example, many companies have web servers that
are available only to employees.
Note that an Intranet may not actually be an internet -- it may simply be a network.
See Also: internet , Internet , Network
Internet Society --- An
organization dedicated to
supporting the growth and evolution of the Internet. The
Society's individual and organizational members are bound
by a common stake in maintaining the viability and global
scaling of the Internet. They comprise the companies,
government agencies, and foundations that have created
the Internet and its technologies as well as innovative
new entrepreneurial organizations contributing to
maintain that dynamic. Visit their home pages to see how
Internet innovators are creatively using the network.
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IPv6 --- IP Address
IPv6 --- Internet
Protocol version 6 or IPng (Internet
Protocol next generation) is an Internet Protocol (IP)
which is designed to be an evolutionary step from IPv4.
It is a natural increment to IPv4. It can be installed as
a normal software upgrade in internet devices and is
interoperable with the current IPv4. Its deployment
strategy is designed to not have any flag days or other
dependencies. IPng is designed to run well on high
performance networks and at the same time is still
efficient for low bandwidth networks. In addition, it
provides a platform for new Internet functionality that
will be required in the near future.
IPng is intended to support Internet traffic for many
years into the future by providing enhancements over the
capabilities of the existing IPv4 service.
InterNIC --- Internet
Network Information Center - A
repository of information about the Internet. It is
divided into two parts: 1) directory services, run by
AT&T in New Jersey, and 2) registration services, run by
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Network Solutions in Virginia. It is funded partially by
the National Science Foundation and partially by fees
that are charged to register Internet domains.
You can use this form below to check if a certain domain
is registered with InterNIC.
IPX --- Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) is a network protocol developed by
Novell to address packets of data from ultimate source and destination nodes located
on any LAN networked with NetWare. IPX also provides routing services in
conjunction NetWare and third-party routers. An IPX packet has information fields
that identify the network address, node address, and socket address of both the source
and destination, and provides the same functionality of the of the OSI Network layer
in the OSI model.
IP Address --- Internet Protocol address identifying a computer connected
to the Internet.
IP Number --- ISP
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IP Number --- I/O address
IP Number --- (Internet Protocol Number) -- Sometimes called a dotted
quad. A unique number consisting of 4 parts separated by dots, e.g.
165.113.245.2
Every machine that is on the Internet has a unique IP number - if a machine does not
have an IP number, it is not really on the Internet. Most machines also have one or
more Domain Names that are easier for people to remember.
See Also: Domain Name , Internet , TCP/IP
IP --- Internet
Protocol - A scheme that enables
information to be routed from one network to another.
I/O address --- Input/Output address. Many I/O devices, such as COM
ports, network cards, printer ports, and modem cards, are mapped to an I/O address.
This address allows the computer and operating system to locate the device, and thus
send and receive data. Such I/O addresses don't tie up system memory RAM space.
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However, there are a limited number of I/O addresses. You can access an I/O port in
one of two ways: either map it into the 64K I/O address space, or map it as a memorymapped device in the system's RAM space.
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IRL --- ISOC
IRL --- In
Real Life - A shorthand appended to a comment
written in an online forum.
IRC --- (Internet Relay Chat) -- Basically a huge multi-user live chat facility.
There are a number of major IRC servers around the world which are linked to each
other. Anyone can create a channel and anything that anyone types in a given channel
is seen by all others in the channel. Private channels can (and are) created for multiperson conference calls.
ISDN --- (Integrated Services Digital Network) -- Basically a way to move
more data over existing regular phone lines. ISDN is rapidly becoming available to
much of the USA and in most markets it is priced very comparably to standard analog
phone circuits. It can provide speeds of roughly 128,000 bits-per-second over regular
phone lines. In practice, most people will be limited to 56,000 or 64,000 bits-persecond.
ISOC --- (Internet Society) Based in Herndon, Virginia, the Internet Society
promotes the Internet and coordinates standards. You can visit their Web site to learn
more or to become a member.
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130
ISAPI --- ISP
ISAPI --- Internet
Server Application Program Interface
- This is an application programming interface, created
by Process Software and Microsoft, which is tailored to
Internet servers. ISAPI uses Windows' dynamic link
libraries (DLLs) to make processes faster than under
regular APIs.
ISP --- (Internet Service Provider) -- An institution that provides access to the
Internet in some form, usually for money. See Also: Internet
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HIGH DENSITY COMPUTING
J
Jabber --------- Jughead
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
Jabber --- Jughead
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Jabber --- Javascript
Jabber --- To
transmit meaningless data by via either
networks (along communication lines) or people (when
communicating in chat).
Java --- Java is a network-oriented programming language invented by Sun
Microsystems that is specifically designed for writing programs that can be safely
downloaded to your computer through the Internet and immediately run without fear
of viruses or other harm to your computer or files. Using small Java programs (called
"Applets"), Web pages can include functions such as animations, calculators, and
other fancy tricks.
We can expect to see a huge variety of features added to the Web using Java, since
you can write a Java program to do almost anything a regular computer program can
do, and then include that Java program in a Web page.
See Also: Applet
Javascript --- A
scripting language for Web pages.
Scripts written with JavaScript can be embedded into HTML
documents. With JavaScript you have many possibilities
for enhancing your Web page with interesting elements. It
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makes it easy to respond to user initiated events (such
as form input). Some effects that are now possible with
JavaScript were once only possible with CGI. Javascript
gives a developer the ability to create really
sophisitcated Web pages.
Some computer languages are compiled, which means that
you run your program through a compiler, which performs a
one-time translation of the human-readable program into a
binary that the computer can execute. JavaScript is an
interpreted language, which means that the computer must
evaluate the program each time it is run.
Java and JavaScript are not the same thing. JavaScript
was designed to resemble Java, which in turn looks a lot
like C and C++. The difference is that Java was built as
a general purpose object language, while JavaScript is
intended to provide a quicker and simpler language for
enhancing Web pages and servers.
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Jumpers --- Jughead
Jumpers --- jumpers are small devices that complete a circuit between two pins of
a multi-pin header, specifying various aspects about a card--for example, which IRQ,
base memory address, or I/O port address to use. Jumpers are not normally used on a
card that is compliant with Plug and Play, but were common on "legacy" (pre Plug
and Play) cards.
JDK --- (Java Development Kit) -- A software development package from Sun
Microsystems that implements the basic set of tools needed to write, test and debug
Java applications and applets
See Also: Applet , Java
JPEG --- Joint Photographic Expert Group is a method of storing an image in
digital format.
Jughead --- One of two search programs for gopherspace; based on archie.
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HIGH DENSITY COMPUTING
K
Kbps --------- Kruegerapp
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
Kbps --- Kruegerapp
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Kbps --- Key pal
Kbps --- (kilobits per second) A speed rating for computer modems that
measures (in units of 1,024 bits) the maximum number of bits the device can transfer
in one second under ideal conditions.
Kermit --- A terminal program and file transfer protocol developed at
Columbia University and available for a variety of computers, from PCs to
mainframes. Kermit can be used to download files from a remote system to your
home computer. It is distinguished by its ability to transfer files over Telnet and other
connections that would corrupt a binary transfer; it is often available as a UNIX
command.
Kernel --- The core of an operating system, usually responsible for basic I/O
and process execution.
Kernel driver --- A driver with direct access to hardware. A hardware
driver.
Keyboard buffer --- Memory set aside to store keystrokes as they're
entered from the keyboard. Once it's stored, the keystroke data waits for the CPU to
pick up the data and respond accordingly.
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Keyboard equivalent --- See keyboard shortcut.
Keyboard shortcut --- A combination of keystrokes that initiates a
menu command without dropping the menu down, or activates a button in a dialog
box without clicking the button.
Key pal --- A person you correspond with that uses a KEYboard to type email messages instead of say, a pen, to write handwritten letters. Usually these e-mail
messages are written back and forth between two or more people with some kind of
regularity. A pen pal in cyberspace. If you correspond with someone frequently or on
a regular basis it could be said that the two of you are "key pals".
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Keyword --- Kruegerapp
Keyword --- A word you might use to search for a Web site. For example,
searching the Web for the keyword "Dictionary" or "Terms" might help you find this
site.
Kill file --- A file that lets you filter USENET postings to some extent, by
excluding messages on certain topics or from certain people.
Kilobyte --- A thousand bytes. Actually, usually 1024 (2^10) bytes.
See Also: Byte , Bit
Kiosk --- In the Microsoft Network, a download-and-run document that
contains additional information about a forum. Kiosks are usually found in forums.
Kruegerapp --- A downloaded application which, instead of enhancing
performance, "kills" your system (in homage of Freddy Krueger, the character from
the "Nightmare on ELmstreet" movie series).
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HIGH DENSITY COMPUTING
L
L8R --------- Lynx
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
L8R ---Luminosity
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L8R --- Leased-line
L8R --- Later
- A shorthand appended to a comment
written in an online forum.
Lagging --- A
frozen time span.
Lamer --- A
user who behaves in a stupid or uneducated
manner, a description often applied to newbies.
LaNet --- A computer network setup by the state of Louisiana for state
institutions, fully connected to the Internet. This freenet is connected to the internet
via LaNet.
LAN --- (Local Area Network) -- A computer network limited to the immediate
area, usually the same building or floor of a building.
See Also: Ethernet
Laptop --- A computer small enough to sit on your lap. The laptop computer's
small size allows you to take it almost anywhere and access the Internet. Great if you
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travel a lot and don't want to go too long without your e-mail.
Latency --- In
networking, latency and bandwidth are
the two factors that determine the speed of your
connection. Latency is the time it takes for a data
packet to move across a network connection.
Leased-line --- Refers to a phone line that is rented for exclusive 24-hour,
7 -days-a-week use from your location to another location. The highest speed data
connections require a leased line.
See Also: 56k Line , T-1 , T-3
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Legacy --- Listserv
Legacy --- Refers to pre-Windows 95 software or hardware. Legacy cards
don't support Plug and Play, and legacy software is older software (although you may
have just purchased it!) typically designed for Windows 3.1 or Windows for
Workgroups 3.11.
Line by line --- When using terminal emulation (see terminal emulation),
some primitive terminals only allowed you to edit text on the single line on which you
were working. Once you pressed Enter to move to the next line, you couldn't go back
and change something on the previous line(s)--because those lines had already been
sent to the host computer that the PC emulates a terminal of. In line by line editing,
there is a line length limit as well, so you can't simply type an entire paragraph before
pressing Enter.
Link Pro Quo --- Receiving something in return for a mention on your
homepage
Linked object --- In OLE terminology, data stored in a document that
originated from another application. Unlike an embedded object, this type of object
has its own file on the disk. The source application is run for editing when you doubleclick it. For example, a Paint drawing linked to a Word document. Linking saves
space over embedding when a particular object must be included in more than one
other document, since the data does not have to be stored multiple times.
Additionally, you can directly edit a linked file, and all the documents that the link to
the file update automatically.
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Linux --- A freeware UNIX os for the pc (386 and above).
List box --- A dialog box item that shows all available options.
LiSTPROC --- A mail distribution program, v. similar to listserv.
Listserv --- The most common kind of maillist, Listservs originated on
BITNET but they are now common on the Internet.
See Also: BITNET , E-mail , Maillist
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License ---Local printer
License --- Refers to the agreement you are assumed to have acceded to
when you purchase Windows 95. As with much other computer software, you don't
own your copy of Windows 95, but instead, just license the use of it. As such, there is
a long list of legalese-type things you supposedly agree to when you open the
envelope containing your copy of Windows 95. These legal agreements are part of the
license.
Live --- When
used in reference to a World Wide Web file,
this term designates an object linked to another layer of
information or describes when a particular Web site will
be placed on the Internet such as "it's going live next
week."
Live3D --- Live3D
extends Navigator 3.0 into the 3D
realm. With this VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language)
viewer, you can experience a rich new world of 3D spaces
and interact with text, images, animation, sound, music,
and even video.
Link --- A link will transport you from one Internet site to another with just a
click of your mouse. Links can be text or graphic and are recognizable once you
know what to look for. Text links usually will be underlined and often a different
color than the rest of the text on your screen. A graphic link usually has a frame
around it. For example at the bottom of this page the mailbox is a link as well as the
text in the yellow boxes.
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Load --- Short for download and upload. If someone asks how long did the
page take to load? He/She is referring to the time it takes a page to appear on your
screen. If a web page is loading slow it means that it's taking a long time to fully
appear on your screen. You can often scroll through a page and look at the parts that
have loaded while the rest of the page continues to load. Also, you can usually click a
link on the page you are loading and link to another page without waiting for the
current page to fully load.
Local printer --- A printer connected directly to your computer.
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138
Local reboot --- Login
Local reboot --- The ability of Windows 95 to close down a single
misbehaving application. When you use the Alt+Ctrl+Delete key sequence, Windows
95 queries you for the application to shut down. In this way, you can close down only
the application you want, without affecting other running applications.
Location --- An Internet address. While you are in your browser (which you
are probably in now) you will see a section at the top of the page that is titled
"location". If you look right now you will see that the location of this web page is
http://www.geocities.com/FashionAvenue/4869/desc.html. If you type in the address
of someone's web page and hit enter, your browser will take you to that page.
However the address you type in the location bar must be an exact match. Modem
Log --- A
file that keeps track of network connections.
Local area network (LAN) --- A limited-distance, multipoint
physical connectivity medium consisting of network interface cards, media, and
repeating devices designed to transport frames of data between host computers at high
speeds with low error rates. A LAN is a subsystem that is part of network.
Logical block addressing (LBA) --- A type of addressing
scheme for IDE disk drives that allows the drive to exceed the original 512 megabyte
(1/2 gigabyte) IDE size limit. With logical block addressing, an IDE drive can hold
up to 8.4 gigabytes.
Logical drive --- A drive that isn't a physical drive, as in the floppy drive
A or B. Instead, a logical drive is a drive created on a subpartition of an extended
partition and given an arbitrary letter such as C, D, or E.
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Login --- Noun or a verb. Noun: The account name used to gain access to a
computer system. Not a secret (contrast with Password).Verb: The act of entering
into a computer system, e.g. Login to the WELL and then go to the GBN conference.
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LoL --- Luminosity
LoL --- An acronym for Laugh Out Loud. Look for it in your e-mail, or chat
rooms.
See Also: Password
Logoff --- To disconnect from a network or remote system.
Look@Me --- Look@Me gives you the ability to view another user's
screen anywhere in the world in real time. You can watch the screen activity taking
place by another Look@Me user from within your Internet browser or as a standalone
applet. Based on Farallon's award winning Timbuktu Pro software, Look@Me is a
FREE real-time Internet collaboration tool allowing you to do things like edit
documents, go over presentations, review graphics, or provide just-in-time training
and support. Download Look@Me to expand your use of the Internet beyond Web
browsing and e-mail.
Long file name --- A reference to Windows 95's ability to use file
names up to 256 characters long.
Lossy compression --- Compression techniques that lose some of the
data when compressing the file. Although lossy compression isn't acceptable for
compressing application file and certain types of data files (for example, database,
word processing), it is often acceptable to have a low degree of loss when
compressing video or graphic files, since you likely won't notice the missing data.
Also, lossy compression can gain considerably higher compression ratios than
"lossless" compression. However, when using lossy compression, you don't want to
decompress the file, then use the result to recompress, as the loss of data gets worse
with each cycle.
Logon --- The
process of connecting to a network or
remote system.
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Luminosity --- When working with colors, indicates the brightness of the
color.
Lurk --- Lynx
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140
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140
Lurk --- Lynx
Lurk --- Read
messages in a Usenet newsgroup without
ever saying anything.
LPT --- The parallel port (used for printing). Most computers have a single
parallel port (labeled LPT1), but some may have two. The parallel port transmits data
one byte (8-bits) at a time. This parallel transmission of all 8 bits gives the port its
name.
Lurker --- Someone who reads discussion groups but rarely posts is lurking.
Often discouraged in small BBS discussion groups and some very professional ones,
it is considered good (and wise) behavior in larger groups, especially usenet. If you
post a question or comment that people feel they've just beaten to death, you will get
flamed.
LViewPro --- A
shareware graphics viewer/editor
program for Microsoft Windows. Often used as a helper
application or program for Web browsers, the program can
read JPEG, TIFF, GIF, PCX, BMP, PBM, PGM, PPM, Targa
files. The reason LViewPro is so popular is because of
it's ability to create transparent GIFs.
Lycos --- Excellent Web search engine, at http://www.lycos.com/
Lynx --- A text-only WWW browser for dial-up accounts and slower (56k &
slower) SLIP and PPP accounts (so live graphics, video, and sound are not possible,
but some types may be down-loaded). In sites where text is mostly used, lynx is still
the fastest web-browser this author has seen.
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HIGH DENSITY COMPUTING
M
MacTCP --------- MUSE
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
Macro --- MediaCast
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Macro --- Mail bomb
Macro --- A sequence of keyboard strokes and mouse actions that can be
recorded so that their playback can be activated by a single keystroke, keystroke
combination, or mouse click. Unlike Windows 3.1 and Windows for Workgroups,
Windows 95 does not come with a Macro Recorder.
MacTCP --- TCP/IP
for the Macintosh; a necessary
driver for connecting Macs to the Internet.
MAE --- Metropolitan Area Exchange and/or
Ethernet --- A Network Access Point (NAP) where Internet Service
Providers (ISPs) can connect with each other. The original MAE was set up by a
company called MFS (a subsidiary of WorldComm) and is based in Washington, D.C.
Later, MFS built another one in Silicon Valley, dubbed MAE-West. In addition to the
MAEs from MFS, there are many other NAPs. Although MAE refers really only to
the NAPs from MFS, the two terms are often used interchangeably.
As it so happens to work out, the two meanings (both Exchange and Ethernet are
correct), there is however on going debate as to which is more appropriate.
MAE West actually consists of two networks: an ATM network that can switch a
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billion bits per second, and an FDDI ring that's limited to 100 Mbits per second.
Companies connect to these networks by Ethernet, FDDI, or ATM over OC3.
Today the MAEs are nowhere near being overwhelmed by Internet traffic. But don't
take my word for it. Every night, MFS posts a graph on its Web site that shows the
total amount of traffic the MAEs passed in the last five days. The day I visited, the
MAE West gigaswitch was zipping along at a perky 240 Mbits per second, and the
FDDI ring was packing 40 Mbits per second. That's nowhere near capacity.
MFS now has MAEs in Chicago, Dallas, Houston, and Los Angeles, with Paris,
Frankfurt, and New York coming up soon. Regional Internet exchanges are a good
idea, and sooner or later every city will probably have its own.
Mail bomb --- The
flooding of an e-mail address with
(usually angry) messages.
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Mail filter --- Map network drive
Mail filter --- A
program that allows a user to sort email messages according to information contained in the
header.
Mailbot --- An
e-mail server that automatically
responds to requests for information.
Mailer --- A mail program, used to read and post e-mail.
Mailing list --- A
discussion forum where participants
subscribe to a list and receive messages by e-mail.
Mailing List (Internet) --- An email discussion group focused on
one or more topics. The Mailing List is made up of members who subscribe that
mailing list.
Maillist --- (or Mailing List) A (usually automated) system that allows
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people to send e-mail to one address, whereupon their message is copied and sent to
all of the other subscribers to the maillist. In this way, people who have many
different kinds of e-mail access can participate in discussions together.
Majordomo --- The other major e-mail discussion computer program. See
listserv.
Map network drive --- The act of associating a network drive
makes the drive available in My Computer. Windows 95 uses the next available drive
letter, and you can access the network drive just like any other hard drive.
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143
Mapedit --- MBONE
Mapedit --- A
graphical editor for World Wide Web
clickable imagemaps. Until recently server-side imagemaps
required the author to install them separately on the
server. But with Mapedit 2.24 and the latest Web
browsers, you can use client-side imagemaps, which reside
in your HTML page and are very easy to create. Mapedit
will also create server-side maps for backwards
compatibility with old browsers. You can download an
evaluation copy right now. Evaluation copies are good for
30 days; you need to register before the evaluation
period expires. Registration costs $25 and can be done by
phone, fax or mail. Nonprofit organizations and
educational institutions (not private individuals) can
receive free registration by mail. Details are explained
in the software when you click on the REGISTER button.
MAPI --- Messaging
Application Programming Interface A system built into Microsoft Windows that enables
different e-mail applications to work together to
distribute mail. As long as both applications are MAPIenabled, they can share mail messages with each other.
MAPI has a history that might cause confusion due to the
fact that there are two very different kinds of MAPI.
First, there was MAPI in the days of Microsoft Mail (MS-
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Mail). That MAPI was a C-language API which allowed
programmable access to the features of Microsoft Mail.
Nowadays that MAPI is called "Simple MAPI". The "new
MAPI" is a COM/OLE-based set of interfaces of rather high
complexity, sometimes called "Extended MAPI" or XMAPI.
Extended MAPI actually includes Simple MAPI for
compatibility with older software. In addition, it
includes OLE Messaging, which is a set of OLE Automation
interfaces to messaging, for use in Visual Basic and the
like.
MBONE --- The Internet Multicast Backbone -- - MBone (the Multicast Backbone) is a "virtual network" used for audio and video
group conferencing. Many conferences and other events are broadcast over the
MBone. A few of these are weather satelitte images of the earth, US Senate and
House of Representative meetings and, "Radio Free Vat", and "internet talk radio" to
name a few. The MBone Sessions are controlled throught a program called sd which
lets you subscribe and unsubscribe to broadcasts.
The MBone has existed since 1992. It has grown out of an "effort to multicast audio
and video from meeting of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)".
The MBone is a part of the internet. It is a network of special machines mrouters that
support multicast. These machines "tunnel" to other mrouters. They take the multicast
transmission and encapsulate it in a normal IP packet. mrouters at the end of the
tunnels strips of the IP header and sends the packet as usual. Each tunnel has it's own
copy of all the packets going over the line, so tunnels should be limited to about 2 for
any given T1 link. SEE ALSO: MultiCast.
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Marionet --- Media control interface (MCI)
Marionet --- A
product from Allegiant Technologies,
Marionet is an Internet scripting tool for the rapid
development of customized interfaces that automate and
simplify Internet tasks. During its own development it
was codenamed "BlackHole."
With Marionet, those who are familiar with scripting
languages on the Macintosh can build custom client and
server interfaces. The interfaces can be created in any
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authoring environment that supports both interapplication communication and the standard external
command (XCMD) interface, especially Allegiant SuperCard
and Apple's HyperCard.
Marionet provides a high-level interface to the standard
Internet protocols, such as those for e-mail (SMTP/POP3),
file transfer (FTP), newsgroup (NNTP), HTTP/CGI, and
Gopher. The program is shipped as a system extension,
using Apple's Thread Manager for smooth background
operations.
Mattress Tag --- A disclaimer no one pays any attention to (like the "Do
Not Remove Under Penalty of Law" found on mattresses and other products); on the
internet, this would usually refer to the "Do Not Read if Under 21" or similar
warnings found in newsgroup postings, IRC channels, and Web sites.
Maximize button --- A button in the upper right corner of a Window
with a square in it. When clicked, it enlarges the window to its maximum size. When
the window is already at its maximum size, the maximize button switches to the
restore button, which returns the window to its previous size.
McAfee's VirusScan --- A
virus scanner is an
absolute necessity these days, and McAfee provides one of
the best. A solid, intuitive graphical interface
simplifies the scanning process. VirusScan even runs in
the background, allowing you to continue your work (or
play) while it does it's job. The ability to configure
scanning levels (specify file types), print activity
logs, and the fact that McAfee updates this software very
frequently, makes McAfee VirusScan a winner.
Media control interface (MCI) --- A standard interface for
all multimedia devices, devised by the MPC counsel, that allows multimedia
applications to control any number of MPC-compliant devices, from sound cards to
MIDI-based lighting controllers.
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Megabyte --- Meta tag
Megabyte --- A million bytes. A thousand kilobytes.
See Also: Byte , Bit , Kilobyte
Menu --- A list of available command options.
Menu bar --- Located under the title bar, the menu bar displays the names
of all available menu lists.
Menu command --- A word or phrase in a menu that, when selected,
enables you to view all the commands.
MediaCast ---MediaCast
uses the latest in broadcast
technology to deliver live and archival musical events
over the World Wide Web. Depending on your specific type
of connection to the Internet, you will want to make sure
your system is configured appropriately for a combination
of these technologies.
MediaCast is a collaboration between Media Synergy and
WildCast. Media Synergy brings their expertise in onlocation video, audio, and photographic capturing and
archiving. The Internet and multicast technology is
supplied by WildCast, whose principal members performed
the technology behind the majority of all music Internet
multicasts.
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Meta tag --- MMX
Pages 146 --- 150
Meta tag --- Meta tag
Page 146
Meta tag --- An
optional HTML tag that is used to
specify information about a Web document. Some search
engines such as AltaVista use "spiders" to index Web
pages. These spiders read the information contained
within a page's META tag. So in theory, an HTML or Web
page author has the ability to control how there site is
indexed by search engines and how and when it will "come
up" on a user's search.
The META tag can also be used to specify an HTTP or URL
address for the page to "jump" to after a certain amount
of time. This is known as Client-Pull. What this means,
is a Web page author can control the amount of time a Web
page is up on the screen as well as where the browser
will go next.
Here's a look at the syntax for search engine indexing:
<HTML>
<HEAD><TITLE></TITLE>
<META NAME="keywords" CONTENT="web stuff">
</HEAD>
</HTML>
Here's a look at the syntax for Client Pull:
<HTML>
<HEAD><TITLE></TITLE>
</HEAD>
</HTML>
This will "refresh" or change to the URL specified in 30
seconds.
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Metaverse --- Microsoft Network (MSN)
Metaverse --- From
the book "Snow Crash" by Neal
Stephenson, this term describes a virtual online
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representation of reality.
Micro-Channel Architecture (MCA) --- A proprietary
32-bit computer and bus architecture designed by IBM to improve bus bandwidth and
facilitate bus mastering. MCA is not backward compatible with ISA and requires
exclusive use of MCA devices.
Microprocessor --- A miniaturized processor. Previous processors
were built in integrated circuit boards with many large components. Most processors
today use high-tech, silicon-based technology that improves performance, reduces
heat generation, increases efficiency.
Microsoft Client for Netware Networks --Windows 95 Microsoft Client for NetWare Networks allows users to connect to new
or existing NetWare servers. It permits you to browse and queue print jobs using
either the Windows 95 network user interface or existing Novell NetWare utilities.
The Microsoft Client for NetWare interfaces equally well with both NetWare 3.x and
4.x servers.
Microsoft Exchange --- Microsoft Exchange provides a universal
Inbox that you can use to send and receive electronic mail (email). In addition, you
can use the Inbox to organize, access, and share all types of information, including
faxes and items from online services.
Microsoft Fax --- Microsoft Fax is a program included with Windows
95 that enables you to send and receive faxes directly within Windows 95.
Microsoft Network (MSN) --- Access to The Microsoft
Network, a new online service, is a feature of Windows 95. With The Microsoft
Network, you can exchange messages with people around the world; read the latest
news, sports, weather, and financial information; find answers to your technical
questions; download from thousands of useful programs; and connect to the Internet.
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MIDI --- Musical
MIDI --- .Mid
Instrument Digital Interface - This is
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a connectivity standard which enables you to hook
together computers, musical instruments, and synthesizers
to make and orchestrate digital sound. Pronounced
"middy," the term is used to describe the standard
itself, the hardware that supports the standard, and
files that store information that the hardware can use.
MIDI files are like digital sheet music--they contain
instructions for musical notes, tempo, and
instrumentation--and are widely used in game soundtracks
and recording studios.
MIDI sound files usually have an extension of .mid. If
you come across any of these files on the Internet you
will need a helper application configured to work on your
system in order to play one of these sound files. MIDI
files are just one of a few different file formats which
can be embedded on a Web page with the BG SOUND= HTML
tag, which causes the sound file to play when the Web
page is accessed. NOTE: This feature may not be supported
by all browsers.
.Mid --- Musical
Instrument Digital Interface - This is
a connectivity standard which enables you to hook
together computers, musical instruments, and synthesizers
to make and orchestrate digital sound. Pronounced
"middy," the term is used to describe the standard
itself, the hardware that supports the standard, and
files that store information that the hardware can use.
MIDI files are like digital sheet music--they contain
instructions for musical notes, tempo, and
instrumentation--and are widely used in game soundtracks
and recording studios.
MIDI sound files usually have an extension of .mid. If
you come across any of these files on the Internet you
will need a helper application configured to work on your
system in order to play one of these sound files. MIDI
files are just one of a few different file formats which
can be embedded on a Web page with the BG SOUND= HTML
tag, which causes the sound file to play when the Web
page is accessed. NOTE: This feature may not be supported
by all browsers.
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MIME --- Minimize button
MIME --- (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) -- The standard for
attaching non-text files to standard Internet mail messages. Non-text files include
graphics, spreadsheets, formatted word-processor documents, sound files, etc.
An email program is said to be MIME Compliant if it can both send and receive files
using the MIME standard.
When non-text files are sent using the MIME standard they are converted (encoded)
into text - although the resulting text is not really readable.
Generally speaking the MIME standard is a way of specifying both the type of file
being sent (e.g. a Quicktime• video file), and the method that should be used to turn it
back into its original form.
Besides email software, the MIME standard is also universally used by Web Servers
to identify the files they are sending to Web Clients, in this way new file formats can
be accommodated simply by updating the Browsers’ list of pairs of MIME-Types and
appropriate software for handling each type.
See Also: Browser , Client , Server , Binhex , UUENCODE
MiP Mapping --- This
is a sophisticated texturing
technique used for 3D animation in games and CAD walkthroughs. When scenery contains acutely angled polygons
that disappear into the distance, MIP mapping mixes lowand high resolution versions of the same texture to
reduce the jagged effect.
Minesweeper --- A game of chance and skill included with Windows 95.
When playing Minesweeper, you are presented with a mine field, and your objective
is to locate all the mines as quickly as possible.
Minimize button --- The button in the upper right corner of the
window that has an line in it. When clicked, it reduces the window to display the task
bar only.
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150
mIRC --- MMX
mIRC --- A windows program to access IRC via telent for those of use whose
providers don't have more direct access to IRC
channels.
Mirror --- Generally speaking, “to mirror” is to maintain an exact copy of
something. Probably the most common use of the term on the Internet refers to
“mirror sites” which are web sites, or FTP sites that maintain exact copies of material
originated at another location, usually in order to provide more widespread access to
the resource.
Another common use of the term “mirror” refers to an arrangement where
information is written to more than one hard disk simultaneously, so that if one disk
fails, the computer keeps on working without losing anything.
See Also: FTP , Web
MMX --- A
technology developed by the Intel Corporation
which is the next step after the famed Pentium
Proccessor. This new CPU chip will enable greater
handling of multimedia such as video and audio on the
desktop as well as over the Internet.
Software developers will be able to use MMX to deliver a
new generation of higher-performance multimedia and
communications applications, and further advance the PC
as the premier computing and entertainment platform. MMX
technology will be integrated into the Intel chip
architecture beginning with a Pentium processor codenamed P55C, which Intel expects to have in initial
production in the fourth quarter of this year, and will
be integrated into succeeding generations of Intel
processors.
In addition to traditional means of souping up its chips,
including boosting clock frequencies and using
microarchitecture techniques such as branch prediction,
superscalar execution and superpipelining, Intel added 57
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new instructions to its architecture to speed up certain
compute-intensive loops in multimedia and communications
applications. While the loops typically occupy 10 percent
or less of the overall application code, they can account
for up to 90 percent of the execution time. MMX
instructions process multiple data elements in parallel
using a technique called Single Instruction Multiple Data
(SIMD). In simulations and preliminary tests on
development systems, Intel said performance benefits have
ranged from 50 to 400 percent, depending on the
application. Example applications illustrated in Intel's
MMX technology overview include chroma keying; vector dot
product, used in signal processing of natural data such
as images, audio, video and sound; matrix multiply, used
in 3D games; 24-bit color; and image dissolve using alpha
channel blending.
Software tool providers and application developers that
have announced their intention to support MMX include
Microsoft, Macromedia, Adobe, Books That Work, Criterion
Software, Epic MegaGames, Intel Indeo Video Interactive,
Iterated Systems, Omniview, OnLive! Technologies,
ParaGraph International, Pegasus Imaging, Powersoft,
Qsound Labs, Vicarious and Virage. Hardware vendors
working with Intel include Analog Devices, ATI, Cirrus
Logic, Creative Labs, Crystal Semiconductor, ESS
Technologies, S3 and Yamaha.
Modem --- My Briefcase
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Modem --- Mosaic
Modem --- A device, usually attached to a computer through a serial port or
present as an internal card. A modem makes it possible to use ordinary phone lines to
transfer computer data. In addition to a modem, a communications program is
required. "Modem" is short for "modulator/demodulator"--the processes whereby a
digital stream of data is converted to sound for transmission through a phone system
originally designed only for sound (modulator) and the conversion of received sound
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signals back into digital data (demodulator).
Mission-critical application --- An application program
considered indispensable to the operation of a business, government, or other
operation. Often, these applications are transaction-based, such as for point-of-sale,
reservations, or real-time stock, security, or money trading.
Moderated mailing list --- A
mailing list
where messages are first sent to the list owner before
they are distributed to all the subscribers.
MoO --- (Mud, Object Oriented) -- One of several kinds of multi-user roleplaying environments, so far only text-based.
See Also: MUD , MUSE
.Mov --- Another type of scanned in video.
MorF --- Male or Female --- When someone asks you whether
you are male or female, you've been "Morfed".
Mosaic --- Mosaic is the common name of a World Wide Web multimedia
browser program developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications
(NCSA)in Urbana-Champaign, Ill. It was the first WWW browser that was available
for the Macintosh, Windows, and UNIX all with the same interface and started the
popularity of the Web. The official, copyrighted name of the program is NCSA
Mosiac. The source-code to Mosaic has been licensed by several companies and there
are several other pieces of software as good or better than Mosaic, most notably,
Netscape.
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Mozilla --- Motion Picture Experts Group
Mozilla --- The
original name for Netscape's browser,
now called Navigator. Some people claim that the term is
a contraction of Mosaic Godzilla (e.g., Mosaic killer),
since Mosaic was the number one Web browser at the time
Netscape began developing its product. The term Mozilla
is still used by many Web developers and appears in
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server log files that identify the browsers being used.
Artist Dave Titus created the Mozilla mascot, a green
dragon, which was used in Netscape's early years. It has
mostly been replaced by nautical imagery but it still
appears from time to time. There are a number of Mozilla
easter eggs in Navigator - for example, If you type in
about:mozilla instead of a URL. For a look at some
mozilla animations and graphics click on the more button
below.
Motion JPEG --- Developed by the Joint Photographic Experts Group,
motion JPEG is a compression /decompression scheme (Codec) for video files. It is a
variation on JPEG, this group's codec for compressing still pictures. It uses only
intraframe lossy compression (see intraframe compression, lossy compression), but
offers a tradeoff between compression ratio and quality.
Mounting a compressed drive --- When you are working
with removable storage media--such a diskettes--that are compressed, you must
mount the compressed drive if it wasn't present when the computer was started.
Mounting a drive links a drive letter with a compressed volume file (CVF). This
enables your computer to access the files on the compressed volume files. Mounting a
compressed drive is done using DriveSpace.
Mouse pointer --- The symbol that displays where your next mouse
click will occur. The mouse pointer symbol changes according to the context of the
window or the dialog box in which it appears.
Motion Picture Experts Group --- A
type of audio/video (multimedia) file found on the
Internet. In order to hear or see an MPEG movie, you will
need to install a helper application or Web browser
plugin. MPEG is an algorithm for compressing audio and
video; not to be confused with Motion-JPEG. Also see:
AVI, MOV and ASF.
SEE MBONE. A type of audio and video broadcasting over
the Internet which requires superior hardware (at least
128k modem speed) and special software such as Real Audio
and/or StreamWorks. There are various Internet Radio
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stations which have live multicasting feeds.
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MoV
--- Multimedia
MoV --- A
Macintosh platform based audio/video
(multimedia) file. A MOV file has a file extension of
.mov and is playable on a Windows operating system if you
have the QuickTime Movie Player application installed.
Also see: AVI, MPEG and
MPEG --- Created by the Motion Picture Experts Group, MPEG is a
specification for compressing and decompressing (see codec) animation or "movie"
files, which are typically very large. Although extremely efficient at reducing the size
of such a file, MPEG is also very processor-intensive.
MSconfig --- A
new program included in a window 98
that attempts to optimize the hard drive.
Multicast --- SEE
MBONE. A type of audio and video
broadcasting over the Internet which requires superior
hardware (at least 128k modem speed) and special software
such as Real Audio and/or StreamWorks. There are various
Internet Radio stations which have live multicasting
feeds.
MS-DOS-based application --- An application that normally
runs on a DOS machine and doesn't require Windows 95. Many MS-DOS-based
applications will run in Windows 95's DOS box, but some will not.
MR --- Modem Ready --- This
modem light tells you
that your modem is on and ready.
MSN --- The MicroSoft Network -- accessible by Windows 95 only, although
with their move over to a web-based service, that
will likely change.
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Multimedia --- A combination of various types of media, including (but
not necessarily limited to) sound, animation, and graphics. Due to the generally large
size of "multimedia" files, a CD-ROM is usually necessary to store files. Of course, a
sound card and speakers are also necessary.
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multitasking --- My Briefcase
multitasking --- The capability of an operating system to handle multiple
processing tasks, apparently, at the same time.
multithreading --- A process allowing a multitasking operating system
to, in essence, multitask subportions (threads) of an application smoothly.
Applications must be written to take advantage of multithreading. Windows 95
supports multithreading.
MUD --- (Multi-User Dungeon or Dimension) -- A (usually text-based) multiuser simulation environment. Some are purely for fun and flirting, others are used for
serious software development, or education purposes and all that lies in between. A
significant feature of most MUDs is that users can create things that stay after they
leave and which other users can interact with in their absence, thus allowing a world
to be built gradually and collectively.
See Also: MOO , MUSE
MUSE --- (Multi-User Simulated Environment) -- One kind of MUD - usually
with little or no violence.
See Also: MOO , MUD
My Computer --- An icon present on the Windows 95 desktop that
enables you to view drives, folders, and files.
My Briefcase --- An icon present on the Windows 95 desktop. My
Briefcase is the way that portable computer users can take data with them as they
travel. When they return to the office, Windows examines the files in My Briefcase
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and updates the contents of their desktop computer.
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HIGH DENSITY COMPUTING
NavEx --------- NT-1
N
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
NAK --- Network Interface card (NIC)
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NAK --- NCSA
NAK --- Negative Acknowledgement --- When a
modem receives a data packet, it sends back a signal to the sending modem: either an
NACK signaling all is well, or a NAK if some of the data is missing or corrupt. This
negative acknowledgement acts as a request to resend the data.
NavEx --- A
Windows 95 program that converts Netscape
Navigator bookmark files into Microsoft Internet Explorer
shortcuts. This program will also take a Windows folder
containing your favorite URLs and convert it into a
Netscape bookmark file which you can load into Navigator
by opening the "GO TO BOOKMARKS" window and choosing FILE
and then OPEN.
Navigate --- To
move around on the World Wide Web by
following hypertext paths from document to document on
different computers.
Navigator (Netscape) --- The
dominating World Wide
Web browser. The program also allows for Gopher, FTP, and
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Telnet access as well as e-mail and newsgroup retrieval
and management. Many companies use Netscape server
software to create Web pages and are therefore written to
be best displayed using Netscape Navigator. The program
is available for all platforms and is also the smoothest
and fastest when it comes to displaying graphics.
NCSA --- National Center for Supercomputing
Applications --- has evolved into a scientific research center built around
a national services facility. NCSA is developing and implementing a national strategy
to create, use, and transfer advanced computing and communication tools and
information technologies. These advances serve the center's diverse set of
constituencies in the areas of science, engineering, education, and business. The
NCSA is responsible for the development of the Mosaic World Wide Web browser.
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Neetwork --- Net Toob
Neetwork --- Any time you connect 2 or more computers together so that
they can share resources, you have a computer network. Connect 2 or more networks
together and you have an internet.
See Also: internet , Internet , Intranet
Newsgroup --- The name for discussion groups on USENET.
See Also: USENET
Newsreader --- A program that allows you to access, read, and post to
usenet newsgroups.
Nerd World --- An
Internet subject index with links
to Web, USENET, and FTP resources, Their media goal is to
provide products and services to make Internet using
easier.
Net Buddy --- NetBuddy
keeps a list of Internet Web
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locations which you want it to watch. Then it
automatically checks these sites at a frequency you
decide (once a minute, every two hours, etc.). If any of
the sites have changed (have new information), NetBuddy
lights up that site in its list to let you know
something's different there.
Net Nanny --- Net
Nanny is intended for parents,
guardians and teachers who wish to stop children from
accessing pornographic and other undesirable material,
while at the same time preventing the children's personal
information - names, addresses, telephone numbers, etc. from being circulated on the Internet.
Net Toob --- A
multimedia player for Windows that was
developed by Duplexx Software Inc of Salem, Massachusetts
. Net Toob provides a single, easy to use utility, which
plays back all the digital video standards, as well as
real-time audio and video via the Internet. Net Toob
enables playback of MPEG-1, Video for Windows (AVI),
Quicktime for Windows (MOV), and will soon offer an
upgrade to enable real-time MPEG-1 audio and video via
the'Net. This same utility offers video screen saver
capabilities, so users can enjoy their saved videos as
screen savers. For a more detailed look at Net Toob
features click on the more button below.
Page 157
Netscape Navigator --- NetBIOS
Netscape Navigator --- The
dominating World Wide Web
browser. The program also allows for Gopher, FTP, and
Telnet access as well as e-mail and newsgroup retrieval
and management. Many companies use Netscape server
software to create Web pages and are therefore written to
be best displayed using Netscape Navigator. The program
is available for all platforms and is also the smoothest
and fastest when it comes to displaying graphics.
Net.Analysis Desktop --- A
Web server usage analysis
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program for Windows NT/95. Used for analyzing and viewing
Web site usage information. Filling the reporting needs
of Internet or Intranet Web sites with low to moderate
traffic, net.Analysis Desktop offers features like
detailed browser and geographic reports and the ability
to build your own queries. A stand-alone solution, with a
built-in FoxPro(TM) relational database, net.Analysis
Desktop makes it easy to view long-term trends in site
usage by reporting across multiple log files. NOTE: This
program is for more advanced users and Webmasters who
have access to the access-logs for their Web site.
Net.god --- One
who has been online since the beginning,
someone who knows all and who has done all.
Net.personality --- Somebody
sufficiently opinionated
with plenty of time on his hands to regularly post in
dozens of different USENET newsgroups, and whose presence
is known to thousands of people.
Net.police --- Derogatory
term for those who would
impose their standards on other users of the Net.
NetBIOS --- An IBM protocol (and packet structure) that provides several
networking functions. NetBIOS was developed by IBM and Sytek to supplement and
work with BIOS in PC-DOS-based, peer-to-peer networks. NetBIOS protocol
provides transport, session, and presentation layer function equivalent to layers 4,5,
and 6 of the OSI model. The NetBIOS software that is used to implement this
protocol is the NetBIOS interface.
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Net --- Netscape
Net --- Short for Internet.
Netiquette --- The etiquette on the Internet.
See Also: Internet
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Netizen --- Derived from the term citizen, referring to a citizen of the
Internet, or someone who uses networked resources. The term connotes civic
responsibility and participation.
See Also: Internet
Netscape --- A WWW Browser and the name of a company. The Netscape
(tm) browser was originally based on the Mosaic program developed at the National
Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA).
Netscape has grown in features rapidly and is widely recognized as the best and most
popular web browser. Netscape corporation also produces web server software.
Netscape provided major improvements in speed and interface over other browsers,
and has also engendered debate by creating new elements for the HTML language
used by Web pages -- but the Netscape extensions to HTML are not universally
supported.
The main author of Netscape, Mark Andreessen, was hired away from the NCSA by
Jim Clark, and they founded a company called Mosaic Communications and soon
changed the name to Netscape Communications Corporation.
See Also: Browser , Mosaic , Server , WWW
Page 159
Netscape color palette --- Network Interface
card (NIC)
Netscape color palette --- Refers
to the array of
colors (approx 253) that are supported or can be
correctly interpreted by the Netscape Navigator browser.
These colors are supposed to be the standard colors that
users with the "lowest common denominator" computer
equipment will correctly see. Whether you have a 16
million color video card or a 256 video card in your
computer, these colors are supposed to render the same
way on both. These colors are also supported by Microsoft
Internet Explorer, although some of them may deviate
slightly.
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The colors are set by a Web page author using the RGB
(RedGreenBlue) hexidecimal value of the color. An example
of the HTML syntax for setting color for a Web page looks
something like this:
<body bgcolor="FFFFFF" text="000000" link="FF0000"
vlink="00FF00" alink="FFFFFF">
The above syntax when placed in an HTML document would
render the page with a white background, black text, red
links, green visited links, and an active link color of
white.
For a closer look at the names of these colors, click on
the more button below.
NetWare --- A trademarked brand name for the networking operating
systems and other networking products developed and sold by Novell.
Netware Core Protocol (NCP) --- A NetWare protocol that
provides transport, session, and presentation layer functions equivalent to layers 4,5,
and 6 of the OSI model.
Netwatcher --- A tool included with the Windows 95. Net Watcher allows
you to monitor and manage network connections, as well as create, add, and delete
shared resources.
Network --- A group of computers connected by a communications link that
enables any device to interact with any other on the network. The "network" is
derived from the term "network architecture" to describe an entire system of hosts,
workstations, terminals, and other devices.
Network Interface card (NIC) --- Also called a network
adapter, an NIC is an interface card placed in the bus of a computer (or other LAN
device) to interface to a LAN. Each NIC represents a node, which is a source and
destination for LAN frames, which in turn carry data between the NICs on the LAN.
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Network Neighborhood --- Null modem cable
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Pages 160 -- 162
Network Neighborhood --- NOC
Network Neighborhood --- An icon which Windows 95 displays
only if you are connected to a network and Windows has been installed for a network.
Double-clicking the Network Neighborhood icon displays all the resources available
on any network to which you are connected.
Newbie --- You!
Newsfeed --- Somebody
new to the Internet or to
computers in general.
NFS --- Network File System --- NFS is a protocol suite
developed and licensed by Sun Microsystems that allows different makes of
computers running different operating systems to share files and disk storage.
NIC --- (Networked Information Center) -- Generally, any office that handles
information for a network. The most famous of these on the Internet is the InterNIC,
which is where new domain names are registered.
Another definition: NIC also refers to Network Interface Card which plugs into a
computer and
adapts the network interface to the appropriate standard. ISA, PCI, and PCMCIA
cards are all examples of NICs.
NNTP --- (Network News Transport Protocol) -- The protocol used by client
and server software to carry USENET postings back and forth over a TCP/IP network.
If you are using any of the more common software such as Netscape, Nuntius,
Internet Explorer, etc. to participate in newsgroups then you are benefiting from an
NNTP connection.
See Also: Newsgroup , TCP/IP , USENET
NOC --- Network Operations Center --- NOC is the
organization responsible for the day-to-day operations of the Internet's component
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networks.
Page 161
NSAPI --- NSA line eater
NSAPI --- Netscape Server Application
Programming Interface --- Netscape's API was designed as a
more robust and efficient replacement for CGI.
NOde --- Any single computer connected to a network.
See Also: Network , Internet , internet
NOmepage --- A homepage with little or no content -- perhaps an image
of the person's pet and a few links to their favorite tv show,but nothing original and
not much of anything else.
NOn-volatile RAM --- RAM memory on a card that is not erased
when power is cut off. Cards that don't use jumpers often store their resource
requirements (IRQ, I/O Base address, I/O port, DMA channel, etc.) in non-volatile
RAM. Non-volatile RAM is not normally used on a card that is compliant with Plug
and Play, but was common on "legacy" (pre Plug and Play) cards.
NOn-Windows program --- A program not designed to be used
specifically in Windows. Most non-Windows applications or programs are characterbased in nature (for example, DOS programs).
NOtepad --- A program that comes with Windows 95 and enables you to
view and edit text files.
NREN --- National Research and Education
Network --- NREN is an effort to combine the networks operated by the
U.S. government into a single high-speed network.
NSA line eater --- The
more aware/paranoid Net users
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believe that the National Security Agency has a superpowerful computer assigned to reading everything posted
on the Net. They will jokingly refer to this line eater
in their postings.
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NSF --- Null modem cable
NSF --- National Science Foundation --- An
Independent agency of the Federal government that was established in 1950 by an Act
of Congress. The agency's mission is to promote the progress of science and
engineering.
NT-1 --- Network Terminator 1 --- An NT-1 is an
interface box that converts ISDN data into something a PC can understand (and vice
versa). It works a little like a cable TV descrambler for ISDN signals, and is often
built in to ISDN adapters.
Null modem cable --- A serial cable link between computers.
Standard modem software is often used to transmit information, but because there are
no actual modems in the connection, very high transfer rates with good accuracy are
possible. The cable must be different from a regular serial cable, however, because
several of the wires in the cable must be cross connected to simulate the modem's role
in acknowledging a transmission.
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HIGH DENSITY COMPUTING
O
OEM --------- OSP
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
Object --- OSP
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Object --- OLE
Object --- Any item that is or can be linked into another Windows application,
such as a sound, graphics, piece of text, or portion of a spreadsheet. Must be from an
application that supports Object Linking and Embedding (OLE).
Object linking and embedding --- see OLE
OEM --- original equipment manufacturer --- A
misleading term for a company that has a special relationship with computer
producers. OEMs buy computers in bulk and customize them for a particular
application. They then sell the customized computer under their own name. The term
is really a misnomer because OEMs are not the original manufacturers -- they are the
customizers.
OEM Fonts --- OEM fonts are provided to support older installed
products. The term OEM refers to Original Equipment Manufacturers. This font
family includes a character set designed to be compatible with older equipment and
software applications
Offline --- A device that is not ready to accept input. For example, if your
printer is off-line, it will not accept data from the computer, and attempting to print
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will generate an error.
OH --- Off
---
Hook
OH is a modem indicator light that
tells you the phone line is open and ready for
communications.
OLE --- A data sharing scheme that allows dissimilar applications to create
single, complex documents by cooperating in the creation of the document. The
documents consists of material that a single application couldn't have created on its
own. In OLE, version 1, double-clicking an embedded or linked object (see embedded
object, and linked object) launches the application that created the object in a separate
window. In OLE version 2, double-clicking an embedded or linked object makes the
menus and tools of the creating application available in the middle of the parent
document. The destination document (contains the linked or embedded object) must
be created by an application which is an OLE client, and the linked or embedded
object must be created in an application that is an OLE server.
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OLGA --- Online 2
OLE automation --- Refers to the capability of a server application to
make available (this is known as expose) its own objects for use in another
application's macro language.
OLGA --- The online Guitar Archive --- Orinally an
FTP site and later a Web site it is a collection of guitar tablature for thousands of
songs. It also contains lessons, chord charts, software, information on building
guitars, and many links to other guitar-related Web sites.
Unfortunatley, this Internet site, as well as it's many mirrors have been shutdown
because of copyright infringement. The library of files on OLGA have been sent in by
internet users since 1992. It developed out of the usenet newsgroups alt.guitar.tab and
rec.music.makers.guitar.tablature. OLGA is provided free of charge and is run by
volunteers. It is made available worldwide thanks to the generosity of these
theivarious mirrors.
Most of the files in the archive will be found in the directories a-z and 1-9; they are
organized according to the first letter/number of the band's name or artist's last name,
but OLGA also contains a number specialised directories, dedicated to classical
music, acoustic guitar, praise songs, country music and ChordPro formatted songs
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(the classical, acoustic, praise_songs, cowpie and chordpro directories, respectively.)
Online --- Having access to the Internet. You are online right now. Often
people will say they are online meaning they have access to the Internet and have an email address, but may not necessarily be connected to the Internet at that moment.
Online 2 --- Indicates that a system is working and connected. For example,
if your printer is online, it is ready to accept information to turn into a printed output.
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On-line Service --- Open or open up
On-line Service --- Large companies that provide e-mail, discussion
forums (or sigs), conferencing, and files. Some services: Delphi (5th largest), the first
with full indirect internet access; others (BIX (for professional computer users), "The
WELL" a new age and writers service from California -- now supposed to be
expanding into regional wells, and America On-Line AOL, #1 in size) have moved to
that position as well. GEnie (#6) has internet e-mail; Prodigy (#3) and CI$(#2) have
internet e-mail, but charge per message (or did the last time I used them), and, the last
I used them, had rather cumbersome
access to news groups, but alternate access to the Web (ie as somewhat separate
programs from the normal service), while delphi's merger with MCI has fallen apart,
and NewsCorp has sold off delphi and BIX to some of the original develpers. Prodigy
and CI$, like MSN, are moving towards web-based services. Delphi has also created
web-access to the service. It remains to be seen if web-based services will be as
popular as the traditional models. There are other, smaller specialized services, too.
Most, if not all, charge for having an account, and charge for use by the minute.
(pricing changes often, so check with any service before signing up!) Microsoft has
also developed a full-service on-line service, MSN (#4), which users of Windows 95
have access to. Compuserv tried to develop
WOW!, a scaled-down (and easier to use) version of its main service, but that is
pretty much all gone now.
So, despite claims that the web will soon kill off on-line services, right now they're
still around and adding new users, and, if the web-based versions work out, they may
even come to dominate the web! delphi has already moved many of the delphioperated forums to the web (with advertising to pay for it) as well as traditional dialup access.
Open Data Link Interface (ODI) --- A Novell
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specification that separates the implementation of a protocol and the implementation
of the NIC hardware driver. Novell's MLID specification enables NIC drivers to
interface through Link Support Layer with IPX ODI and multiple ODI-onforming
packet drivers.
Open or open up --- Depending
on how it is used, can
mean any one of the following:
●
●
●
To read the contents of a certain file
To start or launch a computer application or
software program
To maximize or restore a "window" of an already
running computer program.
Most commonly used however is the read meaning which may
appear in a sentence something like this: "Take this file
and open it with Microsoft Word. This means that MSWord
is the application you should use to read this file or
see what is in it or what it looks like.
Computer systems are set or have an area where a user can
set the default application to "open up" a particular
file.
Page 166
Option button --- OSP
Option button --- A dialog box item that enables you to choose only
one of a group of choices.
Orientation --- For printer paper, indicates whether the document is to be
printed normally (for example, in "portrait" mode) or sideways (in "landscape"
mode).
OS --- OS=Operating System, ie the software that runs your computer (like
UNIX, DOS, etc.)
OS2/warp --- IBM's multi-tasking os. OS2 & UNIX users are very devoted
to the their operating systems -- and are very resentful that windows is more used.
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OSI Model --- Opens Systems Interconnect 7-layer Model is a model
developed by International Standards Organization to establish a standardized set of
protocols for interoperability between networked computer hosts. Each layer of the
model consists of specifications and/or protocols that fulfill specific functions in a
networking architecture. Novell's UNA was patterned against the OSI model. The
OSI model consists of specific protocols that are nonproprietary and offered in the
hope of unifying networking protocols used in competing vendor's systems.
OSP --- Online Service Provider --- A company that
provides customer only content to subscribers of their service. Most OSPs now offer
Internet access, but their main feature is the privately maintained network that is only
accessible to their customers. This network is not part of the Internet, although some
OSPs are currently making some content available on the Web. Because OSPs control
the structure and content of their networks, they are more logical and user-friendly
environments especially for beginners. The most popular OSPs are: AOL
(AmericaOnline), CompuServe, MSN, and Prodigy.
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HIGH DENSITY COMPUTING
P
Packet --------- Push
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
Packet --- .Planfile
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167
Pages 167 --171
Packet --- Paint Shop Pro
Packet --- A limited-length unit of data formed by the network, transport,
presentation, or application layer (layers 3-7 of the OSI Model) in a networked
computer system. Data is transported over the network, and larger amounts of data are
broken into shorter units and placed into packets. Higher-layer packets are
encapsulated into lower-layer packets for encapsulation into LAN frames for delivery
to the ultimate host destination.
Packet Switching --- The method used to move data around on the
Internet. In packet switching, all the data coming out of a machine is broken up into
chunks, each chunk has the address of where it came from and where it is going. This
enables chunks of data from many different sources to co-mingle on the same lines,
and be sorted and directed to different routes by special machines along the way. This
way many people can use the same lines at the same time.
Page Impressions --- Hit to HTML pages only (access to non-HTML
documents are not counted).
Page requests --- The
number of times a Web page is
requested from a server. This is the preferred counting
term for traffic estimates and measurement instead of
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hits.
Page views --- The
number of times a Web page is
requested from a server. This is the preferred counting
term for traffic estimates and measurement instead of
hits.
Paint --- A program that comes with Windows 95 that enables you to view and
edit various formats of bit maps.
Paint Shop Pro --- One
of the easiest, fastest and
most powerful image viewing, editing and converting
programs you may ever use on the Windows platform. It
supports over 30 image formats, and contains several
drawing and painting tools, plus effects and the ability
to use Adobe Photoshop plugins. This is an excellent
choice for converting and preparing GIF's and JPEG's for
use on the World Wide Web.
Page 168
Palette --- Partial backup
Palette --- A collection of tools. For example, in Paint, there is a color palette
that displays the 48 colors available for use in creating a graphic.
Pane --- Some windows, such as the window for Explorer, show two or more
distinct "areas" (Explorer's window shows two such areas). These areas are referred to
as "panes".
Panose --- Panose refers to a Windows internal description that represents a
font by assigning each font a PANOSE ID number. Windows uses several internal
descriptions to categorize fonts. The PANOSE information registers a font class and
determines similarity between fonts
Paragraph formatting --- In a word processing program, this
refers to formatting that can be applied to an entire paragraph, including alignment
(left, center, right), indentation, and spacing before and after the paragraph.
Parallel port --- A port (usually used for printing) that transmits data 8
bits at a time. This parallel transmission of 8 bits at a time gives the port its name.
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Parity --- An additional portion of data added to each byte of stored or
transmitted data. Used to ensure that the data isn't lost or corrupted. In Hyperterminal,
parity is used to ensure that the data is transmitted and received properly. Parity is
also used in RAM chips to determine if RAM errors have occurred.
Partial backup --- See incremental backup
Page
169
Partition --- PC Cards
Partition --- A portion of a physical hard drive that behaves as a separate
disk (logical drive), even though it isn't.
Password --- A code used to gain access to a locked system. Good
passwords contain letters and non-letters and are not simple combinations such as
virtue7. A good password might be:
Hot$1-6
See Also: Login
Path --- The location of a file in the directory tree.
Patience --- What you need while surfing the web. Some web pages seem to
take forever to fully appear on your screen.
PC Card --- A
computer device packaged in a small card
about the size of a credit card and conforming to the
PCMCIA standard. PC Cards provide additional memory (ROM
or RAM), modem and fax modem capabilties, and can even
acts as portable disk drives on portable (laptop)
computers.
PC Cards --- Formerly called PCMCIA cards, these are small (usually only
slightly larger than a credit card) cards that plug into special slots provided in
notebook computers. PC Cards can provide functionality for additional memory,
modems, sound, networking, hard drives, and so on. PC Cards normally identify
themselves to the computer, making configuring them quite simple.
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170
PCMCIA --- PGP
PCMCIA --- Personal Computer Memory
Card International Association --- was formed by several
modem card manufacturers in the late 1980s to define the card's physical design,
computer socket design, electrical interface, and associated software. PCMCIA used
some of the Japanese Electronic Industry Development Association's (JEIDA)
principles in developing their standard. Both organizations continue to support
international standards for PC Cards as they are now called. In fact, the newest
release of the standard incorporates both PCMCIA and JEIDA developments which
further enhances compatibility between products. PC Cards are now used in many
varied applications including several types of RAM memory, pre-programmed ROM
cards, modems, sound cards, floppy disk controllers, hard drives, CD ROM and SCSI
controllers, Global Positioning System (GPS) cards, data acquisition, LAN cards,
pagers, etc. PCMCIA also provides the abilty for hot plugging.
Peer-to-peer --- A type of networking in which no workstation has more
control over the network than any other. Each station may share its resources, but no
station is the sole resource sharer or file server. Typically less expensive than
client/server networks, peer-to-peer networks are also more difficult to administer and
less secure because there is no central repository of data.
Persistence --- What you often need to learn anything, including becoming
proficient on the Internet.
Personal Information Store --- The Personal Information
Store is Exchange's term for the file that contains the structure of folders that make up
your In box, Out box, sent files, deleted files, and any other personal folders you may
choose to create.
Pentium --- The name for by Intel's 586 which could not be used because of
copyright problems.
PGP --- Pretty
---
Good Privacy
A freeware program
developed by Philip Zimmermann that allows a user to send
e-mail messages to anyone in the world, in complete
privacy. In addition you can send authentication with
your messages so that the recipient can verify that the
message really came from you. You can encrypt sensitive
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files on your computer so that the files remain private
even if your computer and disks are stolen. For a more in
depth look at how PGP works click on the more button
below.
"Pretty Good Privacy" -- a program which encodes e-mail, and which really bugs
many governments.
Page 171
Ph --- .Planfile
Ph --- The
Ph system allows you to look up directory
information, usually including e-mail addresses at
universities, research institutions, and some
governmental agencies throughout the world. You need a
program that lets you use Ph. Tell that program which Ph
server to use, and then enter a name you would like to
search for.
Phone Dialer --- Phone Dialer is a program that is included with
Windows 95 that enables you to place telephone calls from your computer by using a
modem or another Windows telephony device. You can store a list of phone numbers
you use frequently, and dial the number quickly from your computer.
Picon --- Picons are small bitmapped images of the first frame of your video
clip. They can be used to represent the in and out source of your video segments.
PiF --- A file that provides Windows 95 with the information it needs to know in
order to run a non-Windows program. Unlike earlier versions of Windows, there is no
PIF editor in Windows 95. Instead, you set up a PIF file from the properties for the
file. Access the file properties by right-clicking the file from My Computer.
Ping --- Packet
---
INnternet Groper
An Internet program
used to determine whether a specific IP address is
accessible. It works by sending a packet to the specified
address and waiting for a reply. PING is used primarily
to troubleshoot Internet connections. In addition, PING
reports how many hops are required to connect two
Internet hosts. There are many freeware and shareware
PING utilities available for personal computers.
PkZIP - PkUNZIP --- A
shareware utility for
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compressing and decompressing files developed by PKWARE
in 1986. Their are versions for both Microsoft Windows as
well as MS-DOS based systems. SEE ALSO WinZIP.
.Planfile --- A
file that lists anything you want others
on the Net to know about you. You place it in your home
directory on your public-access site.
Platform --- PoTS
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172
Pages 172 --176
Platform --- Plug and Play
Platform --- The operating system (i.e. Windows 95, Windows NT, etc.)
used by a visitor to your Web site.
Play List --- In CD Player, a list of tracks from an audio CD that you want
to play.
Plug and Play --- An industry-wide specification supported by
Windows 95 that makes it easy to install new hardware. Plug and Play enables the
computer to correctly identify hardware components (including plug-in cards) and
ensures that different cards don't conflict in their requirements for IRQs, I/O
addresses, DMA channels, and memory addresses. In order to fully implement Plug
and Play, you need an operating system that supports it (as stated, Windows 95 does),
a BIOS that supports it (most computers manufactured since early 1995 do) and cards
that identify themselves to the system (information from these cards stored in the
Windows Registry). If you have hardware, such as modems that aren't Plug and Play (
so called "legacy hardware"), then Windows 95 will prompt you for the information
necessary for setup, and store such information in the Registry. (And, if you believe
that, would you like to buy a bridge?)
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Plugging Away --- Pointer
Plugging Away --- Repeatedly trying to get a plug-in to work, no
matter how many times it crashes your system.
Plug-in --- A (usually small) piece of software that adds features to a larger
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piece of software. Common examples are plug-ins for the Netscape® browser and
web server. Adobe Photoshop® also uses plug-ins.
The idea behind plug-in’s is that a small piece of software is loaded into memory by
the larger program, adding a new feature, and that users need only install the few plugins that they need, out of a much larger pool of possibilities. Plug-ins are usually
created by people other than the publishers of the software the plug-in works with.
Point Listing --- A
database of popular Web sites that
will direct you to areas of interest. Some Web sites
display the "top 5%" seal indicating the site was
selected for it's excellence in content, presentation,
and experience .
PointCast --- An
Internet news network that appears on
your computer screen. PointCast can provide you with news
and information which you can customize to your own
specific needs. PointCast broadcasts national and
international news, stock information, industry updates,
weather from around the globe, sports scores and more
from sources like CNN, CNNfn, Time, People and Money
Magazines, Reuters, PR Newswire, BusinessWire,
Sportsticker and Accuweather. Local newspapers such as LA
Times, New York Times, Boston Globe, and San Jose Mercury
News can be found there also. The PointCast Network is
completely free, you just have to setup the software on
your computer. The software is available for both MAC and
Windows platforms.
Pointer --- The on-screen symbol controlled by the mouse. As you move the
mouse on the desk, the pointer moves on-screen. The pointer changes shape to
indicate the current status and the type of functions and selections available.
Page
174
Polygon --- Port
Polygon --- A multisided shape, in which each side is a straight line.
PoP --- (Point of Presence, also Post Office Protocol) -- Two commonly used
meanings: Point of Presence and Post Office Protocol. A Point of Presence usually
means a city or location where a network can be connected to, often with dial up
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phone lines. So if an Internet company says they will soon have a POP in Belgrade, it
means that they will soon have a local phone number in Belgrade and/or a place
where leased lines can connect to their network. A second meaning, Post Office
Protocol refers to the way e-mail software such as Eudora gets mail from a mail
server. When you obtain a SLIP, PPP, or shell account you almost always get a POP
account with it, and it is this POP account that you tell your e-mail software to use to
get your mail.
See Also: SLIP , PPP
PoP1 --- Post Office Protocol
- The protocol used by mail clients to retrieve
messages from a mail server. Comes in three flavors POP1, POP2, and POP3 the
number denoting the different version number of the protocol. SEE ALSO: IMAP.
Port --- 3 meanings. First and most generally, a place where information goes
into or out of a computer, or both. E.g. the serial port on a personal computer is where
a modem would be connected.
On the Internet port often refers to a number that is part of a URL, appearing after a
colon (:) right after the domain name. Every service on an Internet server listens on a
particular port number on that server. Most services have standard port numbers, e.g.
Web servers normally listen on port 80. Services can also listen on non-standard
ports, in which case the port number must be specified in a URL when accessing the
server, so you might see a URL of the form:
gopher://peg.cwis.uci.edu:7000/
shows a gopher server running on a non-standard port (the standard gopher port is
70). Finally, port also refers to translating a piece of software to bring it from one
type of computer system to another, e.g. to translate a Windows program so that is
will run on a Macintosh.
See Also: Domain Name , Server , URL
Page 175
Port replicator --- Posting
Port replicator --- On portable computers, a bus connection that makes
all bus lines available externally. The port replicator can be used to plug in devices
which, in a desktop computer, would be handled as cards. Port replicators are also the
connection used to connect a portable computer to its docking station.
Post --- Subscribers
to newsgroups and mailing lists take
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part in discussions by sending, or posting their articles
or comments online. Means the same as "to put up".
The first and most generally used meaning is a place
where information goes into or out of a computer, or
both. E.g. the "serial port" on a person computer is
where a modem would be connected. Secondly, on the
Internet, port often refers to a number that is part of a
URL, appearing after a colon (:) right after the domain
name. Every service on an Internet server "listens" on a
particular port number on that server. Most services have
standard port numbers, e.g. Web servers normally listen
on port 80. Services can also listen on non-standard
ports, in which case the port number must be specified in
a URL when accessing the server, so you might see a URL
of the form:
gopher://peg.cwis.uci.edu:7000/
which shows a gopher server running on a non-standard
port (the standard gopher port is 70). Finally, "port"
also refers to translating a piece of software to bring
it from one type of computer system to another, e.g. to
translate a Windows program so that is will run on a
Macintosh.
Posting --- A single message entered into a network communications system.
E.g. A single message posted to a newsgroup or message board.
See Also: Newsgroup
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176
Postmaster --- PoTS
Postmaster --- The
person to contact at a particular
site to ask for information about the site or complain
about one of his/her user's behavior.
Postoffice --- This machine that will be the place in which all mail
messages are stored for the workgroup.
Postproduction editing --- The steps of adding special effects,
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PostScript ---
animated overlays,and more to a "production" video.
PostScript is a programming language designed to be used
to describe printing on pages. Apple helped make
PostScript popular by selling printers with built in
PostScript interpreters. Many programs have evolved to
produce PostScript programs as their output, making
PostScript the lingua franca of printing.
Until recently, in order to print a PostScript file, you
had to have a relatively expensive laser printer. The
development that changed this was the software PostScript
interpreter. These programs allow your computer to
interpret PostScript programs, and produce the matrix of
dots to send to your normal graphics printer.
One of the benefits of PostScript is that it is
resolution independent. What this means is that it can
support the highest resolution of your device -- and that
you can reasonably preview PostScript on a low resolution
screen.
PoTS --- plain old telephone system --- or public
switched telephone network --- the collection of interconnected
systems operated by the various telephone companies and
administrations(PTTs) around the world. The PSTN or POTS
started as human-operated analogue circuit switching
systems (plugboards), progressed through
electromechanical switches and are now (1994) almost
completely digital except for the final connection to the
subscriber. Other things that make the PSTN less than bittransparent include A-law to mu-law conversion or vice
versa on international calls; robbed-bit signalling in
North America (56kbps <--> 64 kbps); data compression to
save bandwidth on long-haul trunks; signal processing
such as echo suppression and voice signal enhancement
such as AT&T TrueVoice. All this is in contrast to an
integrated services digital network or ISDN.
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Powerstripping --- Push
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Pages 177 --180
Powerstripping --- Pre-emptive processing
Powerstripping --- Downloading all the netscape plug-ins just to brag
that you have them -- because the odds are many of them, beta test versions at best,
either won't work or will crash you system.
PPP --- (Point to Point Protocol) -- Most well known as a protocol that allows a
computer to use a regular telephone line and a modem to make TCP/IP connections
and thus be really and truly on the Internet.
See Also: IP Number , Internet , SLIP , TCP/IP
Pre-emptive processing --- In a multitasking operating system,
multiple tasks (threads) are generally controlled by a scheduler that preempts or
interrupts each process, granting processor time in the form of a time slice. This
enables multiple tasks to apparently run at the same time. However, each task runs for
a time slice and is then preempted by the next process, which in turn is preempted-rotating processor time among active threads. In preemptive multitasking, the
operating system is empowered to override (or pre-empt) an application that is using
too much CPU time, as opposed to cooperative multitasking, where the application is
responsible for relinquishing the CPU on a regular basis.
Page 178
Primary partition --- Prompt
Primary partition --- A portion of the hard disk that can be used by
the operating system and that can't be subpartitioned like an extended partition can.
Only primary partitions are bootable.
Printer driver --- A Windows 95 program that tells programs how to
format data for a particular type of printer.
Printer fonts --- Fonts stored in the printer's ROM.
Printer settings --- A window that displays all the printers for which
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there are drivers present. You can select the default printer from the installed printers,
as well as configure each printer using the shortcut menu and the options dialog box.
Printer window --- For each installed printer, you can view the printer
window. The printer window displays the status of each print job in the queue, and
enables you to pause, restart, and delete the print job.
Processor --- The controlling device in a computer that interprets and
executes instructions and performs computations, and otherwise controls the major
functions of the computer. Intel 80x86-series processors are miniaturized single-chip
"microprocessors" containing thousands to millions of transistors in a silicon-based,
multilayered integrated circuit design.
Prodigy --- An on-line service, especially good for children and teens. Both
AOL & Prodigy (*P) maintain fairly strict censorship in most public areas, to
maintain their "family" image.
Program file --- A program that runs an application directly (not via an
association) when you click it.
Program window --- A window that contains a program and its
documents.
Prompt --- The
flashing symbol where you type or place
your mouse on the screen. This is when the host system
asks you to do something and waits for you to respond.
For example, if you see "login:" it means type your user
name.
Page 179
Property sheet --- Protocols
Property sheet --- A dialog box that displays (and sometimes enables
you to change) the properties of an object in Windows 95. To access a property sheet,
right click the object to view the shortcut menu, and select Properties from the
shortcut menu. Property sheets vary considerably between different objects.
Proportional-spaced fonts --- Proportional-spaced fonts adjust
the inter-character space based on the shape of the individual characters. An example
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of a proportional-spaced font is Arial. The width of a character is varied based on its
shape. Adjusting inter-character spacing is really a function of kerning, which is a
similar but not exactly the same. For instance, the letter 'A' and the letter 'V' are
typically stored in each font as a kerning pair where they will be spaced differently
when appearing next to each other. Where in a mono-space font vs. a proportionalfont you will see a difference in the width of the letter 'i'.
Protected mode --- A memory addressing mode of Intel processors that
allows direct "flat memory" addressing (linear addressing) rather than using the
awkward "segmented" scheme required by real mode, which was pioneered on the
Intel 8088 and 8086 processors. Protected mode derives its name from the fact that
sections of memory owned by a particular process can be protected from rogue
programs trying to access those addresses.
Protocol --- Rules of communication. In networks, several layers of
protocols exist. Each layer of protocol only needs to physically hand-off or receive
data from the immediate layer above and beneath it, whereas virtual communications
occur with the corresponding layer on another host computer.
Protocols --- Computer rules that provide uniform specifications so that
computer hardware and operating systems can communicate. It's similar to the way
that mail, in countries around the world, is addressed in the same basic format so that
postal workers know where to find the recipient's address, the sender's return address
and the postage stamp. Regardless of the underlying language, the basic "protocols"
remain the same.
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Provider --- Push
Provider --- The entity you have your internet connection with. More
commonly "ISP" for "Internet Service Provider."
Proxy --- or proxy server --- A technique used to cache
information on a Web server and acts as an intermediary between a Web client and
that Web server. It basically holds the most commonly and recently used content from
the World Wide Web for users in order to provide quicker access and to increase
server security. This is common for an ISP especially if they have a slow link to the
Internet.
Proxy servers are also constructs that allow direct Internet access from behind a
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firewall. They open a socket on the server, and allow communication via that socket
to the Internet. For example, if your computer is inside a protected network, and you
want to browse the Web using Netscape, you would set up a proxy server on a
firewall. The proxy server would be configured to allow requests from your
computer, trying for port 80, to connect to its port 1080, and it would then redirect all
requests to the proper places.
PSTN --- (Public Switched Telephone Network) -- The regular old-fashioned
telephone system.
Push --- Internet services that automatically update info on your computer
when you log onto the internet.
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HIGH DENSITY COMPUTING
Q
Qic --------- Queue
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
QIC --- QuickTime VR
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181
Pages 181 & 182
QIC --- Quick View
QIC --- A formatting standard for tapes used by various tape backup devices.
The amount of information that can be stored on a tape varies by the QIC number.
Windows 95's Backup program supports QIC 40, 80, 3010, and 3020 formats. It also
supports QIC 113 compression format.
QuakeSpy --- A
Windows 95 program that retrieves via
the Internet a list of active servers for gamers to
connect to play the game Quake. QuakeSpy can parse any
finger or Web page for IP addresses. It also features
customizable filter settings to help weed through the
Quake jungle. It then polls the sites on your list and
determines the server name, map name, current and maximum
players, and displays them starting with the lowest ping
time.
Query --- A
question, usually used in connection with a
search engine or database to find a particular file, Web
site, record or set of records in a database.
Queue --- Commands or processes, waiting to be processed.
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Quick format --- A quick way to format a floppy disk, quick format
doesn't actually wipe the whole disk, nor does it test the media for bad sectors. It just
erases the FAT.
Quick View --- A program included with Windows 95 that enables you to
view files stored in 30 different file formats without needing to open the application
that created the file. Quick View is available from the File menu of Explorer if a
viewer is available for the selected file type.
Page 182
QuickTime --- QuickTime VR
QuickTime --- Developed by Apple, QuickTime is a compression and
decompression (codec) scheme for animation files. It is unique in that versions are
available for both Windows and Macintosh, enabling software designers to provide
their data in a format compatible for both platforms.
QuickTime VR --- Software
for Macintosh and
PC/Windows which brings virtual reality to your desktop
without any special equipment. Use it to experience a 3D
photographic or rendered representation of any person,
place or thing. Use your mouse and keyboard to rotate
objects, zoom in or out of a scene, look around 360
degrees, and navigate from one scene to another.
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HIGH DENSITY COMPUTING
R
RAM --------- Rtfm
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
RAM --- ROutable protocol
Page 183
RAM
--- Real
Pages 183 -- 187
Name
RAM --- Random-Access Memory --- The
part of the computer's
memory that stores information temporarily while you're
working on it. Typically, Windows 95 machines have 16 million bytes (16M)
of RAM or more. However,
Raster font --- A font in which characters are stored as pixels.
Reader --- A program used to read a file, on the 'net, usually used to refer to a
program for posting usenet messages to & from.
Readme --- A
file found in an Internet host's
directory that describes the computer and its service. It
is one of the files that newcomers to the host are
advised to download and read because the information
contained is useful. There are also readme files that
come bundled with personal computer software that give
the latest information about installation, known bugs and
incompatibilities, and product documentation errata and
addenda.
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Read-only --- Characteristic of a file indicating that the file can be read
from, but not written to, by an application. Note however, that a "read-only" file can
be deleted in Explorer, although you will get a warning (beyond the normal "are you
sure" you normally get when you try to delete a file) if the file is read-only.
Real mode --- As opposed to protected mode, real mode is a mode in
which Intel x86 processors can run. Memory addressing in real mode is nonlinear,
requiring a program to stipulate a segment and memory offset address in order to
access a location in memory. Originally appeared on the Intel 8086 CPU and has been
the bane of PC programmers ever since. Although subsequent CPU chips supported
protected-mode linear addressing, backward compatibility with the thousands of realmode applications slows the evolution of operating systems. Note that all Intel CPUs
boot in real mode and require specific software support to switch into protected mode.
Real Name --- A
way for Internet users to assign "real
names" to Web sites to more easily remember the URL or
Web address. With Real Name for example a user can assign
the name WORDS to the URL http://www.high-density.com,
this allows a user to go to the Web site by just typing
in WORDS.
The Real Name setup process involves going to the Real
Name Web site and downloading the Real Name extension and
installing it on your computer.
Page 184
Real Soon Now --- Registering a program
Real Soon Now --- A
vague term used to describe when
something will actually happen.
Real time chat --- A
program allowing live
conversation between individuals by typing on a computer
terminal. The most common tools are Talk and IRC
(International Relay Chat).
RealAudio --- Progressive
Networks' RealAudio clientserver software system enables Internet and online users
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equipped with conventional multimedia personal computers
and voice-grade telephone lines to browse, select, and
play back audio or audio-based multimedia content on
demand, in real time. This is a real breakthrough
compared to typical download times encountered with
delivery of audio over conventional online methods, in
which audio is downloaded at a rate that is five times
longer than the actual program; the listener must wait 25
minutes before listening to just five minutes of audio.
Reciprocal link --- A
hyperlink or link placed on one
Web site to return the favor of another site putting a
link on their page.
Recycle Bin --- An icon that appears on the Windows 95 desktop. To
discard a file, you drag the file from Explorer, My Computer, or any other file handler
to the Recycle Bin. This action hides the file--but doesn't actually erase it from the
disk. You can "undelete" the file by dragging it from the recycle bin back to a folder.
To actually delete the file, select the Recycle Bin menu selection to empty the recycle
bin.
Restore button --- A button in the upper right corner of a Window that
has two squares in it. When clicked, it returns the window to its previous size. When
the window is at its previous size, the restore button switches to the maximize button,
which returns the window to its maximum size
Referrer --- URL of an HTML page that refers to your Web site.
Registering a program --- The act of linking a document with the
program that created it so that both can be opened with a single command. For
example, double-clicking a DOC file opens Word for Windows and loads the selected
document.
Page 185
Registry
--- Resource
(card)
Registry --- A
database of configuration information
central to Window 95 operations. This file contains
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program settings, associations between file types and the
applications that created them, as well as information
about the types of OLE objects a program can create and
hardware detail information.
Registry Editor --- The
Registry Editor ships with
Windows 95. Using this tool you can fine tune Windows 95
performance by adjusting or adding settings to key system
information. Since Windows 95 has placed WIN.INI and
SYSTEM.INI file settings in the registry, the ability to
remotely edit these parameters is an extremely powerful
tool. Warning: you can totally destroy a workstation
using this tool!
Remote terminal --- It
is possible to login to a
remote computer by using an application program based on
TELNET - a terminal emulation >protocol made for this
purpose. The user can therefore enter commands on a
keyboard attached to their local computer and access
files etc. on a remote computer that may be located
anywhere in the world.
Repeater --- A device that repeats or amplifies bits of data received at one
port and sends each bit to another port. A repeater is a simple bus network device that
connects two cabling segments and isolates electrical problems to either side. When
used in a LAN, most repeaters take a role in reconstituting the digital signal that
passing through them to extend distances a signal can travel, and reduce problems
that occur over lengths of cable, such as attenuation.
Resize button --- A button located in the lower left corner of a nonmaximized window. When the mouse pointer is over this button, it turns into a twoheaded arrow. You can click and drag to resize the window horizontally and
vertically.
Resource (card) --- When installing a card, certain "resources" are
needed: these often include a DMA channel, I/O Base address, and IRQ. Although
these are detected and set automatically with Plug and Play compliant cards, you will
have to set them using jumpers or the setup program to store the resource values in
non-volatile RAM when installing a "legacy" (pre-Plug and Play) card.
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186
Restore files --- Return Code
Restore files --- Copies one or more files from your backup set to the hard
disk or to another floppy.
Return Code --- The return status of the request which specifies whether
the transfer was successful and
why.
Possible "Success" codes are:
200 = Success: OK
201 = Success: Created
202 = Success: Accepted
203 = Success: Partial Information
204 = Success: No Response
300 = Success: Redirected
301 = Success: Moved
302 = Success: Found
303 = Success: New Method
304 = Success: Not Modified
Possible "Failed" codes are:
400 = Failed: Bad Request
401 = Failed: Unauthorized
402 = Failed: Payment Required
403 = Failed: Forbidden
404 = Failed: Not Found
500 = Failed: Internal Error
501 = Failed: Not Implemented
502 = Failed: Overloaded Temporarily
503 = Failed: Gateway Timeout
Page 187
RFC --- ROutable protocol
RFC --- Request For Comments --- The name of the
result and the process for creating a standard on the Internet. New standards are
proposed and published on line, as a "Request For Comments". The Internet
Engineering Task Force is a consensus-building body that facilitates discussion, and
eventually a new standard is established, but the reference number/name for the
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standard retains the acronym "RFC", e.g. the official standard for e-mail is RFC 822.
RGB --- Red, Green, Blue --- The three colors that create all
other colors on a computer screen.
Rich text format (RTF) --- RTF (Rich Text Format) is
compatible with several word processors and includes fonts, tabs, and character
formatting.
Ring network --- One of a variety of network topologies. Ring networks
connect computers by using an In and an Out port for data. Each computer sends
information to the next computer down the wire. Data flows from one computer's Out
port to the next computer's In port.
ROT-13 --- A simple encoding program for usenet, which is usually used to
warn readers that if they decode the post, they're likely to find obscene material,
usually a "dirty joke."
ROTFL --- Rolling On The Floor Laughing --A shorthand appended to a comment written in an online forum or e-mail.
ROundtable --- Term used by GEnie for a SIG.
ROutable protocol --- A network protocol that can work with non
proprietary routers. Traditional routers use the network packet header fields to
identify network addresses (network numbers)/node addresses for ultimate source and
destination nodes (or hosts) for packets of data. This scheme for routing packets
across internetworks is used OSI, NetWare (IPX), TCP/IP, and AppleTalk network
protocols.
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ROuter --- RFC
Page 188
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188
ROuter --- RFC
ROuter --- In a network, a device that reads network layer packet headers
and receives or forwards each packet accordingly. Routers connect LANs and WANs
into internetworks, but must be able to process the network packets for specific types
of network protocol. Many routers process various packet types and therefore are
termed multiprotocol routers.
RTFM --- Either "Read the F****** Manual" or "Read the FAQ, Moron,"
depending on the usage.
ROM --- Read-Only Memory. A type of chip capable of permanently storing
data without the aid of an electric current source to maintain it, as in RAM. The data
in ROM chips is sometimes called firmware. Without special equipment, it is not
possible to alter the contents of read-only memory chips, thus the name. ROMs are
found in many types of computer add-in boards, as well as on motherboards. CPUs
often have an internal section of ROM as well.
RTM --- Read The Manual --- A shorthand appended to a comment
written in an online forum or e-mail.
RFC --- (Request For Comments) -- The name of the result and the process for
creating a standard on the Internet. New standards are proposed and published on
line, as a Request For Comments. The Internet Engineering Task Force is a consensusbuilding body that facilitates discussion, and eventually a new standard is established,
but the reference number/name for the standard retains the acronym RFC, e.g. the
official standard for e-mail is RFC 822.
See Also: Network , Packet Switching
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HIGH DENSITY COMPUTING
S
SCO
--------- Sysop
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
Safe mode ---Shell account
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Pages 189 -193
Safe mode --- SceneGraph
Safe mode --- A special mode for starting Windows 95 that uses simple,
default settings so that you can at least get into Windows and fix a problem that
makes it impossible to work with Windows otherwise. The default settings use a
generic VGA monitor driver, no network settings, the standard Microsoft mouse
driver, and the minimum device drivers necessary to start Windows.
Safe recovery --- An installation option provided by Windows 95 to
recover from a faulty or damaged installation of Windows 95.
Saturation --- When working with colors, saturation indicates the purity of
a color; lower values of saturation have more gray in them.
ScanDisk --- A program used to check for, diagnose, and repair damage on
a hard disk or diskette. Part of your routine hard disk maintenance, (along with
defragmenting your hard disk) should include a periodic run of ScanDisk to keep your
hard disk in good repair. In its standard test, ScanDisk checks the files and folders on
a disk or diskette for logical errors, and if you ask it to, automatically corrects any
errors it finds. ScanDisk checks for crosslinked files, which occur when two or more
files have data stored in the same cluster (a storage unit on a disk). The data in the
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cluster is likely to be correct for only one of the files, and may not be correct for any
of them. ScanDisk also checks for lost file fragments, which are pieces of data that
have become disassociated with their files.
SceneGraph --- The
hierarchy of nodes within a VRML
file.
Page 190
ScO --- Scroll
ScO --- A common group of UNIX OS, most common for networking. Many of
the NPR Server See client.
Screen fonts --- Font files used to show type styles on the screen. These
are different from the files used by Windows to print the fonts. The screen fonts must
match the printer fonts in order for Windows to give an accurate screen portrayal of
the final printed output.
Screen resolution --- The number of picture elements (or "pixels")
that can be displayed on the screen. Screen resolution is a function of the monitor and
graphics card. Higher resolutions display more information at a smaller size, and also
may slow screen performance. Screen resolution is expressed in the number of pixels
across the screen by the number of pixels down the screen. Standard VGA has a
resolution of 640 x 480, although most modern monitors can display 1024 x 768, and
even higher (larger monitors can usually display a higher resolution than smaller
ones).
Screen saver --- A varying pattern or graphic that appears on the screen
when the mouse and keyboard have been idle for a user-definable period of time.
Originally used to prevent a static background from being "burned into" the screen
phosphors, this is rarely a problem with modern monitors. Many screen savers
(including those that come with Windows 95) can be used with a password--you must
enter the correct password to turn off the screen saver and return to the screen.
However, someone could simply reboot the machine, so a screen saver password is
not very sophisticated protection.
Scripts --- An HTML page which passes variables back to the server.
Scroll --- To look at the parts of the page that fall below (or above) what you
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see on your screen. The long bar at the far right of this screen is a scroll bar. The
small square in it will allow you to scroll through the rest of this page. Just place your
mouse pointer over the square, hold down the left click button on the mouse and slide
the square up or down. You will see this page move. You are now scrolling.
Page 191
Scroll arrow --- Secure channel
Scroll arrow --- Located at either end of a scroll bar, it can be clicked to
scroll up or down (vertical scroll bar) or left or right (horizontal scroll bar). Clicking
the scroll arrow will move your window in that direction.
Scroll bar --- Scroll bars allow you to select a value within a range, such as
what part of a document to see, or what value to set the Red, Green, and Blue
components of a color to.
Scroll box --- A small box located in the scroll bar that shows where the
visible window is located in relation to the entire document, menu, or list. You can
click and drag the scroll box to make other portions of the document, menu, or list
visible.
ScSI Configured Automagically (SCAM) --- The
specification for Plug and Play or SCSI buses. This specification makes it
unnecessary to set a SCSI Id, as the configuration software negotiates and sets the id
for each connected SCSI device (that is Plug and Play compliant!).
SDK --- A
technology developed by Western Digital that
significantly improves the performance of removable media
storage peripherals such as CD-ROM drives. Instead of
connecting directly to the PC via an EIDE interface,
these peripherals connect directly to the hard drive
through the new SDX interface.
Special Interest Group --- People with a common interest who
meet or exchange e-mail messages on a particular topic in an organized way. Not to
be confused with a signature file or .sigfile
Search Engines --- A databased website containing information which
can be used to find sites of interest.
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Secure channel --- A
technology that provides privacy,
integrity, and authentication in point-to-point
communications such as a connection on the Internet
between a Web browser and a Web server. SEE ALSO Secure
Sockets Layer (SSL), and Internet Security.
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Security Certificate --- Serif Fonts
Security Certificate --- A chunk of information (often stored as a
text file) that is used by the SSL protocol to establish a secure connection.
Security Certificates contain information about who it belongs to, who it was issued
by, a unique serial number or other unique identification, valid dates, and an
encrypted “fingerprint” that can be used to verify the contents of the certificate.
In order for an SSL connection to be created both sides must have a valid Security
Certificate.
See Also: Certificate Authority , SSL
Select --- To specify a section of text or graphics for initiating an action. To
select also can be to choose an option in a dialog box.
Selection handles --- Small black boxes indicating that a graphic
object has been selected. With some Windows applications, you can click and drag a
selection handle to resize the selected object.
SeML --- Standard Generalized Markup Language -- forerunner of HTML,
still defended by some as an international standard for computer documents.
Serial port --- See COM
Serif Fonts --- Serif Fonts have projections (serifs) that extend the upper
and lower strokes of the set's characters beyond their normal boundaries, for example,
Courier. San-Serif Fonts do not have these projections, for example, Arial.
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Page 193
Server --- Shell account
Server --- A computer, or a software package, that provides a specific kind of
service to client software running on other computers. The term can refer to a
particular piece of software, such as a WWW server, or to the machine on which the
software is running, e.g.Our mail server is down today, that’s why e-mail isn’t getting
out. A single server machine could have several different server software packages
running on it, thus providing many different servers to clients on the network.
See Also: Client , Network
Server application --- In OLE terminology, an application that
supplies an object, (such as a drawing), to a client application, (such as a word
processing program), for inclusion in a complex document.
Server Errors --- An error occurring at the server. Server errors are in
the 500-range. See "Return Code" definition.
Shareware --- A method of distributing software, often including
downloading the software from a BBS or the Microsoft Network. With shareware,
you get to use the software before deciding to pay for it. By paying for the software
and registering it, you usually receive a manual; perhaps the most up-to-date version
(which may include additional functionality). Shareware versions of software often
include intrusive reminders to register--the registered versions do not include these
reminders.
Shell --- 1) Another name for a dial-up account, especially in UNIX. 2) Users
rarely interact with the programming or OS, but instead work through commands (a
command line). The program which creates a command line for typed commands is
often called the "shell" while a graphic command interface is called a GUI. Shells
give you a command prompt (usually "C:" for dos, either "$" or "%" for UNIX).
Shell account --- A
UNIX-based account that allows an
indirect, command-line connection to the Internet.
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Shockwave --- Source document
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Pages 194 --199
Shockwave --- Shouting
Shockwave --- A
Web browser plugin which provides for
Macromedia Director movies to be viewed on World Wide Web
pages. Shockwave is a key component of Macromedia's
solution for interactive professionals who develop
digital media for the World Wide Web. If you have created
an interactive movie using Macromedia Director, you will
need to compress the movie through a program called
"Afterburner" before you can use it as Shockwave on a Web
site.
Shortcut --- A pointer to a file, document or printer in Windows 95. A
shortcut is represented by an icon in Explorer, on the desktop, or as an entry in the
Start menu. Selecting the program shortcut icon or menu entry runs the program to
which the shortcut "points". Selecting a document shortcut runs the application that
created the document (provided the document type is associated with a program).
Dragging and dropping a document onto a printer shortcut prints the document. Note
that a shortcut does NOT create a copy of the program or document itself.
Shortcut keys --- A keystroke or key combination that enables you to
activate a command without having to enter a menu or click a button.
Shortcut menu --- A popup menu that appears when you right click an
object for which a menu is appropriate. The shortcut menu displays only those
options which make sense for the object you select and current conditions.
Shouting --- WRITING IN ALL CAPS IS CALLED SHOUTING, AND IS
CONSIDERED VERY RUDE!
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SIG --- SLIP
SIG --- An e-mail discussion group on most on-line services is usually called a
SIG (Special Interest Group); the other most common term is forum. GEnie uses the
term "roundtable."
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Signal to Noise Ratio --- The
amount of useful
information to be found in a given Usenet newsgroup.
Often used derogatorily, for example: "the signal-tonoise ratio in this newsgroup is pretty low."
Signature file --A file automatically attached to outgoing e-mail messages
and postings to newsgroups.
Site (Web) --- A location on the Internet containing HTML documents that
visitors can view using a browser.
.Sigfile --- .signature
file - A file that, when placed in
your home directory on your public-access site, will
automatically be appended to every Usenet posting you
write.
.Sigquote --- A
profound/witty/quizzical/whatever quote
that you include in your `.sig' file.
.Sig --- Telling peope at the bottom of a post who you are! example:
tom@www.high-density.com chris@high-density.com
Web Design, Graphic Design and Illustration.
http://www.high-density.com
SLIP --- (Serial Line Internet Protocol) -- A standard for using a regular
telephone line (a serial line) and a modem to connect a computer as a real Internet
site. SLIP is gradually being replaced by PPP.
See Also: Internet , PPP
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SMall Computer System Interface (SCSI) --SMileys
SMall Computer System Interface (SCSI) --- An
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ANSI standard bus design. SCSI host adapters are used to adapt an ISA, EISA, MCI,
PCI, or VLB (VESA Local Bus) bus to a SCSI bus so that SCSI devices (such as disk
drives, CD-ROMs, tape backups, and other devices) can be interfaced. A SCSI bus
accommodates up to eight devices, however, the bus adapter is considered one device,
thereby enabling seven usable devices to be interfaced to each SCSI adapter. SCSI
devices are intelligent devices. SCSI disk drives have embedded controllers and
interface to a SCSI bus adapter. A SCSI interface card is therefore a "bus adapter",
not a "controller".
SMall Computer System Interface-2 (SCSI-2) -- An ANSI standard that improves on SCSI-1 standards for disk and other device
interfaces. SCSI-2 bandwidth is 10 Mbytes/sec, whereas SCSI-1 is 5 Mbyte/sec. SCSI2 also permits command-tag queuing, which enables up to 256 requests to be queued
without waiting for the first request. Another SCSI-2 feature is the bus' capability to
communicate with more than one type of device at the same time, where a single
SCSI-1 host adapter only supported one type of device to communicate on the bus.
SMDS --- (Switched Multimegabit Data Service) -- A new standard for very
high-speed data transfer.
SMileys --- Writing and posting may leave out emotional context -- so
emoticons or smileys are used:
:-) smile or joke
:-( frown or sad
;-) wink
(tip your head to the left). There are dozens of these.
To respond to a joke, the sequence is
(g)=grin; (VBG)=very big grin; LOL=laugh out loud; ROTF=rolling on the floor;
ROTFLMAO=rolling on the floor,
laughing my ass off; ROTFLMAOKAS=...."kicking & screaming," etc.
Click here to see a much larger list of smileys
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SMTP --- Soft fonts
SMTP --- (Simple Mail Transport Protocol) -- The main protocol used to send
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electronic mail on the Internet.
SMTP consists of a set of rules for how a program sending mail and a program
receiving mail should interact.
Almost all Internet email is sent and received by clients and servers using SMTP, thus
if one wanted to set up an email server on the Internet one would look for email
server software that supports SMTP.
See Also: Client , Server
Snail-mail --- What you get from the US Postal Service/UPS, etc..
SnMP --- (Simple Network Management Protocol) -- A set of standards for
communication with devices connected to a TCP/IP network. Examples of these
devices include routers, hubs, and switches.
A device is said to be “SNMP compatible” if it can be monitored and/or controlled
using SNMP messages. SNMP messages are known as “PDU’s” - Protocol Data
Units.
Devices that are SNMP compatible contain SNMP “agent” software to receive, send,
and act upon SNMP messages.
Software for managing devices via SNMP are available for every kind of commonly
used computer and are often bundled along with the device they are designed to
manage. Some SNMP software is designed to handle a wide variety of devices.
See Also: Network , Router
Soft fonts --- Depending on your printing hardware, soft fonts may be
downloaded to your printer. Downloading fonts reduces the time taken by the printer
to process printouts. Although downloading soft fonts is done only once (per session),
benefits are realized through subsequent printing.
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Solitaire --- Source document
Solitaire --- A card game included with Windows 95 for a single player. The
object of solitaire is to turn all the cards in the seven face-down stacks face-up on top
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of the each of the four aces for each of the four suites.
Soundblaster --- An extremely popular family of sound boards,
developed and marketed by Creative Labs. Because of the popularity and large
market share of this product family, most sound boards advertise themselves as
"soundblaster compatible", meaning that drivers provided in Windows, Windows 95,
and programs such as games will work with these boards. However, some board's
compatibility is not perfect.
Soundcard --- An
optional computer circuit card for
IBM PC's. It provides high-quality stereo sound output
under program control. A "multimedia" PC usually includes
a sound card. One of the best known is the SoundBlaster.
SEE ALSO: duplex
Soundplayer --- A
browser helper application for
playing sound files.
Source code --- The
form in which a computer program
is written. On the Internet among others the source code
for a Web page could contain any of the following
languages: HTML, Javascript, Java, and SGML. These codes
in turn may call upon other scripts or documents which
are written in the same code or pehaps an entirely
different code such as Perl, C++ (CGI), or Lingo
(Shockwave). SEE ALSO: document source.
Source document --- In OLE, the document that contains the
information you want to link into (to appear in) another document (the destination
document).
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Spam (or Spamming) --- Subnet mask
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199
Pages 199 --203
Spam (or Spamming) --- Spider
Spam (or Spamming) --- An inappropriate attempt to use a
mailing list, or USENET or other networked communications facility as if it was a
broadcast medium (which it is not) by sending the same message to a large number of
people who didn’t ask for it. The term probably comes from a famous Monty Python
skit which featured the word spam repeated over and over. The term may also have
come from someone’s low opinion of the food product with the same name, which is
generally perceived as a generic content-free waste of resources. (Spam is a registered
trademark of Hormel Corporation, for its processed meat product.)
E.g. Mary spammed 50 USENET groups by posting the same message to each.
See Also: Maillist , USENET
Spam-jam --- The over-crowding of on-subject posts in a newsgroup,
forum, e-mail digest, etc. by spam. Very common on usenet.
Spanking the Net --- Surfing the net, looking only for "adult"
material, "STN" for short.
Spew --- While
spam refers to the mass sending of an email or newsgroup posting to a large number of people who
would otherwise not be interested in seeing the letter or
post, spew is when you're on a newgroup or in a chat room
and one of the participants goes on and on about
something and/or types the same thing repeatedly.
Spider --- A
program that prowls the Internet,
attempting to locate new, publically accessible resources
such as WWW documents, files available in public FTP
archives, and Gopher documents. Also called wanderers or
robots (bots), spiders contribute their discoveries to a
database, which Internet users can search by using an
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Internet-accessible search engine such as Lycos or
WebCrawler. Spiders are necessary because the rate at
which people are creating new Internet documents greatly
exceeds manual indexing capacity.
Page 200
Splash page
---
SSI
Splash page --- An
extra "first" or "front" page
of a Web site, usually containing a "click-through" logo
or message, announcing that you have arrived. The real
information and navigation for the site lies behind this
page on the homepage or welcome page. SEE ALSO: buffer
page.
Spool --- A temporary holding area for the data you want to print. When
printing a document, it can take some time (depending on the length of the document
and the speed of your printer) for the document to come off your printer. By spooling
the data, you may continue using your computer while the document is printing,
because the computer "feeds" the spool contents to the printer as fast as the printer
can handle it. When the print job is completed, the spool file is automatically deleted.
SQL --- (Structured Query Language) -- A specialized programming language
for sending queries to databases. Most industrial-strength and many smaller database
applications can be addressed using SQL. Each specific application will have its own
version of SQL implementing features unique to that application, but all SQL-capable
databases support a common subset of SQL.
SSI --- server
side include - A technology or process by
which HTML authors can "include" content (text, graphics,
etc.) on Web pages, without actually coding the
properties (name, size, color, etc.) of this content in
the HTML document itself. This allows greater flexibilty
in changing/adding in complex portions of information
that change often on a Web page (also known as: making it
dynamic) without actually having to edit the syntax of a
specific HTML document that contains the simple SSI
statement.
Taking information from another Web page and "including"
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it on another. It's called "server side" because the
execution of this program takes place on a server. Which
needs to be properly configured to handle SSI in advance.
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SSL --- Startup Folder
SSL --- (Secure Sockets Layer) -- A protocol designed by Netscape
Communications to enable encrypted, authenticated communications across the
Internet.
SSL used mostly (but not exclusively) in communications between web browsers and
web servers. URL’s that begin with “https” indicate that an SSL connection will be
used.
SSL provides 3 important things: Privacy, Authentication, and Message Integrity.
In an SSL connection each side of the connection must have a Security Certificate,
which each side’s software sends to the other. Each side then encrypts what it sends
using information from both its own and the other side’s Certificate, ensuring that
only the intended recipient can de-crypt it, and that the other side can be sure the data
came from the place it claims to have come from, and that the message has not been
tampered with.
See Also: Browser , Server , Security Certificate , URL
Stack --- In the internet context, the whole range of SLIP or PPP programs
over the OS which allows for complete use of the 'net.
Star network --- One of a variety of network topologies. Star networks
connect computers through a central hub. The central hub distributes the signals to all
of the cables which are connected.
Start Menu --- A menu located at the left end of the task bar. Clicking the
button marked "Start" opens a popup menu that makes Help, the Run command,
settings, find, shutdown, a list of programs (actually, program shortcuts) and a list of
recently accessed documents available for you to run with a single click. For some
items (such as the Documents item), a submenu opens to the side of the main item to
display the list of choices. You can configure the Start menu to specify which
programs are available to run from it.
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Startup Folder --- A folder that contains any programs that you want
Windows 95 to run whenever you startup. You can drag and drop program shortcuts
into the StartUp Folder to add them to the list of programs to run.
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Static IP --- Stroke font
Static IP --- An
IP address which is the same everytime
you "log on" to the Internet. See IP address for more
information
Static object --- In OLE, where objects have a "hot link" to their original
application, static objects are simply pasted into a destination document using the
Clipboard. These objects are not updated if the original object is updated. This is the
simple "pasting" that most Windows users use on a daily basis.
Stop bits --- In a communications program, the number of bits used to
indicate the "break" between pieces of information (see data bits). Usually 1 or 2.
StreamWorks --- The
StreamWorks Player brings the
power of networked audio and video to the desktop. You
can play "live" and "on-demand" audio and video from
StreamWorks Servers across the globe.
The StreamWorks Transmitter allows for LIVE network
encoding of digital audio and video over today's
networks. Taking inputs from analog audio and video
connections, like the ones on the back of a VCR,
StreamWorks Transmitter is capable of enabling live, realtime MPEG audio and video over industry standard TCP/IP
networks.
Stroke font --- A font that can have its size greatly altered without
distorting the font.
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StuffIt Expander --- Subnet mask
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StuffIt Expander --- A
shareware program that
decompresses virtually any compressed file you will
encounter on the Internet. It is available for Macintosh
and Windows.
MACINTOSH - Installer for StuffIt Expander 4.0.1, Use
it, as is, to expand StuffIt, Compact Pro, BinHex &
MacBinary files. Add the Expander Enhancer from
"DropStuff with Expander Enhancer" and StuffIt Expander
is PowerPC accelerated, expands more formats (including
.tar!), and joins StuffIt segments. Expander now handles
segmented and multipart encoded files (ie: BinHex and
UUencoded files).
WINDOWS - StuffIt Expander for Windows expands files from
the most popular archiving and compression formats found
online, including StuffItª (.sit) and ZIP (.zip). StuffIt
Expander will also expand files in uuencoded (.uue),
BinHex (.hqx), and MacBinary (.bin) formats, such as
those commonly found on the Internet. Other archive
formats supported include ARC (.arc), Arj (.arj), and
gzip (.gz). StuffIt Expander will also expand selfextracting archives created by StuffIt, ZIP, and Arj.
Style guide --- A
set of guidelines written for the
purpose of keeping consistent and standardizing the
further development of a particular Web site. Style
guides include everything from HTML do's and don'ts to
colors and fonts that must be used to CGI and Javascript
programming and grammatical specifics.
Style sheet --- In
word processing and desktop
publishing, a style sheet is a file or form that defines
the layout of a document. When you fill in a style sheet,
you specify such parameters as the page size, margins,
and fonts. Style sheets are useful because you can use
the same style sheet for many documents. For example, you
could define one style sheet for personal letters,
another for official letters, and a third for reports.
Stylesheets are also called templates.
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On the World Wide Web a style sheet refers to cascading
style sheets. SEE also CSS.
Submenu --- A related set of options that appear when you select a menu
item (see cascading menus).
Subnet mask --- A
number used to identify a
subnetwork so that an IP address can be shared on a LAN
(Local Area Network).
Suffix (Domain Name) --- Spiders
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Pages 204 --207
Suffix (Domain Name) --- Sysop
Suffix (Domain Name) --- The three digit suffix of a domain can
be used to identify the type of organization.
Possible "Suffixes" are:
.com = Commercial
.edu = Educational
.int = International
.gov = Government
.mil = Military
.net = Network
.org = Organization
Surf --- To
browse or "look at" information on the World
Wide Web by pointing and clicking and navigating in a
nonlinear way (meaning anywhere you want to go at
anytime).
Surfing --- The process of "looking around" the Internet. You're doing it now.
Swap file --- A file that gives Windows 95 the ability to use a portion of
hard drive as memory. With the use of a swap file, you can load and run more
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programs in Windows 95 than you actually have RAM memory for. A swap file
allows Windows 95 to "swap" chunks of memory containing currently unused
information to disk, making room in RAM memory for information you need to run
the currently selected program. Using a swap file is slower than holding everything in
RAM memory, however.
Swash --- Surfing term for the area between the beach and the actual waves
used to surf. In cyber-terms, an area for newbies -- ie a place where they can get their
feet wet and learn the basics. Some on-line services, like delphi, have such areas.
Sysop --- (System Operator) -- Anyone responsible for the physical operations
of a computer system or network resource. A System Administrator decides how
often backups and maintenance should be performed and the System Operator
performs those tasks.
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System --- System Files
System --- system: n. 1. The supervisor program or OS on a computer. 2. The
entire computer system, including input/output devices, the supervisor program or
OS, and possibly other software. 3. Any large-scale program. 4. Any method or
algorithm. 5. `System hacker': one who hacks the system (in senses 1 and 2 only; for
sense 3 one mentions the particular program: e.g., `LISP hacker')
System disk --- The disk containing the operating system, or at least
enough of it to start the system and then look on another disk for the support files.
System Files --- The system files are files that your computer must have
to load an operating system. These include:
IO.SYS
MSDOS.SYS
COMMAND.COM
Other important system files are the AUTOEXEC.BAT, and the CONFIG.SYS.
Although these files are not absolutely necessary to boot your computer, they will
automatically load the drivers that certain peripherals need to operate. Both of these
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files are located in you root directory on the boot drive. (C:\).
The CONFIG.SYS file tells the computer which low level drivers to load at boot up,
and how to set up the environment for the operating system. A driver is loaded with
the command "DEVICE=[device file name]"
The AUTOEXEC.BAT is a batch file that is AUTOmatically EXECuted at boot up.
This file will give the computer a series of commands to set the path, run diagnostic
programs, or load Windows.
Both of these files are text files which can be edited with a text editor. In DOS, use
the EDIT.EXE program in the DOS directory. In Windows, use NOTEPAD.
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206
System fonts --- SLIP/PPP
System fonts --- System Fonts are used by Windows to draw menus,
controls, and utilize specialized control text in Windows. System fonts are
proportional fonts that can be sized and manipulated quickly.
System monitor --- A program that enables you to monitor the
resources on your computer. You can see information displayed for the 32-bit file
system, network clients and servers, and the virtual memory manager, among other
things. Most of this information is highly technical in nature and most useful to
advanced users. You can display the information in either bar or line charts, or as a
numeric value.
System policies --- Policies, established by a system administrator,
which override Registry settings on individual machines. By setting up policies, a
system Administrator can restrict a user from changing hardware settings using
Control Panel, customize parts of the Desktop like the Network Neighborhood or the
Programs folder, and maintain centrally located network settings, such as network
client customizations or the ability to install file & printer services. This program can
also control access to a computer, enable user profiles, and maintain password
control.
System Resources --- See heap.
SLIP/PPP --- To
connect to the Internet via Serial
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Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) or Point to Point Protocol
(PPP), you need to have TCP/IP software on your computer.
When connected by SLIP/PPP, your computer actually
becomes another node on the Internet. You can then run
popular client software directly. This has an advantage
over a shell account where you will have to double
download in order to transfer a file by FTP because the
data first goes to network and then to a local machine.
Serial Line Internet Protocol -- Communication protocol
used over serial lines to support Internet connectivity.
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Sort --- Spiders
Sort --- To
arrange a collection of items into a specific
order. The items could be records or files, directories,
data structures etc. To impose an order such as ascending
or descending, numerical, alphabetical, and date.
Spiders --- An automated program which searches the internet.
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HIGH DENSITY COMPUTING
T
T-1---------
Twisted pair
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
T-1 --- TLA
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Pages 208 -212
T-1 --- Talk
T-1 --- A leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 1,544,000 bits-persecond. At maximum theoretical capacity, a T-1 line could move a megabyte in less
than 10 seconds. That is still not fast enough for full-screen, full-motion video, for
which you need at least 10,000,000 bits-per-second. T-1 is the fastest speed
commonly used to connect networks to the Internet.
See Also: 56k Line , Bandwidth , Bit , Byte , Ethernet , T-3
T-3 --- A leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 44,736,000 bits-persecond. This is more than enough to do full-screen, full-motion video.
See Also: 56k Line , Bandwidth , Bit , Byte , Ethernet , T-1
TA --- See "Terminal Adapter."
Tab (dialog boxes) ---In dialog boxes, there may be multiple panels
of information. Each panel has an extension at the top that names the panel. This
small extension is called a "tab".
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Tag --- A
tag is used to describe a type of command or
instruction usually in regards to HTML or Web page code.
HTML tags look like this: <br> , <font size=1>, <body> or
<html>, always with a pair of brackets (<>) surrounding
the specific instruction.
Talk --- The program that allows the user to make a text-only "phone call" to a
particular computer user. Most common on internal networks, it is possible to call
some other computers/users on the internet. Software is being developed to allow
voice-use over the net.
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TaNSTAAFL --- TCP/IP
TaNSTAAFL --- There Ain't No
Lunch --- A shorthand appended to a
Such Thing As A Free
comment written in an
online forum.technophile
An ardent supporter of technology, who first emerged
during the Computer Revolution of the '70s.
TaPI --- Telephony Applications Programming Interface, or TAPI, provides a
method for programs to work with modems, independent of dealing directly with the
modem hardware. All the information you give Windows during the modem
configuration is used for TAPI to set up its interface. Communications programs that
are written specifically for Windows 95 will talk to TAPI, which will then issue
appropriate commands to the modem. This is called device independence.
Task bar --- An area that runs across the bottom of the Windows 95
desktop. The Start button (see Start menu) is at the left end of the task bar, and the
clock can be displayed at the right end of the task bar. Running applications are
represented as buttons on the task bar, the current window is shown as a depressed
button, all other applications are displayed as raised buttons. Clicking the button for
an inactive application activates that application and displays its window as the
current window.
Task List --- A list of currently running applications. You can switch tasks
by clicking an item in the task list. The task list is accessed by pressing Alt+Tab on
the keyboard.
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TCP/IP --- Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol is a set of
networking protocols developed in the 1970s. TCP/IP includes Transport Control
Protocol, which is a connection-oriented transport protocol that includes transport,
session, and presentation layer protocol functions, which is equivalent to layers 4, 5,
and 6 of the OSI Model and Internet Protocol, and a widely used routable network
protocol that corresponds to layer 3 of the OSI model. User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
can be substituted in cases where connectionless datagram service is desired. TCP/IP
is an entire protocol stack that includes protocols for file transfers (FTP), termination
emulation services (telnet), electronic mail (SMTP), address resolution (ARP and
RARP), and error control and notification (ICMP and SNMP). TCP/IP is used
extensively in many computer systems because it is nonproprietary--free from
royalties. Its use was mandated by Congress for use in computer systems for many
government agencies and contract situations. TCP/IP is also used in the Internet, a
huge government and research internetwork spanning North America and much of the
world. TCP/IP is the most commonly used set of network protocols.
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Teledildonics --- Terminal emulation
Teledildonics --- A type of cybersex.
Telnet --- The command and program used to login from one Internet site to
another. The telnet command/program gets you to the login: prompt of another host.
Terabyte --- 1000 gigabytes.
See Also: Byte , Kilobyte
Terminal --- A device that allows you to send commands to a computer
somewhere else. At a minimum, this usually means a keyboard and a display screen
and some simple circuitry. Usually you will use terminal software in a personal
computer - the software pretends to be (emulates) a physical terminal and allows you
to type commands to a computer somewhere else.
Terminal Adapter --- An electronic device that interfaces a PC with
an Internet host computer via an ISDN phone line. Often
called "ISDN modems." However, because they are digital, TAs are not modems at
all. (See modem definition.)
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Terminal emulation --- There
are several methods for
determining how your keystrokes and screen interact with
a public-access site's operating system. Most
communications programs offer a choice of "emulations"
that let you mimic the keyboard that would normally be
attached directly to the host-system computer.
In the "old days" of computing, a "terminal" was an input/output device that was a
slave of a CPU, such as a terminal for minicomputer or mainframe. Generally,
terminals, had no computing power of their own, but simply provided an interface to
a remote host computer. "Terminal emulation" refers to a mode (character-based) in
which a PC emulates one of these terminals to communicate with a remote host-typically a BBS computer or a corporate mainframe that only "knows" how to talk to
a terminal.
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211
Terminal Server --- Thumbnail
Terminal Server --- A special purpose computer that has places to
plug in many modems on one side, and a connection to a LAN or host machine on the
other side. Thus the terminal server does the work of answering the calls and passes
the connections on to the appropriate node. Most terminal servers can provide PPP or
SLIP services if connected to the Internet.
See Also: LAN , Modem , Host , Node , PPP , SLIP
Text based --- See character based.
Text box --- A space in the dialog box where text or numbers can be entered
so that a command can be carried out.
Text file --- A file containing only text characters .
Thinclient --- to
a small program or application, one
that doesn't take up alot of room on a user's hard drive
and "runs" on a user's machine (client) as opposed to a
server. This program may also interact with a larger
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(fatter) program which is could be located on a server
somewhere.
Thread --- A group of related messages. Some usenet reader programs thread
messages for you.
Thread (BBS/Communications) --- A set of messages
pertaining to one general idea.
Thread (program execution) --- A "thread" is a chunk of a
program. In a multi-threading environment such as Windows 95, multiple threads
(multiple portions of a program) can execute at the same time--provided the program
has been programmed to take advantage of this feature.
Thumbnail --- Describes
the size of an image you
frequently find on Web pages. Usually photo or picture
archives will present a thumbnail version of it's
contents (makes the page load quicker) and when a user
clicks on the small image a larger version will appear.
Sometimes these links will be to a new page containing
the larger graphic and other times right to the image
directly, as is the case in the examples below.
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TiF --- TLA
TiF --- Tagged
---
Image File Format
a graphic file
format developed by Aldus and Microsoft. Mosaic supports
the viewing of TIFF images.
Tilde or ~ --- Prounounced
"tilda," this scribbly
horizontal line has come to signify an individual user's
Web site when housed on the server of an ISP. In real
terms the tilde stands for a path which leads to that
person's Web site on the server it is being kept. For
example, http://www.best.com/~erinj - says that erinj is
a best.com user and that her homepage is on best.com's
server. When you look at the server you will notice that
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erinj's Web site is really located on the path:
www.best.com/www/users/erinj , therefore the tilde is
used to bypass the /www/users directories to make the URL
or "Web address" a little shorter and easier to remember.
The tilde character is on the top line of your keyboard
to the far left.
Tile --- To reduce and move windows so that they can all be seen at once.
Time slice --- A brief time period in which a process is given access to the
processor. Each second is divided into 18.3 time slices; multiple tasks can be
scheduled for processing in these slices, yet outwardly appear to be occurring
simultaneously.
Time-out --- A time period after which a device or driver might signal the
operating system and cease trying to perform its duty. If a printer is turned off, for
example, when you try to print, the driver waits for a predetermined period of time,
then issues an error message. In computer terminology, the driver has timed out.
Title bar --- The bar at the top of a program or document window that
shows you what its title is. The control menu, maximize, minimize, restore, and task
bar buttons can be accessed in the title bar.
TLA --- Three
Letter Acronym.
Token ring --- 3270
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Token ring --- TrueSpeech
Token ring --- A network type developed by IBM. It is more expensive
than Ethernet to implement, but can run at 16 Mb/s. Unlike Ethernet, where the
workstations must listen for a clear line before transmitting, workstations on a token
ring take turns sending data--passing the "token" from station to station to indicate
whose turn it is.
Toolbar --- A collection of buttons that typically make the more common
tools for an application easily accessible. Although often grouped in a line under the
menus, a toolbar can be located on the left or right side of the working area--or even
be relocatable to any area of the screen the user wishes. In some applications (for
example, MS Office applications such as Word), the toolbar is user-configurable--the
user can display different toolbars, and add or remove tool buttons from the bar.
Topology --- The layout or design of cabling on a network.
Tracert --- Trace rout - a program in Windows 95 that traces what servers a
packet must through to reach a given destination. Each server is known as a hop in
this case. For example, open a dos window and type in tracert www.high-density.com
it will show you the names of the servers your quest has to travel through.
This can be very useful in tracing information or checking on a prospective ISP to see
what kind of backbone they have.
Trojan Horse --- Like the Trojan horse of mythology, Trojan horse
viruses pretend to be one thing when in fact they are something else. Typically,
Trojan horses take the form of a game that deletes files while the user plays.
Troll --- A person who posts only to inflame opinion is "trolling for flames".
Most are so obvious that only the most clueless
"newbies" respond.
TrueSpeech --- A
Netscape Navigator plugin which
allows real time audio over the Internet.
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TrueType fonts --- 3270
TrueType fonts --- A font technology developed by Microsoft in
response to Adobe's success in the scaleable font business with its own Type 1 and
Type 3 PostScript fonts. Used as a simple means for all Windows applications to have
access to a wide selection of fonts for screen and printer output. TrueType fonts
greatly simplify using fonts on a Windows computer. The same fonts can be used on
Windows 3.1, Windows NT, Windows 95, and other Windows products, such as
Windows for Workgroups. Consisting of two files (one for screen and one for
printer), hundreds of TrueType fonts are available from a variety of manufacturers.
Depending on your printer, the TrueType font manager internal to Windows, in
conjunction with the printer driver, generates either bitmapped or downloadable soft
fonts.
Trumpet Winsock --- A
popular Windows 3.1 and
Windows 95 TCP/IP stack that provides a standard
networking layer for many networking applications to use.
TTFN --- (Ta Ta For Now) -- A shorthand appended to a comment written in
an online forum.
See Also: IMHO , BTW
TWisted pair --- Cabling that consists of lightly insulated copper wire,
twisted into pairs and bundled into sets of pairs. The twists enhance the wire's
capability to resist "crosstalk" (bleeding of signal from one wire to the next). This
cabling is used extensively in phone systems and LANs, although even moderate
distances in a LAN require "repeaters" (see repeaters).
3270 --- Specialized terminal emulation for some IBM mainframe systems.
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HIGH DENSITY COMPUTING
U
UCE--------- UUENCODE
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
UCE --- UUENCODE - UUDECODE
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UCE --- UNIX
UCE --- Unsolicited Commercial E-mail; polite way of saying SPAM.
Unbound media --- In a network, this refers to connections that are not
implemented using traditional cabling. Instead, unbound media is wireless-implemented through use of various portions of the radio wave spectrum.
Unimodem driver --- A universal modem driver supplied by
Microsoft as part of Windows 95. The modem driver assumes that the modem
supports the Hayes AT command set (most do).
Uninstalling applications --- When you install an application in
Windows 95, it places the necessary files in many different places on your hard drive.
You can't remove all of a program by simply erasing the contents of its main
subdirectory. To uninstall the application--and remove all the files it placed on your
hard drive--you must run a special program that should have been included with the
application. Many applications do not include the "uninstaller" program, although, to
be certified under Windows 95, the uninstaller program must be included.
Universal Naming Convention (UNC) --- With UNC,
you can view, copy or run files on another machine without assigning it a drive letter
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on your own. It also means if you are running short of logical drive letters, you can
get to servers that you use only intermittently with a simple command from the MSDOS Prompt.
UNIX --- A computer operating system (the basic software running on a
computer, underneath things like word processors and spreadsheets). UNIX is
designed to be used by many people at the same time (it is multi-user) and has
TCP/IP built-in. It is the most common operating system for servers on the Internet.
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Unprintable area --- URL
Unprintable area --- The area, usually around the extreme edges of
the paper, in which the printer is incapable of printing. For example, a laser printer
cannot print in the 1/4" at the left and right edges of the paper. It is important to know
the unprintable area, since graphics or text you place in this area will be cut off when
printed.
Upgrade fever --- The
almost uncontrollable,
compulsive urge to upgrade hardware and/or software, with
little or no consideration extended to a real need or
want.
Upholstry --- Useless graphics on a webpage, that serve no purpose other
than meaningless decoration, esp. if they distract from the
purpose of the page.
Upload --- The process of transferring information from your computer to
another computer through the Internet. Every time you send e-mail to someone you
are uploading it.
URL --- (Uniform Resource Locator) -- The standard way to give the address
of any resource on the Internet that is part of the World Wide Web (WWW). A URL
looks like this:
http://www.matisse.net/seminars.html
or telnet://well.sf.ca.us
or news:new.newusers.questions
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etc.
The most common way to use a URL is to enter into a WWW browser program, such
as Netscape, or Lynx.
See Also: Browser , WWW
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217
Usenet --- User Session
Usenet --- Often
referred to as simply "newsgroups" is a
distributed bulletin board system supported mainly by
UNIX machines. Originally implemented in 1979--1980 by
Steve Bellovin, Jim Ellis, Tom Truscott, and Steve Daniel
at Duke University, it has swiftly grown to become
international in scope and is now probably the largest
decentralized information utility in existence. As of
early 1993, it hosted well over 1200 newsgroups and an
average of 40 megabytes (the equivalent of several
thousand paper pages) of new technical articles, news,
discussion, chatter, and flamage every day.
Usenet groups can be "unmoderated" (anyone can post) or
"moderated" (submissions are automatically directed to a
moderator, who edits or filters and then posts the
results). Some newsgroups have parallel mailing lists for
Internet people with no netnews access, with postings to
the group automatically propagated to the list and vice
versa. Some moderated groups (especially those which are
actually gatewayed Internet mailing lists) are
distributed as `digests', with groups of postings
periodically collected into a single large posting with
an index.
Newsgroups Available - A pretty good attempt at
organizing and listing the ever growing newsgroups.
Newslist 1.9 - A python program for UNIX machines which
automatically constructs an HTML page listing all the
newsgroups available by your Internet Access Provider.
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User Address --- The domain name or IP address for the remote user.
User Agent --- The fields in an extended Web server log file indicating the
browser and the platform used by a visitor.
User ID --- This is the unique identifier (like your logon name) that you use
to identify yourself on a computer. You probably typed your User ID (and password)
when you logged onto the Internet today.
User Session --- A session of activity (all hits) for one visitor to a Web
site. A unique user is determined by the IP address or domain name. By default, a
user session is terminated when a user falls inactive for more than 30 minutes.
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UUCP --- UUENCODE - UUDECODE
UUCP --- UNIX
to UNIX copy - A tool for transferring
files, sending mail, and executing remote commands that
was invented in 1978 at AT&T Bell Laboratories by Mike
Lesk.
UUEE --- UNIX
to UNIX Encode - A tool for transferring
files through e-mail.
UUENCODE --- (Unix to Unix Encoding) -- A method for converting
files from Binary to ASCII (text) so that they can be sent across the Internet via email.
See Also: Binhex , MIME
UUENCODE - UUDECODE --- A
method for
converting binary information into ascii. It can be used
for posting to Usenet and or e-mailing with non MIME
compliant mail readers.
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HIGH DENSITY COMPUTING
V
VDOLive ---------VT100
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
Vcache --- VT100
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Vcache --- Vector fonts
Vcache --- Windows 95 uses a new 32-bit VCACHE which replaces the older
SmartDrive that ran under DOS and previous versions of Windows. VCACHE uses
more intelligent caching algorithms to improve the apparent speed of your hard-drive
as well as your CD-ROM and 32-bit network redirectors. Unlike SmartDrive,
VCACHE dynamically allocates itself. Based on the amount of free system memory
VCACHE allocates or de-allocates memory used by the cache.
VDOLive --- A
technology that enables Internet video
broadcasting and desktop video conferencing on the
Internet and over regular telephone lines and private
networks. VDOPhone which provides the abilty to have
private point to point audio/video contact is currently
only available for Windows95 and requires a Pentium
proccessor. The VDOLive player however is available for
Windows and Power Macs and provides the abilty as a
Netscape plugin for viewing and hearing LIVE Internet
Broadcasts.
ke Eudora - handle the vCard as an ordinary attachment.
Veronica --- (Very Easy Rodent Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized
Archives) -- Developed at the University of Nevada, Veronica is a constantly updated
database of the names of almost every menu item on thousands of gopher servers.
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The Veronica database can be searched from most major gopher menus.
See Also: Gopher
Vector fonts --- A set of lines that connect points to form characters.
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Video conferencing --- Virtual machine
Video conferencing --- Conducting
a conference
between two or more participants at different sites by
using computer networks or the Internet to transmit audio
and video data. For example, a point-to-point (twoperson) video conferencing system works much like a video
telephone. Each participant has a video camera,
microphone, and speakers mounted on his or her computer.
As the two participants speak to one another, their
voices are carried over the network and delivered to the
other's speakers, and whatever images appear in front of
the video camera appear in a window on the other
participant's monitor.
Multipoint videoconferencing allows three or more
participants to sit in a virtual conference room and
communicate as if they were sitting right next to each
other. Software programs such as CUSeeMe have brought
video conferencing to the Internet and are easily
available and easy to use. SEE ALSO: desktop video.
Visual Interface --- A
screen editor crufted
together by Bill Joy for an early BSD release. Became the
de facto standard UNIX editor and a nearly undisputed
hacker favorite outside of MIT until the rise of EMACS
after about 1984. Tends to frustrate new users no end, as
it will neither take commands while expecting input text
nor vice versa, and the default setup provides no
indication of which mode the editor is in (one
correspondent accordingly reports that he has often heard
the editor's name pronounced /vi:l/). Nevertheless it is
still widely used (about half the respondents in a 1991
USENET poll preferred it), and even EMACS fans often
resort to it as a mail editor and for small editing jobs
(mainly because it starts up faster than the bulkier
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versions of EMACS).
Video for windows --- A set of utilities and protocols for
implementing full-motion video in Windows 95.
Virtual machine --- A "logical" computer that exists inside a PC.
Multiple virtual machines can be running in a PC. Applications that run on one virtual
machine are unlikely to affect the applications running on a different virtual machine.
16-bit applications (for example, Windows 3.1 applications) all run on the same
virtual machine in Windows 95, thus, if one crashes, it is likely to make the rest of the
16-bit applications unusable as well. However, such an occurrence will likely NOT
affect 32-bit applications that are running simultaneously.
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Virtual memory --- Virus
Virtual memory --- The use of permanent media (for example, hard
drive) to simulate additional RAM (see swap file). This allows large applications to
run in less physical RAM than they normally would require. When RAM runs low,
the operating system uses a virtual memory manager program to temporarily store
data on the hard disk like it was in RAM, which makes RAM free for data
manipulation. When needed, the data is read back from the disk and reloaded into
RAM.
Virus --- A virus is a computer program written to interrupt or destroy your
work. A virus may do something as innocuous as display a message, or something as
destructive as reformatting your hard drive--or almost anything in between. Your
computer can "catch" a virus from a floppy disk, or even from a file downloaded from
a remote source, such as a BBS. Once your computer has become "infected", the virus
may spread via connections on a network or floppy disks you share with others. A
variety of virus-detecting software exists, (including one packaged with Windows
95).
ViSCA --- A protocol for daisy chaining up to seven video devices together
and connecting them to a single serial port.
Virtual --- Simulation
of the real thing. Means the same
as "almost". You will see this term appear before various
computer terms to indicate simulation technology that
enables you to cross boundaries and experience something
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without needing it's physical presence, as in virtual
sex, and virtual theme parks.
Virtual circuit --- A
reliable link between a user and
an Internet site, even though the two are not
communicating over a dedicated phone line.
Virus --- Your computer can get a virus just like your body can be invaded
with a virus making you (or your computer) sick. A virus can wipe out information on
your computer and create major havoc. Viruses usually originate from malicious
people. You can unintentionally download virus from a web site or get it from a disk
that someone has lent you. There are virus-checking programs, but there are new
viruses popping up every day. So the best defense against a virus is to be very careful
not to download programs or data from a site you're not familiar with.
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VMS --- VT100
VMS --- A main-frame OS, designed for multiple users. While a similar
concept to UNIX, the commands, applications, etc. are all very different.
Volume --- Disk partition(s) formatted and available for use by the operating
system.
Volume label --- The identifier for a volume (see volume) or diskette.
This is specified when formatting the volume or diskette.
VRML --- Virtual Reality Modeling Language -- which is thought to be the
coming addition to the WWW, adding 3-d interactive models to web-sites. If you
think your graphic browser (esp. enhanced netscape) eats up RAM, wait until you see
VRML! Right now, it can be added to netscape 1.2 (windows) & 2.0 (windows 95).
VRWeb --- VRWeb
is a browser for 3D worlds and
objects modeled in the Virtual Reality Modeling Language
(VRML). VRWeb is the only VRML browser which is freely
available in complete source code (under the GNU General
Public License), does not require commercial packages
such as Inventor or Motif, and which is capable of
running on virtually all platforms.
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VT100 --- The basic mainframe terminal emulation. Most dial-up accounts
require VT100 or the later 102.
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HIGH DENSITY COMPUTING
W
W3
--------- WYSIWYG
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
W3 --- Wideband
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Pages 223 --227
W3 --- Web
W3 --- Just like WWW, this is another shortcut for saying World Wide Web.
W3C --- The World Wide Web Consortium --The World Wide Web is the universe of network-accessible information. The World
Wide Web Consortium exists to realize the full potential of the Web.
WAIS --- (Wide Area Information Servers) -- A commercial software package
that allows the indexing of huge quantities of information, and then making those
indices searchable across networks such as the Internet. A prominent feature of WAIS
is that the search results are ranked (scored) according to how relevant the hits are,
and that subsequent searches can find more stuff like that last batch and thus refine
the search process.
Wallpaper --- A backdrop for the Windows desktop, made up of a
graphics file. The graphics can be either centered, appearing only once in the center
of the desktop, or tiled, repeating as many times as the graphic will fit.
WAN --- (Wide Area Network) -- Any internet or network that covers an area
larger than a single building or campus.
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See Also: Internet , internet , LAN , Network
Warez --- Widely used in cracker subcultures to denote cracked version of
commercial software, that is versions from which copy-protection has been stripped.
Hackers recognize this term but don't use it themselves.
WAV files --- Named for three-character extension .WAV (for sound
wave) these files have, a WAV file is a file containing a digitized sound. Depending
on the sampling rate and resolution, the sound recorded in the WAV file seems
realistic (provided you have the sound card and speakers to hear it). These files can be
quite large, running into the multi-megabyte range for high-quality recordings.
Web --- See: WWW
Page 224
.Wav --- Web Guru
.Wav --- A common type of audio file.
Web board --- A discussion group or forum which is accessed via the
WWW. Currently rather awkward to use, IMO
Web Browser --- The tool (program) that allows you to surf the web.
You probably used your Web Browser to locate this page. The most popular Web
Browsers right now are Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer.
Web Designer --- The asthetic and navigational Architect of a Web site
and it's presentation. How the site "looks" and "feels" is the responsibilty of the Web
designer. Takes alot of heat if graphics are "fuzzy" , links are too light, or if
something is "hard to find". Usually this person is on the artistic side of Web site
building/developing however, an extensive knowledge of Web based programming,
art, and information architecture combined are considered fundemental to being a
successful Web Designer. This person very often can create entire Web productions
completely on their own with little "outside" help. Oh, and good client relational
skills a must! SEE ALSO: Web Guru.
Web Developer --- A person who from a technical standpoint,
architecturally "builds" Web sites. Researches and provides through programming the
means for a particular Web product to work. Not to be confused with the Web
counterpart of Web designer.
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Web Guru --- A title usually given (in a positive way) to a person who
handles all the Web/Internet needs of an organization or company. It is also used to
describe someone with great Internet knowledge and technical prowess and/or Web
design skills. Usually this person works very late at night and sleeps all day, goes to
Craig's list parties and drinks lots of Mochas. Can also be, but not to be confused with
a Webmaster or Websmith.
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Web jam --- Web Host
Web jam --- A Weblike layering of music, media, performers, audience,
and the surrounding ecosystem into a rhythmic "jungle." The objective is to celebrate
an expanded sense of nature inclusive of culture and technology. With roots in
African American jazz and 1990's Rave culture, the Web jam takes an
improvisational, "emergent" approach to cultural, political, and ecological systems.
The first Web jam, known as "Organism," was instigated by Ebon Fisher in the spring
of 1993 in collaboration with 120 artists, musicians, and children from Williamsburg,
Brooklyn. Over 2,000 people attended -jamming from 6 at night till 9 the next
morning.
TheWELL --- "The Whole Earth 'Lectroic Link" -- A basically "NewAge" on-line service.
Web Page --- Every time you are on the Internet, you are looking at a Web
Page. Yes that includes this page.
Webcrawler --- One
of the most popular search
facilities on the Web. It indexes World Wide Web pages by
title and URL.
Web Host --- The computer or hard drives where web sites are hosted
and accessible through the WWW.
Page 226
Webmistress --- Webmistress
Webmistress --- A commonly used and sometimes misused term which
can refer to many different types of individuals involved with a particular Web site.
Most correctly it is the person who maintains, "runs", or "watches over" the content
and functionality of a particular Web site. The all points information
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person/ambassador for a Web site.
The person to which all feedback and correspondance for a Web site is usually sent
to. This person is commonly an individual who either entirely or in part helped to
build (graphics or programming or both) the Web site he or she is the
webmaster/webmistress for. When you see a link on the bottom of a Web page that
says for example: webmaster@somedomain.com - this is an e-mail link to send
comments or questions about the Web site you are visiting to a person who is
designated to receive such feedback, and should be the person best suited to handle
whatever feedback comes in.
Some Web sites have a link to a Webmaster who actually may know very little about
the particular Web site's content and is merely the person who handles any technical
oriented problems that a user may have and probably works for the hosting service
that is hosting the Web site and not the company or person who actually monitors the
information contained on the site.
An interesting point to keep in mind is that the term "Webmaster" (like Ambassador)
is NOT gender specific, and can refer to a man or a woman, or even a group of Web
people who are performing the function described above. The term webmistress
however is purposely called what it is to have the user believe the person "watching"
over the site is a female. This is probably usually true but there is no real way to know
when you are sending this person an e-mail.
SEE ALSO: Websmith and Web Guru.
Page
Web site --- Wideband
227
Web site --- A homepage or group of pages either owned by an individual or
a company or placed on the web to be seen by all.
Websmith --- A person who builds Web sites. The developer or designer of
a Web site. SEE ALSO: Web developer and Web designer.
Welcome page --- The introductory Web page for a Web site, also
referred to as the home page. The first page of a Web site to contain some welcome
and/or navigation information about the Web site. Not to be confused with a buffer
page or splash page.
What's This? --- A new feature of Windows 95 help. In a dialog box,
click the small button with a question mark (?) on it. Then, click where you want
help. A small description should pop up to explain what the item is and how to use it.
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Click in the description popup to remove it.
Whois --Whowhere --- A place where you can search for someone's e-mail address
by entering their name and location. whowhere also does searches for telephone
numbers both residential and business. Even though the database is still growing it is
fun to see who turns up every now and then.
Wideband --- A medium-capacity communications circuit/path. It usually
implies a speed from 64Kbps to 1.544Mbps.
Pages 228 --231
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Windows --- WinWAIS
Windows --- The more advanced pc programs (graphic WWW browsers,
video & audio files, etc.) require windows or a version of UNIX if run on a pc.
"Windows NT" and "Windows 95" have internet software built-in.
Winpopup --- Winpopup is an applet that is included in the Accessories
group when you install the network component of Windows 95. This tool normally
sends short messages from one computer on the workgroup to another (or from a
shared printer to a workstation). It is designed so that when a message is received, the
program will pop up over anything else on the screen and show the message.
Winsock --- short for Windows sockets --- is a technical specification that
defines a standard interface between a Windows TCP/IP client application (such as an
FTP client or a Gopher client) and the underlying TCP/IP protocol stack. The
nomenclature is based on the Sockets applications programming interface model used
in Berkeley UNIX for communications between programs.
SEE ALSO: Trumpet Winsock.
---
AOL winsock
An add on to the AOL for Windows application that will allow
you to run Internet applications which require direct Internet connections to work.
The AOL Winsock allows you, through your AOL connection, to communicate with
other systems using the IP protocol, the background 'language' of the Internet. The
AOL Winsock is customized to work efficiently with America Online and will not
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work with another Internet access provider.
WinVN --- The most widely used stand-alone Windows-based Internet
Usenet newsgroup reader application. A powerful program with many useful
functions. Now that Netscape includes built-in newsgroup functions, however, the use
of WinVN is waning except for users with advanced Newsgroup needs. In many
ways, Netscape is a better newsgroup reader for mainstream users.
WinWAIS --- (Windows Wide Area Information Servers)
Page 229
WinZIP --- Word wrap
WinZIP --- The Windows program you are going to need to decompress
most of the files you download on the Internet. Macintosh users check out StuffIT.
WinZip brings the convenience of Windows to the use of ZIP files without requiring
PKZIP and PKUNZIP. The new WinZip Wizard makes unzipping easier than ever.
WinZip features built-in support for popular Internet file formats, including TAR,
gzip, Unix compress, UUencode, BinHex, and MIME. ARJ, LZH, and ARC files are
supported via external programs. WinZip interfaces to most virus scanners.
Wiring concentrator --- In a network, a multiple port repeating
device used in Ethernet LANs to connect multiple cable segments into one LAN.
Sometimes called a "hub" (see hub) or "multiport repeater" (see repeater), this device
isolates cabling problems by separating each workstation connection on an isolated
cabling segment.
Wizard --- Microsoft's name for a step-by-step set of instructions that guide
you through a particular task. For example, there are many wizards included with
Windows 95 for installing new hardware, configuring the Start menu, and changing
other aspects of the environment.
Wildcard ---A character that is used in text searches to make finding a
match easier. An asterisk (*) in a character string usually means find any character or
set of characters.
Word wrap --- In word processing, this refers to words that cannot be
completed on one line automatically "wrapping" to the beginning of the next line.
Most word processors use word wrap automatically--an exception is Notepad, where
you must turn on word wrap.
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WordPad --- World Wide Web (WWW, the Web,
W3)
WordPad --- A program included with Windows 95 that enables you to do
basic word processing and save the results in plain text format, Word 6 format, or
Rich Text Format.
Workgroup --- A collection of networked PCs grouped to facilitate work
that users of the computers tend to do together. The machines are not necessarily in
the same room or office.
World Wide Web --- WWW or the Web or W3)
--- You're in it -- the system by which you are viewing this document right now!
Technically it is a global (Worldwide) hypertext system that uses the Internet as it's
transport mechanism. In a hypertext system, you navigate by clicking hyperlinks,
which display another document which also contains hyperlinks. What makes the
Web such an exciting and useful medium is that the next document you see could be
housed on a computer next door or half-way around the world. The Web makes the
Internet easy to use. Created in 1989 at a research institute in Switzerland, the Web
relies upon the hypertext transport protocol (http), an Internet standard that specifies
how an application can locate and acquire resources stored on another computer on
the Internet. Most Web documents are created using hypertext markup language
(html), an easy to learn coding system for WWW documents. Incorporating
hypermedia (graphics, sounds, animations, video), the Web has become the ideal
medium for publishing information on the Internet. With the development of secured
server protocol (https), the Web is quickly becoming an important commercial
medium whereby consumers can browse online catalogs and purchase merchandise
without worrying that their credit card information will be intercepted. SEE ALSO:
Web page, Web site, and homepage.
World Wide Web (WWW, the Web, W3) --- Two
meanings - First, loosely used: the whole constellation of resources that can be
accessed using Gopher, FTP, HTTP, telnet, USENET, WAIS and some other tools.
Second, the universe of hypertext servers (HTTP servers) which are the servers that
allow text, graphics, sound files, etc. to be mixed together.
See Also: Browser , FTP , Gopher , HTTP , Telnet , URL , WAIS
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Worm --- WYSIWYG
Worm --- A computer program that can replicate itself. The most famous
example is the 1987 "Internet worm" which shut down hundreds of computers
nationwide.
WoW --- A simpler, associated service of CI$, dying out on its own accord but
now also being phased out, since CI$ was purchased by AOL.
WYSIWYG --- Short for "What you see is what you get", this term refers
to the ability of an application to display an accurate representation of the printed
output on the screen.
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HIGH DENSITY COMPUTING
X
x coordinate--------- x-modem
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
x coordinate --- x-modem
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232
x coordinate --- x-modem
x coordinate --- The position of an item relative to the left side of the
screen. Values increase as you move to the right.
x Window System --- A
networked windowing system
developed by MIT and now by the X Consortium that is
commonly used on UNIX and VMS systems.
xML --- eXtensible Markup Language --- A
programming language/specification developed by the W3C. XML is a pared-down
version of SGML, designed especially for Web documents. It enables Web authors
and designers to create their own customized tags to provide functionality not
available with HTML. For example, XML supports links that point to multiple
documents, as opposed to HTML links, which can reference just one destination each.
XML provides a more powerful set of tools for developing
a new generation of Web applications:
●
●
●
Database exchange
Distribution of processing to clients
Multiple views of data on the client
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●
●
Intelligent agents
Management of document collections
Whether XML eventually supplants HTML as the standard Web formatting
specification depends a lot on whether it is supported by future Web browsers. So far,
the only major browser vendor to endorse XML is Microsoft, which has stated that
XML will be supported in a future version of Internet Explorer.
x-modem --- An error-correction protocol (see binary transfer protocol)
used by the DOS application XMODEM and many other communications programs.
Xmodem using CRC (cyclical redundancy check), a means of detecting errors in
transmissions between modems or across wired serial links.
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HIGH DENSITY COMPUTING
Yahoo! --------- y-modem
Y
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
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233
Page 233
Y coordinate --- Y-modem
Y coordinate --- The position of an item relative to the bottom of the
screen. Values increase as you move down the screen.
Yahoo! --- A
World Wide Web subject tree created by
David Filo and Jerry Yang of the Department of Computer
Science at Stanford University. With a keen eye for the
popular as well as the useful, Filo and Yang have created
a directory of Web resources that performs a reported 10
million searches across the World Wide Web a week.
Yahooligans! --- The
producers of Yahoo are also
responsible for Yahooligans", a search tree consisting of
the best of Web sites for children or a Yahoo! for kids.
Year 2000 Problem --- yikes!
Yecch! --- A World Wide Web search
tree produced by
Yeeeoww Digital Lampoon whose interface is based on and
looks almost exactley like Yahoo! the difference being
that Yecch! lists links to some of the most bizzare and
satirical Web sites on the Internet.
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Y-modem --- A more advanced version of xmodem. Y-modem batch
allows groups of files to be up-or-down loaded together (as opposed to one at a time).
See z-modem.
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HIGH DENSITY COMPUTING
zine! --------- z-modem
Z
A | B | C | D | E |F | G | H |I | J| K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
zine --- z-modem
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zine
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234
--- z-modem
zine --- electronic magazine --- sometimes reffered to as an e-zine is a publication or magazine published in electronic form. An online magazine.
Electronic form could mean coded in HTML in which case the zine is available on the
World Wide Web and is updated regularly. There are dozens of e-zines published on
a regular basis on the Internet. Topics range from science-fiction-inspired poetry to
the angst of living in the digital age, and beyond. SEE ALSO: e-journal.
zine.net --- A
resource on the World Wide Web for
information on the vast assortment of independent, selfpublished zines. It serves as a centralized starting
point for electronic magazines, and offers users the
chance to "try before you buy" or subscribe as it were.
.zip --- The most common file/program compression program. Especially useful
for "zipping" groups of files together. See .arj.
zipped files --- Compressed
PC/Windows files you
commonly see on the Internet which once downloaded to
your computer need to be DE-compressed by a program like
PKUNZIP or WinZip.
z-modem --- An alternative program to the y-modem batch protocol. It is
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usually slightly faster.
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High Density Computing- Guide to Basic Smileys
High Density home page
Basic Smileys
basic smiley. This smiley is used to inflect a sarcastic or joking
:-) Your
statement since we can't hear voice inflection over e-mail.
smiley. User just made a flirtatious and/or sarcastic remark.
;-) Winky
More of a "don't hit me for what I just said" smiley.
smiley. User did not like that last statement or is upset or
:-( Frowning
depressed about something.
:-I Indifferent smiley. Better than a :-( but not quite as good as a :-).
:-> User just made a really biting sarcastic remark. Worse than a ;-).
>:- User just made a really devilish remark.
>
>;- Winky and devil combined. A very lewd remark was just made.
>
Widely used Smileys
User wears horn-rimmed
glasses.
(-:
User is left handed.
B-)
%-)
User has been staring at a
green screen for 15 hours
straight.
8:-) User is a little girl.
:*)
User is drunk.
:-)- User is a Big girl.
8
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[:] User is a robot.
:-{) User has a mustache.
8-) User is wearing sunglasses. :-{} User wears lipstick.
B:-) Sunglasses on head.
{:-) User wears a toupee.
::-) User wears normal glasses. }:-( Toupee in an updraft.
:-[ User is a vampire.
:^) User has a broken nose.
has a broken nose, but
:-E Bucktoothed vampire. :v) User
it's the other way.
:-F
:-7
Bucktoothed vampire with
one tooth missing.
User juust made a wry
statement.
User just ate something
sour.
:_)
:<)
User's nose is sliding off of
his face.
User is from an Ivy League
School.
:-*
:-)~ User drools.
:-~) User has a cold.
:'-( User is crying.
:-& User is tongue tied.
=:-) User is a hosehead.
-:-) User is a punk rocker.
punk rockers don't
-:-( Real
smile.
is so happy, s/he is
:'-) User
crying.
:=) User has two noses.
+-:- User is the Pope or holds
some other religious office.
)
shaved one of his
`:-) User
eyebrows off this morning.
,:-) Same thing...other side.
*<:- User is wearing a Santa Claus
Hat.
)
:-o Uh oh!
3:] Pet smiley.
:-@
User is screaming.
:-#
|-I
User wears braces.
|-O
User is yawning/snoring.
:-Q
:-?
User is a smoker.
User is asleep.
User smokes a pipe.
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O-)
Megaton Man On Patrol!
(or else, user is a scuba
diver)
(8-o It's Mr. Bill!
O :- User is an angel (at heart,
*:o) And Bozo the Clown!
at least).
)
spitting out its
:-` User
3:[ Mean Pet smiley.
chewing tobacco.
:-S
User just made an
incoherent statement.
:-D
User is laughing (at you!)
:-X User's lips are sealed.
:-C User is really bummed.
<|-) User is Chinese.
<|-(
User is Chinese and
doesn't like these kind of
jokes.
:-/ User is skeptical.
C=:- User is a chef.
)
@= User is pro-nuclear war.
:-0 No Yelling! (Quiet Lab)
smiley; the
:-: Mutant
invisible smiley.
X-(
User just died.
d8=
Your pet beaver is wearing
goggles and a hard hat.
E-:- User is a Ham radio
operator.
)
:-9 User is licking his/her lips.
%-6 User is braindead.
[:-) User is wearing a walkman.
(:I
User is an egghead.
<:-I User is a dunce.
K:P
User is a little kid with a
propeller beenie.
@:-) User is wearing a turban.
.-) User only has one eye.
,-) Ditto...but he's winking.
8 :- User is a wizard.
)
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High Density Computing- Guide to Basic Smileys
-=*
:-)
User is a TeX wizard.
Midget Smileys
A lot of these can be typed without noses to make midget smileys.
:*
[]
:O
:,(
:(
:I
:>
:}
Kisses.
=)
:)
Variation on a theme...
Hugs and ...
Yelling.
Crying.
Sad.
Hmmm..
What?
What should we call these?
(what?)
Midget smiley.
|I
:Q
:C
:{
:[
:D
:@
:)
Asleep.
:]
^o
Gleep...a friendly midget smiley
who will gladly be your friend.
What?
What?
What?
Real Downer.
Laughter.
What?
Happy.
Snoring.
Usenet Smileys
In some Usenet articles you might also find these smileys which form a certain
"dialect" developed and used in this most creative environment.
~~:- Net.flame
(
O |)
Net.religion
file:///C|/WINDOWS/Desktop/acrobat%20glossary/glossary/examples/smileys.htm (4 of 5) [4/11/01 4:11:01 PM]
High Density Computing- Guide to Basic Smileys
8 :- Net.unix-wizards
X-( Net.suicide
I
E-:- Net.ham-radio
I
Emotional Smileys
:-)
|-D
:-(
:-O
ha ha
ho ho
boo hoo
oops
|-)
:->
:-I
:-P
hee hee
hey hey
hmmm
nyahhhh!
"The man who smiles when "Standing on head makes smile of frown,
things go wrong has thought
of someone to blame it on." but rest of face also upside down."
--- Fortune cookie
--- Jone's Law
Mega Smileys
C=}>;*{))
back
A drunk, devilish
chef with a toupee
in an updraft, a
mustache, and a
double chin.
}:^#})
Updrafted bushymustached pointy
nosed smiley with a
double-chin.
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High Density Computing's - IRC Shorthand
Goto High-Density's homepage
E-mail - IRC Shorthand
The term you are looking up is an IRC or E-mail shorthand.
These are acronyms for commonly used phrases people use on the
Internet that they would otherwise have to type out. To find
the meaning of one of these terms scroll down and find your
term on the table below.
RI&W - Read It And Weep
^5
High Five!
AKA
Also Known As
BBL
Be Back Later
BBIAF
Be Back in a Few
BBIAB
Be Back in a Bit
BCNU
Be Seein' You
BFD
Big F***ing Deal
BFN
Bye For Now
BIF
Basic In Fact
BTSOOM
Beats The S*** Out Of Me
BTW
By The Way
CUL8R
See You Later
F2F
Face To Face
FWIW
For What It's Worth
FYA
For Your Amusement
FYI
For Your Information
FU
F***ed Up
FUBAR
F***ed Up Beyond All
Recognition
FUD
(Spreading) Fear, Uncertainty, and
Disinformation
GR&D
Grinning Running And Ducking
HTH
Hope This(That) Helps
IAE
In Any Event
IMO
In My Opinion
IMHO
In My Humble Opinion
IMNSHO In My Not So Humble Opinion
IOW
In Other Words
IRL
In Real Life
L8R
Later
LOL
Laughing Out Loud
LTNS
Long Time No See
file:///C|/WINDOWS/Desktop/acrobat%20glossary/glossary/examples/e-mailsh.html (1 of 2) [4/11/01 4:11:05 PM]
High Density Computing's - IRC Shorthand
MorF
Male or Female
MHOTY
My Hat's Off To You
MOTD
Message Of The Day
MOTSS
Members Of The Same Sex
NFW
No F***ing Way
NRN
No Reply Necessary
NBIF
No Basis In Fact
OIC
Oh, I see
OOTB
Out Of The Box or Blue
OTOH
On The Other Hand
POV
Point Of View
PMFJI
Pardon Me For Jumping In
ROTFL
Rolling On The Floor Laughing
ROTFLMAO Rolling On The Floor Laughing
My Ass Off
RSN
Real Soon Now
RTFM
Read The F***ing Manual
RTM
Read The Manual
SITD
Still In The Dark
SNAFU
Situation Normal, All F***ed Up
SorG
Straight or Gay?
TIA
Thanks In Advance
TIC
Tongue In Cheek
TYVM
Thank You Very Much
TTFN
Ta Ta For Now
TTYL
Talk To You Later
TANSTAAFL There Ain't No Such Thing As A
Free Lunch
TIC
Tongue In Cheek
TMTT
Too Much To Type
TYVM
Thank You Very Much
unPC
unPolitically Correct
WAG
Wild Ass Guess
WB
Welcome Back
WEG
Wicked Evil Grin
WTF?
What The F***?
WTG
Way To Go!
WYSIWYG
What You See Is What You Get
YMMV
Your Mileage May Vary
SEE ALSO: emoticons and smileys.
back
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AE United Arab Emirates
AF Afghanistan
AG Antigua and Barbuda
AI Anguilla
AL Albania
AM Armenia
AN Netherland Antilles
AO Angola
AQ Antarctica
AR Argentina
AS American Samoa
AT Austria
AU Australia
AW Aruba
AZ Azerbaidjan
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BB Barbados
BD Bangladesh
BE Belgium
BF Burkina Faso
BG Bulgaria
BH Bahrain
BI Burundi
BJ Benin
BM Bermuda
BN Brunei Darussalam
BO Bolivia
BR Brazil
BS Bahamas
BT Buthan
BV Bouvet Island
BW Botswana
BY Belarus
BZ Belize
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CC Cocos (Keeling) Isl.
CF Central African Rep.
CG Congo
CH Switzerland
CI Ivory Coast
CK Cook Islands
CL Chile
CM Cameroon
CN China
CO Colombia
CR Costa Rica
CS Czechoslovakia
CU Cuba
CV Cape Verde
CX Christmas Island
CY Cyprus
CZ Czech Republic
H,I&J
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DJ Djibouti
DK Denmark
DM Dominica
DO Dominican Republic
DZ Algeria
EC Ecuador
EE Estonia
EG Egypt
EH Western Sahara
ES Spain
ET Ethiopia
FI Finland
FJ Fiji
FK Falkland Isl.(Malvinas)
FM Micronesia
FO Faroe Islands
FR France
FX France (European Ter.)
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KG Kirgistan
KH Cambodia
KI Kiribati
KM Comoros
KN St.Kitts Nevis Anguilla
KP Korea (North)
KR Korea (South)
KW Kuwait
KY Cayman Islands
KZ Kazachstan
LA Laos
LB Lebanon
LC Saint Lucia
LI Liechtenstein
LK Sri Lanka
LR Liberia
LS Lesotho
LT Lithuania
LU Luxembourg
LV Latvia
LY Libya
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GA Gabon
GB Great Britain (UK)
GD Grenada
GE Georgia
GH Ghana
GI Gibraltar
GL Greenland
GP Guadeloupe (Fr.)
GQ Equatorial Guinea
GF Guyana (Fr.)
GM Gambia
GN Guinea
GR Greece
GT Guatemala
GU Guam (US)
GW Guinea Bissau
GY Guyana
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MA Morocco
MC Monaco
MD Moldavia
MG Madagascar
MH Marshall Islands
ML Mali
MM Myanmar
MN Mongolia
MO Macau
MP Northern Mariana Isl.
MQ Martinique (Fr.)
MR Mauritania
MS Montserrat
MT Malta
MU Mauritius
MV Maldives
MW Malawi
MX Mexico
MY Malaysia
MZ Mozambique
HK Hong Kong
HM Heard & McDonald Is
HN Honduras
HR Croatia
HT Haiti
HU Hungary
ID Indonesia
IE Ireland
IL Israel
IN India
IO British Indian O. Terr.
IQ Iraq
IR Iran
IS Iceland
IT Italy
JM Jamaica
JO Jordan
JP Japan
N&O
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NA Namibia
NC New Caledonia (Fr.)
NE Niger
NF Norfolk Island
NG Nigeria
NI Nicaragua
NL Netherlands
NO Norway
NP Nepal
NR Nauru
NT Neutral Zone
NU Niue
NZ New Zealand
OM Oman
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P, Q &R
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PA Panama
PE Peru
PF Polynesia (Fr.)
PG Papua New Guinea
PH Philippines
PK Pakistan
PL Poland
PM St. Pierre & Miquel
PN Pitcairn
PT Portugal
PR Puerto Rico (US)
PW Palau
PY Paraguay
QA Qatar
RE Reunion (Fr.)
RO Romania
RU Russian Federation
RW Rwanda
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SA Saudi Arabia
SB Solomon Islands
SC Seychelles
SD Sudan
SE Sweden
SG Singapore
SH St. Helena
SI Slovenia
SJ Svalbard & Jan Maye
SK Slovak Republic
SL Sierra Leone
SM San Marino
SN Senegal
SO Somalia
SR Suriname
ST St. Tome and Principe
SU Soviet Union
SV El Salvador
SY Syria
T&U
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Y&Z
V
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VA Vatican City State
VC St.Vincent & Grenad
VE Venezuela
VG Virgin Islands (British
VI Virgin Islands (US)
VN Vietnam
VU Vanuatu
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Goto: Glossary or Home
YE Yemen
YU Yugoslavia
Z
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TC Turks & Caicos Isla
TD Chad
TF French Southern Terr.
TG Togo
TH Thailand
TJ Tadjikistan
TK Tokelau
TM Turkmenistan
TN Tunisia
TO Tonga
TP East Timor
TR Turkey
TT Trinidad & Tobago
TV Tuvalu
TW Taiwan
TZ Tanzania
UA Ukraine
UG Uganda
UK United Kingdom
UM US Minor outlying Isl.
US United States
UY Uruguay
UZ Uzbekistan
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ZA South Africa
ZM Zambia
ZR Zaire
ZW Zimbabwe
WF Wallis & Futuna Isl
WS Samoa
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