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CAPE
COMMUNICATION
STUDIES
Module 3
TYPES OF SPEAKING
AND WRITING
 There are two main ways in which human beings
communicate verbally, that is, through speaking and
writing:
1. SPEAKING: is the vocalized form of human
communication through the use of uttered sounds for
auditory communication. It is based upon the syntactic
combination of lexicons and names that are drawn
from very large vocabularies.
2. WRITING: is the representation of language in a
textual medium through the use of a set of signs or
symbols such as letters that express some meaning.
1. SPEAKING: Oral Communication
TYPES: Expository speeches, Conversations, Face –to face, Interview,
Meeting, Oral Briefing, Public address, Oral Presentation, Telephone Call,
Conference, Training Session etc.
Advantages:
 Direct medium of communication
 advantages of physical proximity and usually, both sight and sound of
sender and receiver; allows instant interchange of opinion, views,
attitudes – instantaneous feedback
 easier to convince or persuade
 Allows for contribution and participation from all present.
Disadvantages :
 More difficult to hold ground in face of opposition
 more difficult to control when a number of people take
part
 lack of time to think things out – quality of decision
making may be inferior
 often no written record of what has been said
 Sometimes disputes results over what was agreed.
2. WRITING: Written Communication
TYPES: Essay, Journal, Diaries, Letter, Memorandum, Report,
Abstract, minutes, Article, Press Release
Advantages:
 Provides written record and evidence of dispatch and receipt
 capable of relaying complex ideas
 provides analysis, evaluation and summary
 disseminates information to dispersed receivers
 can confirm, interpret and clarify oral communications
 Forms basis of contract or agreement.
Disadvantages:
 Can take time to produce
 can be expensive
 communication tends to be formal and distant
 can cause problems of interpretation
 instant feedback is not possible
 once dispatched, difficult to modify message
 Does not allow for exchange of opinion, views or
attitudes except over a period of time.
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