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Communication
What is Communication?
• the exchange of thoughts, ideas, feelings,
information, opinions, and knowledge
between two or more parties.
Characteristics of Communication
1. The communication
process happens between
or among two or more
parties. The sender and
the reciever.
2. Communication involves
exchange of ideas,
feelings, information,
thoughts, or knowledge.
3. Communication involves
mutual understanding
between Sender and
Receiver.
Types of Communication
• Verbal
• Nonverbal
There are three major parts in
human face to face
communication which are body
language, voice tonality, and
words.
Communication
According to the research:
• 55% of impact is determined by
body language—postures,
gestures, and eye contact,
• 38% by the tone of voice, and
• 7% by the content or the words
used in the communication
process.
Body
Language
Tone of
Voice
Words
Verbal Communication
1. Oral Communication:
information spoken by
mouth; the use of speech.
Some of the examples of Oral
Communication are: Face to
face communication,
Telephonic Communication,
Public Address System
(Speech), Informal rumor mill
(Grape Vine), Audio & Visual
Media(Radio, TV), Lectures,
Conference-Interchange of
views, Meetings, etc.
Verbal Etiquette
• Rule #1 Properly
address people
• Rule #2 Make proper
introductions
• Rule #3 Properly use
telephone etiquette
Rule #1 Properly Address People
Generally, it is appropriate to address those to which an
informal relationship has been established by their
first name.
In formal relationships, or when the relationship status
is unknown, it is necessary to refer to the individual
using the appropriate gender-specific title.
When gender-specific titles are necessary, use
Mister (Mr.) to address men, Misses (Mrs.) to
address married women, and Miss (Ms.) to
address women who are single or whose marital
status is unknown.
Rule #1 Properly Address People
Following are more specific rules for addressing others in business
settings:
• Superiors: Always address superiors with the appropriate
gender-specific title, unless he/she gives express permission to
do otherwise. (Mr., Mrs. Ms.)
• Colleagues: It is generally accepted procedure to address
colleagues by first name. Exceptions arise when the relationship
is formal or unfamiliar.
• Clients and Customers: Most relationships with clients or
customers are formal, dictating appropriate gender-specific
titles. Occasionally, though, an amiable relationship has been
established and would allow the use of first names.
Rule #2 Introductions
When introducing others:
• The most important point about
introductions is to always make
them, even if you can't remember
names.
• Failing to do so causes
embarrassment and discomfort.
• Say both party’s names and titles
(if necessary).
– Kevin, this is Sarah Thompson, CEO
of Global Share.
– Mr. Moore this is Lisa Parker my
colleague at GRE Systems.
– John, I would like you to meet my
friend Kelly.
Rule #2 Introductions
When introducing yourself:
– Say your name and your
title (if necessary)
– Extend your hand to shake
theirs and SMILE!
– Ask, “What is your
name?” If they do not
automatically respond.
– Say “Nice to meet you
_________”
– Start conversation
Practice Introductions!
• Turn to the person next to you and introduce
yourself as if you have never met.
Remember
– Say your name
– Extend your hand to shake theirs, make eye contact
and SMILE!
– Ask, “What is your name?” If they do not automatically
respond.
– Say “Nice to meet you _________”
– Start conversation
Practice Introductions!
• Now we are going to go out around the school and introduce
ourselves to a teacher we have NEVER met!
• The teacher will rate your introduction on scale of 1-10. You and your
partner must meet different teachers.
• You will have 15 minutes. Late = 0 pts.
• Do not bother any teachers who have a class. You may go to the main
office, meet the nurse, guidance, secretaries, or teachers in planning.
• MAKE SURE YOU KNOCK! Say “Can I bother you for a second? I’d like
to introduce myself. I am ___________. (Shake hand, Smile) What’s
your name? Nice to meet you _____________” Then start a small
conversation. Ask them what they teach or how long they have been
a teacher at FHS, etc.
Rule #3 Telephone Etiquette
•
Greet the caller and identify yourself when
answering the phone with your first and last
name.
•
Return phones calls within 24 hours, and
apologize if the call is late.
•
Identify yourself when you place a call. Say your
name, the company, business or department you
represent. Then state the nature of your call. (If
you do not identify yourself, expect to be asked
and do not take offense.)
•
Keep and pen and paper handy.
•
Only put a person on hold if you absolutely have
to. Ask the caller for permission and be quick!
•
Be upbeat and positive.
Written Communication
• Our writing is a reflection
of ourselves.
• Use correct grammar,
spelling and punctuation.
Proofread your writing!
• Use the correct format for
your writing.
– Example: We use different
formats when writing a
business letter than we do
when writing a memo.
Business
Letter
The most common
format used is
called “Block”
Format.
Using this format,
the entire letter is
left justified and
single spaced
except for a
double space
between
paragraphs.
Business
Letter
The 7 main parts of a
business letter:
1. Date
2. Return Address
(sometimes on
letterhead only)
3. Inside Address
(recipients address)
4. Salutation
(greeting)
5. Body Paragraphs
6. Complimentary
Closing
7. Signature
Business Memos
What is a memo?
– Interoffice correspondence sent between
employees in a company.
• Less formal than business letters.
• Today less memos are used. They have been
replaced by emails.
Business Memos
Two Parts
1. Heading (To, From,
Date, Subject)
2. Body
Email Etiquette
• Use the subject line
• Use a greeting just like a letter
• Use standard spelling,
punctuation, and grammar
• Write clear, short paragraphs
• Be friendly but be careful of using
humor. It is hard to understand
through writing.
• Use your email for work related
communication only.
• Remember—an email is
permanent!
• Don’t hit “Reply All” unless you
want to!
Practice Oral Communication
• Think Speed Dating 
• You will have 1 minute to have a conversation
with a person sitting across from you. Both
parties must use oral communication
continuously! (Take Turns! Don’t Stop Talking!!)
• I will give you a topic to discuss in that minute.
After one minute we will rotate seats and get a
new topic.
Public Speaking
Who: Who am I speaking to? Know the needs of your
audience and meet those needs.
What: What am I going to speak about? Make it
relevant. Know your material thoroughly and be
excited about it.
Where: What is the best
setting for this
presentation? How should
the room be arranged?
Public Speaking
When: Put what you have to say in a logical sequence.
Know when to pause for your audience to think. Know
when you should conclude your presentation.
Why: Give meaning to what you a
saying. Add value or worth. Why
should people listen to you?
How: How can you best convey
your message? Choose the best
words to use. PRACTICE PRACTICE
PRACTICE to avoid saying “um”
and “ah” which would distract
listeners from your presentation.
Use notes but do not read right off
of them!
Nonverbal
Communication
Review
• There are two types of Communication:
– Verbal
– Nonverbal
Verbal Communication includes:
Oral Communication
Written Communication
Today we will look at Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal Communication
Icebreaker 
Play “Rock, Paper, Scissors” with facial
expressions. “Happy, Sad, Mad”
Happy Sad Mad
Nonverbal Communication
What is it?
the process of communication through
sending and receiving wordless messages.
Types of Nonverbal Communication
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Facial Expressions
Gestures
Paralinguistics
Body language and posture
Proxemics
Eye Gaze
Haptics
Appearance
Facial
Expressions
• Convey the
emotional state of
the individual to
the observer
• Often are
involuntary
actions but can be
voluntary
Photographs from the 1862 book Mécanisme de la
Physionomie Humaine by Guillaume Duchenne.
Through electric stimulation, Duchenne determined
which muscles were responsible for different facial
expressions.
Gestures
• Visible bodily actions are
used to communicate
particular messages, either
in place of speech all
together and in parallel
with spoken words.
• Gestures include
movement of the hands,
face, or other parts of the
body.
• Examples: Waving,
pointing, using fingers
indicate number amounts.
Paralinguistics
• Vocal communication that is separate from actual
language.
• Includes tone of voice, loudness, inflection, and
pitch.
Example: When said in a
strong tone of voice,
listeners might interpret
approval and enthusiasm.
The same words said in a
hesitant tone of voice
might convey disapproval
and a lack of interest.
Body Language and Posture
• Body language may provide cues as to the attitude or
state of mind of a person.
Hands on knees: indicates readiness.
Hands on hips: indicates impatience.
Lock your hands behind your back: indicates self-control.
Locked hands behind head: states confidence.
Sitting with a leg over the arm of the chair: suggests
indifference.
Legs and feet pointed in a particular direction: the direction
where more interest is felt
Crossed arms: indicates that a person is putting up an
unconscious barrier between themselves and others
Proxemics
• the study of set measurable distances between people as
they interact
• The amount of distance we need and the amount of space
we perceive as belonging to us is influenced by a number of
factors including social norms, situational factors,
personality characteristics, and level of familiarity.
For example, the amount of personal space needed when having a casual
conversation with another person usually varies between 18 inches to four feet.
On the other hand, the personal distance needed when speaking to a crowd of
people is around 10 to 12 feet.
Eye Gaze
• Includes looking, staring, and
blinking.
• Looking at another person
can indicate a range of
emotions, including hostility,
interest, and attraction.
• Example: Making eye contact
during a conversation.
Haptics
• Communicating through
touch
• Different types of haptic
communication are
appropriate for different
situations.
• Touch can be used to
communicate positive
emotions such as support,
appreciation, and affection.
Appearance
• Our choice of color, clothing, hairstyles, and
other factors affecting appearance are also
considered a means of nonverbal
communication.
• Colors can invoke different moods
• Appearance can also alter physiological
reactions, judgment, and interpretations.
Interaction of Verbal and Nonverbal
Communication
When communicating, nonverbal messages can
interact with verbal messages in six ways:
1. Repeating
2. Conflicting
3. Complementing
4. Substituting
5. Regulating
6. Accenting
Repeating
The use of nonverbal behavior to say what you are
saying in words
Examples:
Pointing to the object of discussion with your
finger
Nodding your head and saying “yes” at the same
time.
Conflicting
When people are saying one thing yet their
nonverbal behavior is telling us something
completely different.
Example: A friend says, “I am so sorry” while
smiling
Complimenting
The use of nonverbal behaviors to strengthen
what is being said with words.
Example:
A friend says “I am so sorry” and at the same
time makes a sincerely sad face
Substituting
The use of nonverbal behaviors to say things
rather than words
We often answer questions others ask by
responding nonverbally rather than verbally
Example: Nodding your head to answer a
question rather than saying “yes”
Regulating
Nonverbal behaviors that control the flow of the
conversation, and tell us when it is our turn to
talk, or when the other person is finished
talking.
Example: while telling a story to a friend, one
may pause to allow room for comments
Accenting
Emphasizing certain words in order to clarify
what we mean.
Example: “NO!” or “No????”
Practice Nonverbal Communication
• Without talking get in order by birthday
month while standing on the line of tape.
• You may not step off of the line while getting
in order.
Practice Nonverbal Communication
Charades!
Two teams will compete against
each other.
One team will choose someone to
act out a phrase—and only that
team can guess the phrase.
There is a two minute time limit.
(Example: Walking a dog)
The team with the most guessed
phrases wins!
Barriers to Successful Communication
• Effective listening
Document related concepts
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