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Modern Era
 Over
the years there have been
many different forms of Judaism
 Today, they can be classified into 3
main groups:
 Orthodox
 Conservative
 Reform
 Belief:
Jewish laws and teachings of the
Torah must be followed exactly as they
were taught by Moses and developed in
the Talmud (central text of Rabbinic
Judaism; includes the Oral Torah and
written teachings)

Non-Orthodox Jews believe that some of the
Torah’s teaching can be adapted to help make
them more relevant
 Worshipping:
men and women worship
separately at the synagogue (based on
Temple traditions from Jerusalem)


Women have only a small part in the religious
life
Women are not permitted to become rabbis
 Language:
conduct all services in
Hebrew, but include
a translation in the
prayer book in the
local language
A
non-Orthodox branch
 Beliefs:
Broke away from the Reform
movement to become more traditional

Fall half-way between Orthodox and Reform
Judaism
 Worship:


Men and women worship together
Women take a more equal part in worship
Women are permitted to become rabbis
 Language:
use both Hebrew and their own
language when practicing faith
A
non-Orthodox branch
 First
developed in Germany during the
first half of the 19th century (1800s)
 Moved away from the Orthodox view of
the Hebrew Bible and Talmud
 2nd half of 19th century: the United States
became the center of the Reform
movement
 Beliefs:
Reform Jews gave up many of
their ritual practices and ceremonies
 Worship: Men and women worship
together


Women take a more equal part
in worship
Women are permitted to
become rabbis
 Language:
use both Hebrew
and their own language
when practicing faith
1. Hasidic
 A popular movement in Eastern Europe
 Established in 18th century (1700s) by Israel
Baal Sham Tov (Master of a good name)
 Taught
that contact with God is achieved
through prayer in a state of happiness
 Emphasized love of human beings
2. Non-observant individuals
 People who consider themselves Jewish but
do not obey Jewish religious laws or attend
services in a synagogue
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