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What is the Cold War?
 The Cold War was the period of conflict, tension and
competition between the United States and the Soviet Union
and their respective allies from the mid-1940s until the early
1990s. It was fought by means of propaganda, diplomatic
moves, scientific competition, economic competition,
espionage, subversion.
 There was never a direct military engagement between the
US and the Soviet Union, but there was half a century of
military buildup as well as political battles for support
around the world, including significant involvement of allied
and satellite nations in proxy wars.
USA vs. USSR
 Capitalism
 Communism
- Free market economy
- Private ownership
- No government
interference
**** The USA is a mixed
economy with a heavy
dose of capitalism.
- Class-less society
- Common Ownership
- Planned economy
**** The government
controls the economy.
USA vs. USSR
Constitutional Republic
Totalitarian State
 A form of government
 A concept that describes a state
founded on the principles of
popular sovereignty by the
people's representatives. The
people elect others to make
decisions for them. A Con.
Republic protects individual
liberties, freedom, and rights;
it contains a constitution; and
balances power.
that regulates/controls nearly
every aspect of public and private
life. It is total government control
over everything. Totalitarian
regimes or movements maintain
themselves in political power by
means of secret police,
propaganda through statecontrolled mass media,
personality cults, regulation and
restriction of liberties, single-party
states, the use of mass
surveillance, and use of terror
tactics. IF YOUR COMMUNIST
THEN YOU ARE TOTALITARIAN!
Cold War 1945-1952
USA
USSR
 The leader of the United
 The leader of the Soviet
States was President Harry
Truman (Democrat).
Union was Joseph Stalin
(Communist Dictator).
Joseph Stalin
Stalin used his power to
destroy those who
spoke out against him;
he used propaganda
through the media and
the Red Army to spread
fear & control
throughout the USSR.
He was considered an
evil dictator.
YALTA (in the USSR)
Date: Feb 1945
Present: Churchill,
Roosevelt and Stalin
 The
big 3 (FDR, Stalin, Churchill) agreed
to divide Germany, while also occupying
it after WWII.
POTSDAM (Germany)
Date: July 1945
Present: Churchill,
Truman and Stalin
 With
FDR’s death, President Truman attends
& for the first time meets with Stalin &
Churchill
 They decided to divide Germany into 4
occupational zones; America, France,
Britain took control of West Germany & USSR
took control of East Germany
 West Germany was industrialized; East
Germany was rural & poor
 Berlin was also divided into the same zones
and it was located in East Germany
 The
Russians took very high casualties to
capture Berlin in May 1945. They spent the
early occupation trying to take over all zones
of the city but were stopped by German
democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad
Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to
admit the Americans, French and British to
their respective zones.
 Cooperation
was needed to stabilize
Germany
 The occupying powers pledged to crush
fascism, reestablish local governments, &
rebuild German industry
 Stalin wanted immediate reparations from
Germany & they wanted to expand their
territory (with Poland)
 This caused tension between USSR & the
other Allies; they feared communist
expansion!
 USA
occupied Japan from 1945-1952
 Militarism
ends
A
democratic government is established
with a constitution
 The
constitution abolished the army/navy
& prohibited Japan from ever again
becoming a military power
German military officers were placed on trial for their war
crimes during WWII. Most of them were found guilty including
Hitler’s second in command Herman Gorring.
A
post-World War II international
organization
 Its goal is to work for world peace
 General Assembly – includes all member
nations; deals with organizational policy
 Security Council – includes 5 permanent
members and 10 rotating members;
addresses military/political problems
The Iron Curtain
 Way
of keeping Communist regimes from
from free contact with western ideas
 Restrictions were established on visitors,
newspapers, magazines, books, & movies
 Called the “Iron Curtain” by Winston
Churchill
Containment
Proposed by George Keenan; the act of keeping Communism in
their respected borders.
Truman Doctrine
 Pledged
to assist other countries fighting
communist armies or revolutionaries
(1947)
 The first aid payments supported
democratic governments in Greece &
Turkey
Marshall Plan
 Gave
12.5 billion dollars in aid to
Western European war-torn nations
(1948)
 Improved the tattered economies of
Western Europe and quieted communist
movements
 Also ensured that Western Europe would
spend much of its money on American
goods
Berlin Airlift
 Truman
creates the National Security
Agency & the National Security Council
to advise him
 Stalin cuts off Western access to Berlin;
people there have no food, clothing
 Rather than use bombs, Truman decides
on a more peaceful way to handle the
situation
Berlin Airlift
 Truman
orders the Air Force to drop
thousands of pounds of food, clothing,
and other goods to West Berlin in the
Berlin Airlift
•
•
NATO – North
Atlantic Treaty
Organization
USA, France, Great
Britain, West
Germany
 Warsaw
Pact – pro
Soviet countries –
USSR, and all
countries
controlled by the
USSR.
Berlin
is Germany’s capital
city.
The Soviets built the wall to
keep communists from
escaping to the American
sector.
Berlin Wall
 First
major conflict faced by UN
 Wanted to divide Palestine into 2 states
(One for Jewish people called Israel)
Truman’s Fair Deal
 Stronger
civil rights laws
 A higher minimum wage
 Extension of Social Security benefits
 Funding of low-income housing projects
 Taft Hartley Act – passed harsh
restrictions on Unions, limited the right to
strike
Cold War During the 1950s
 Eisenhower
US President (1952)
 Nikita Khrushchev – USSR leader (1953)
 Second Red Scare
2nd Red Scare
 Ordinary
people began to believe that
communist insurgents had infiltrated
American institutions & suspected
Hollywood actors, government officials,
and even their own neighbors of being
communist spies
HUAC
 House
Un-American Activities
Committee
 Held widely publicized investigations of
labor unions and other organizations
suspected of harboring communist
sympathizers
 FBI – J. Edgar Hoover – also spied on
people suspected of being communist
McCarthyism
 Senator
Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin
 Held public hearings in which he
badgered witnesses and accused people
of being communists
 Tactics won him national fame
 He fell from grace in 1954 during the
Army-McCarthy hearings, which
revealed his vindictive behavior to
millions of Americans
 The
nuclear bomb gave America a lead
which was expected to last at least 5
years. The rapid Russian development of
nuclear technology, helped by the work of
the “atom spies” was a shock.
Significantly, Russia hurriedly declared war
against Japan at the beginning of August
1945 and rushed to advance into Asia to
stake out a position for the post-war
settlement. This helped make both the
Korean and Vietnamese conflicts more
likely.
Nuclear Arms Race
 Increased
tension between USA and
USSR
 H-Bomb was began in 1950 – it would be
1000x more powerful than atomic bombs
 H-Bomb tests were conducted; a US
island was decimated
 American citizens looked for comfort,
turned to religion
Nuclear Arms Race
 The
Federal Civil Defense Administration
(1951) created to educate the public on
what to do if there was a nuclear attack
 Radioactive fallout was a real threat; it
was the result of nuclear testing
 SANE was organized as a way to urge the
2 super powered countries to stop
nuclear testing
 The
USA and the Soviet Union raced as
the world watched to be the first to
conquer space.
Score 1 for Soviets!
Score: USA
Soviets
-2
–0
USA Response
 US sends its first satellite, Explorer I, into
space in 1958
 Created NASA – National Aeronautics and
Space Administration
 Created the National Defense Education Act
– gave money to improve science,
mathematics, and foreign languages
Prosperity & Consumerism of
the 1950s
 Dynamic Conservatism – philosophy that
combined conservative fiscal policies with the
social reforms of the New Deal.
 Closer ties between the two parties
Dynamic Conservatism
 Closer ties between government & business
 Reduction of federal spending, balancing the
budget, ending wage & price controls, and
lowered farm subsides
 Raising the minimum wage
 Expansion of Social Security benefits
 Funding of Public Works programs
Economic Boom
 Gross National Product (GNP) more than
doubled between 1945 and 1960 as the
economy grew stronger and stronger
 Inflation stayed low and income of the
average household rose
 New technology boosted productivity (exComputers, TV)
 Consumption increased
USA
spent
the 60s
trying to
catch up to
the Soviets.
What
is the
purpose of
a space
program?
The Truman Doctrine in
March 1947 promised that
the USA “would support
free peoples who are
resisting” communism.
This led to containment –
policy of containing
communism where it is.
The belief that if one country fell to communism, others would
follow
USA
tried to contain
communism. In both wars,
communist troops fought
armies trained and funded
by the USA.
•
After the failure of the promise of
Korean independence by the Allied
nations, on June 25, 1950, communist
North Korean troops invaded South
Korea. Poorly armed, the South Koreans
were no match for the North. The
United Nations ordered North Korea to
withdraw its troops. General
MacArthur was appointed to command
all UN troops in Korea. After three
years of fighting a stalemate, more
than 54,000 American troops perished.
Effects of the Korean War
 Truman
fires General MacArthur
 As a result Truman becomes unpopular,
decides not to run for president in 1952
 Dwight D. Eisenhower becomes
president in 1952; he negotiates an
armistice with North Koreans which ends
the war
Effects of the Korean War
 War
ends in stalemate; North Korea and
South Korea end up with the same
boundaries as before the war
 Dubbed the “forgotten war”
 US implements NSC-68 which called for a
massive military buildup to wage the
Cold War; it tripled defense spending &
fueled anticommunism at home & abroad
International
Organization
where
countries try to
find peaceful
solutions
 It
has no army but uses troops from
other countries.
Through
the Kennedy years, US
troops trained S. Vietnamese
troops to fight the Reds.
After the Gulf of Tonkin
Resolution, under LBJ, US troops
started to fight more.
Helicopters!
Seeing this on TV led to a
loss of support at home
Hippie bashing!!!
After
Korea and before
Vietnam got really bad,
America felt they had a
problem closer to home.
 The
CIA trained
and funded an
invasion of
communist Cuba.
The invasion
failed, and Castro
had some
powerful friends!
 Don’t
worry
comrade Castro.
We got your back!
•
•
The Soviets
removed the
missiles in Cuba.
In exchange, USA
pledged to not
invade Cuba
again. And to
remove missiles in
Turkey (right).
A
direct
phone line
was set up
between their
offices to
bypass other
channels.
LBJ
took the
Presidency
JFK was shot
in Dallas
Refusing
to
trade or aid
countries in
order to
punish them
 Still
today, the USA
has an economic
embargo on
communist Cuba.
 Their only cars are
from before the
embargo!