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What is the Cold War? The Cold War was the period of conflict, tension and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies from the mid-1940s until the early 1990s. It was fought by means of propaganda, diplomatic moves, scientific competition, economic competition, espionage, subversion. There was never a direct military engagement between the US and the Soviet Union, but there was half a century of military buildup as well as political battles for support around the world, including significant involvement of allied and satellite nations in proxy wars. USA vs. USSR Capitalism Communism - Free market economy - Private ownership - No government interference **** The USA is a mixed economy with a heavy dose of capitalism. - Class-less society - Common Ownership - Planned economy **** The government controls the economy. USA vs. USSR Constitutional Republic Totalitarian State A form of government A concept that describes a state founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the people's representatives. The people elect others to make decisions for them. A Con. Republic protects individual liberties, freedom, and rights; it contains a constitution; and balances power. that regulates/controls nearly every aspect of public and private life. It is total government control over everything. Totalitarian regimes or movements maintain themselves in political power by means of secret police, propaganda through statecontrolled mass media, personality cults, regulation and restriction of liberties, single-party states, the use of mass surveillance, and use of terror tactics. IF YOUR COMMUNIST THEN YOU ARE TOTALITARIAN! Cold War 1945-1952 USA USSR The leader of the United The leader of the Soviet States was President Harry Truman (Democrat). Union was Joseph Stalin (Communist Dictator). Joseph Stalin Stalin used his power to destroy those who spoke out against him; he used propaganda through the media and the Red Army to spread fear & control throughout the USSR. He was considered an evil dictator. YALTA (in the USSR) Date: Feb 1945 Present: Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin The big 3 (FDR, Stalin, Churchill) agreed to divide Germany, while also occupying it after WWII. POTSDAM (Germany) Date: July 1945 Present: Churchill, Truman and Stalin With FDR’s death, President Truman attends & for the first time meets with Stalin & Churchill They decided to divide Germany into 4 occupational zones; America, France, Britain took control of West Germany & USSR took control of East Germany West Germany was industrialized; East Germany was rural & poor Berlin was also divided into the same zones and it was located in East Germany The Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May 1945. They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones. Cooperation was needed to stabilize Germany The occupying powers pledged to crush fascism, reestablish local governments, & rebuild German industry Stalin wanted immediate reparations from Germany & they wanted to expand their territory (with Poland) This caused tension between USSR & the other Allies; they feared communist expansion! USA occupied Japan from 1945-1952 Militarism ends A democratic government is established with a constitution The constitution abolished the army/navy & prohibited Japan from ever again becoming a military power German military officers were placed on trial for their war crimes during WWII. Most of them were found guilty including Hitler’s second in command Herman Gorring. A post-World War II international organization Its goal is to work for world peace General Assembly – includes all member nations; deals with organizational policy Security Council – includes 5 permanent members and 10 rotating members; addresses military/political problems The Iron Curtain Way of keeping Communist regimes from from free contact with western ideas Restrictions were established on visitors, newspapers, magazines, books, & movies Called the “Iron Curtain” by Winston Churchill Containment Proposed by George Keenan; the act of keeping Communism in their respected borders. Truman Doctrine Pledged to assist other countries fighting communist armies or revolutionaries (1947) The first aid payments supported democratic governments in Greece & Turkey Marshall Plan Gave 12.5 billion dollars in aid to Western European war-torn nations (1948) Improved the tattered economies of Western Europe and quieted communist movements Also ensured that Western Europe would spend much of its money on American goods Berlin Airlift Truman creates the National Security Agency & the National Security Council to advise him Stalin cuts off Western access to Berlin; people there have no food, clothing Rather than use bombs, Truman decides on a more peaceful way to handle the situation Berlin Airlift Truman orders the Air Force to drop thousands of pounds of food, clothing, and other goods to West Berlin in the Berlin Airlift • • NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization USA, France, Great Britain, West Germany Warsaw Pact – pro Soviet countries – USSR, and all countries controlled by the USSR. Berlin is Germany’s capital city. The Soviets built the wall to keep communists from escaping to the American sector. Berlin Wall First major conflict faced by UN Wanted to divide Palestine into 2 states (One for Jewish people called Israel) Truman’s Fair Deal Stronger civil rights laws A higher minimum wage Extension of Social Security benefits Funding of low-income housing projects Taft Hartley Act – passed harsh restrictions on Unions, limited the right to strike Cold War During the 1950s Eisenhower US President (1952) Nikita Khrushchev – USSR leader (1953) Second Red Scare 2nd Red Scare Ordinary people began to believe that communist insurgents had infiltrated American institutions & suspected Hollywood actors, government officials, and even their own neighbors of being communist spies HUAC House Un-American Activities Committee Held widely publicized investigations of labor unions and other organizations suspected of harboring communist sympathizers FBI – J. Edgar Hoover – also spied on people suspected of being communist McCarthyism Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin Held public hearings in which he badgered witnesses and accused people of being communists Tactics won him national fame He fell from grace in 1954 during the Army-McCarthy hearings, which revealed his vindictive behavior to millions of Americans The nuclear bomb gave America a lead which was expected to last at least 5 years. The rapid Russian development of nuclear technology, helped by the work of the “atom spies” was a shock. Significantly, Russia hurriedly declared war against Japan at the beginning of August 1945 and rushed to advance into Asia to stake out a position for the post-war settlement. This helped make both the Korean and Vietnamese conflicts more likely. Nuclear Arms Race Increased tension between USA and USSR H-Bomb was began in 1950 – it would be 1000x more powerful than atomic bombs H-Bomb tests were conducted; a US island was decimated American citizens looked for comfort, turned to religion Nuclear Arms Race The Federal Civil Defense Administration (1951) created to educate the public on what to do if there was a nuclear attack Radioactive fallout was a real threat; it was the result of nuclear testing SANE was organized as a way to urge the 2 super powered countries to stop nuclear testing The USA and the Soviet Union raced as the world watched to be the first to conquer space. Score 1 for Soviets! Score: USA Soviets -2 –0 USA Response US sends its first satellite, Explorer I, into space in 1958 Created NASA – National Aeronautics and Space Administration Created the National Defense Education Act – gave money to improve science, mathematics, and foreign languages Prosperity & Consumerism of the 1950s Dynamic Conservatism – philosophy that combined conservative fiscal policies with the social reforms of the New Deal. Closer ties between the two parties Dynamic Conservatism Closer ties between government & business Reduction of federal spending, balancing the budget, ending wage & price controls, and lowered farm subsides Raising the minimum wage Expansion of Social Security benefits Funding of Public Works programs Economic Boom Gross National Product (GNP) more than doubled between 1945 and 1960 as the economy grew stronger and stronger Inflation stayed low and income of the average household rose New technology boosted productivity (exComputers, TV) Consumption increased USA spent the 60s trying to catch up to the Soviets. What is the purpose of a space program? The Truman Doctrine in March 1947 promised that the USA “would support free peoples who are resisting” communism. This led to containment – policy of containing communism where it is. The belief that if one country fell to communism, others would follow USA tried to contain communism. In both wars, communist troops fought armies trained and funded by the USA. • After the failure of the promise of Korean independence by the Allied nations, on June 25, 1950, communist North Korean troops invaded South Korea. Poorly armed, the South Koreans were no match for the North. The United Nations ordered North Korea to withdraw its troops. General MacArthur was appointed to command all UN troops in Korea. After three years of fighting a stalemate, more than 54,000 American troops perished. Effects of the Korean War Truman fires General MacArthur As a result Truman becomes unpopular, decides not to run for president in 1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower becomes president in 1952; he negotiates an armistice with North Koreans which ends the war Effects of the Korean War War ends in stalemate; North Korea and South Korea end up with the same boundaries as before the war Dubbed the “forgotten war” US implements NSC-68 which called for a massive military buildup to wage the Cold War; it tripled defense spending & fueled anticommunism at home & abroad International Organization where countries try to find peaceful solutions It has no army but uses troops from other countries. Through the Kennedy years, US troops trained S. Vietnamese troops to fight the Reds. After the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, under LBJ, US troops started to fight more. Helicopters! Seeing this on TV led to a loss of support at home Hippie bashing!!! After Korea and before Vietnam got really bad, America felt they had a problem closer to home. The CIA trained and funded an invasion of communist Cuba. The invasion failed, and Castro had some powerful friends! Don’t worry comrade Castro. We got your back! • • The Soviets removed the missiles in Cuba. In exchange, USA pledged to not invade Cuba again. And to remove missiles in Turkey (right). A direct phone line was set up between their offices to bypass other channels. LBJ took the Presidency JFK was shot in Dallas Refusing to trade or aid countries in order to punish them Still today, the USA has an economic embargo on communist Cuba. Their only cars are from before the embargo!