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Principles of Fitness
Fitness components
Cardiovascular Endurance
Fitness Components
Cardiovascular Endurance
Muscular Strength and Endurance
Fitness Components
Cardiovascular Endurance
Muscular Strength and Endurance
Flexibility
Fitness Components
Cardiovascular Endurance
Muscular Strength and Endurance
Flexibility
Body Composition
If You
Don’t Take Care
of Your Body
Where Will You Live?
Indian Proverb
Parts of a Work Out
• Warm-up: about 5 min to get heart rate up
and muscle temperature up
• Stretch: use dynamic stretching if explosive
speed or power is needed . Static stretches are
held for 15-30 seconds. No bouncing
• Main activity: C-V, 20min+, in target HR zone
• Cool down: gradually slow down. Static stretch
after HR is down to 100.
Be Your Own Personal Trainer
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• Overload: impose more work or demands in
order for improvement or gains to take place
Be Your Own Personal Trainer
Save $1000’s
• Overload: impose more work or demands in
order for improvement or gains to take place
• Progression: In order for a training program to
produce continued improvements the
resistance (or work load) should be gradually
increased.
If you don’t use it
You lose it
• Overload: impose more work or demands in
order for improvement or gains to take place
• Progression: In order for a training program to
produce continued improvements the
resistance (or work load) should be gradually
increased.
• Specificity: Your exercises need to meet your
goals.
Methods used to overload
The F.I.T.T. Formula
• Frequency- increasing how often you exercise
• Rest: recuperation is essential for muscular
growth. Over training can hinder progress. No
one should perform resistance exercises for
the same muscle group on consecutive days.
Methods used to overload
FITT
• Frequency- increasing how often you exercise
• Intensity: Increasing the rate or level of
exertion
Methods used to overload
FITT
• Frequency- increasing how often you exercise
• Intensity: Increasing the rate or level of
exertion
• Time: increasing the duration or number of
repetitions or number of sets
F.I.T.T.
• Frequency- increasing how often you exercise
• Intensity: Increasing the rate or level of
exertion
• Time: increasing the duration or number of
repetitions
Recommended Daily Allowance
For Fitness Components
Frequency Intensity
Time
C-V
3-5days/week 60%-85% of
20-60 min
Muscular
Strength
High Weights
2-4
days/week
2-4 days/week Enough wgt to
5-8 reps
2-3 sets
2-6 days/week Low wgt or
body wgt
12-20 reps
1-3 sets
3-7 days/week Point of
tension
15-30 sec. hold
Muscular
Hypertrophy
Muscular
Endurance
Flexibility
max HR
make the reps hard
by the last one
8-12 reps
2-3 sets
High Intensity Weight Training
Techniques
• Forced Reps: A partner provides just enough
assistance to enable you to complete a few
more reps when you can’t complete another
on your own. (point of failure)
• Rest Pause: perform set to point of failure
(can’t lift again). The wgt is then held in a
resting position for 5-10 sec then additional
reps are performed.
Other Weight Training Techniques
• Super Slows (continuous tension): lift lighter
weight as slowly as possible. 1 set 6 reps max
• Negatives (let downs): do as many as you can
then have a partner lift the wgt- you lower it
slowly.
• Compound Set: consecutive exercises that work
the same primary muscle (bench press, pec fly)
• Pyramid: increase wgt load for each set; 12 reps,
10 reps, 8 reps, 6 reps, compound set of 12
Sometimes the best exercise is to
place 2 hands firmly on the table
and push back
• Drop Set: a set of reps performed to failure,
followed with another set but with lighter
weight
• These techniques should only be used
periodically:
over training =zero progress
Lifting Tips
• Exercise Arrangement: Work large muscles first,
then smaller (pecs before triceps)
• Exercise Selection: include at least one exercise for
each muscle group to keep muscular balance. For
large muscle groups like the back it is usually best
to perform multiple exercises to insure that each
muscle within the group receives adequate work
Use Proper Form When Lifting
• Breathe: exhale on exertion (the hard, lifting
phase)
• Keep good posture: don’t swing or move other
body parts
• Lift slow and controlled up in 2 counts, down
in 3-4 counts
• Don’t let the weights bang or drop
• Go through the full range of motion