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Power MOSFETs
2013.01.15
SD Lab. SOGANG Univ.
Doohyung Cho
SOGANG
UNIVERSITY
SOGANG
UNIVERSITY. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE LAB.
Contents
6.6 Power VD-MOSFET On-Resistance
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•
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•
•
•
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6.6.1 Source Contact Resistance
6.6.2 Source Region Resistance
6.6.3 Channel Resistance
6.6.4 Accumulation Resistance
6.6.5 JFET Resistance
6.6.6 Drift Region Resistance
6.6.7 N+ Substrate Resistance
6.6.8 Drain Contact Resistance
6.6.9 Total On-Resistance
Simulation Example
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•
•
•
6.7.1
6.7.2
6.7.3
6.7.4
6.7 Power VD-MOSFET Cell Optimization
Optimization of Gate Electrode Width
Impact of Breakdown Voltage
Impact of Design Rules
Impact of Cell Topology
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UNIVERSITY. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE LAB.
6.6 Power VD-MOSFET On-Resistance
WCell : pitch for the linear cell geometry
WG : width of the gate electrode
WPW : width of the polysilicon window
WC : width of the contact window to the N+ source and
Pbase regions
WS : width of the photoresist mask used during the N+
source ion implantation
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UNIVERSITY. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE LAB.
6.6.1 Source Contact Resistance
• Size of the window in the polysilicon must be minimized to obtain the
lowest possible specific on-resistance
• contact resistance (ρC)
WCell : 20um
WG : 10um
WPW : 10um
WC : 8um
WS : 4um
Source contact = 2um
Amplified by a
factor of 5times.
WCell : 15um
WG : 10um
WPW : 5um
WC : 4um
WS : 3um
Source contact = 1um
Amplified by a
factor of 7.5times.
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UNIVERSITY. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE LAB.
Increased Source
contact resistance
6.6.2 Source Region Resistance
• Entering the N+ source region from the contact, the current must flow
along the source region until it reaches the channel. The resistance
contributed by the source region is determined by the sheet resistance of
the N+ diffusion (ρSQN+) and its length (LN+)
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6.6.3 Channel Resistance
• Channel length is defined by the difference in the depth of the P-base and
N+ source junctions
WCell : 20um
Gate bias of 10 V
Channel length is 1 μm
Gate oxide thickness is 500 Å
0.92 mΩ cm2
• Channel resistance can be reduced by decreasing the gate oxide thickness
but this is accompanied by a proportionate increase in the input capacitance,
which can slow down the switching speed of the power MOSFET structure.
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6.6.4 Accumulation Resistance
• Threshold voltage in this expression is for the onset of formation of the accumulation layer
• The accumulation layer resistance can be reduced
by decreasing the gate width
• However, this increases the JFET and drift region
resistances
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6.6.5 JFET Resistance
•
If the JFET region is assumed to extend to the
bottom the P-base junction, the resistance of the JFET
region can be obtained
•
The JFET region resistance can be reduced by
increasing the gate width (WG). however, this
increases the channel and accumulation layer
resistances.
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6.6.6 Drift Region Resistance
Model A
• The drift region resistance
can be reduced by increasing
the gate width (WG).
However, this increases the
channel and accumulation
layer resistances.
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Model B
• Model B predicts a smaller
value for the drift region
resistance when compared
with model A with the 45°
distribution angle due to
greater current spreading in
the drift region.
6.6.6 Drift Region Resistance
•
The resistance of the drift region is now
determined by two portions: a first portion with a
cross-sectional area that increases with the depth
and a second portion with a uniform crosssectional area for the current flow
Model C
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6.6.7 N+ Substrate Resistance & 6.6.8 Drain Contact Resistance
N+ Substrate Resistance
• Substrate wafer thickness : 500um
• typical phosphorus-doped silicon wafer is 0.003 Ω cm
• specific resistance contributed by this wafer is 0.15 mΩ cm2.
Drain Contact Resistance
• Before entering the drain electrode, the current flows through
the contact resistance between the drain metal and the N+
substrate
• resistance is not amplified unlike in the case of the source
contact.
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6.6.9 Total On-Resistance
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Simulation Example
N-Drift Thickness : 3um
(concentration : 1.3x10e16 cm-3)
P-base Thickness : 3um
N+source thickness : 1um
JFET : 1x10e16 cm-3
(depth : 3um)
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Simulation Example
•
•
•
•
•
Additional JFET doping : 2.1x10e16cm-3
Channel length of 1.6um
P-base doping : 1.5x10e17cm-3
Gate oxide Thickness : 50nm
Vth : 3.5V
• The depletion layer width (W0) in the JFET
region is 0.24 μm
• constant with a width (a/2) of 3.4 μm. From
the JFET region width of 3.4 μm
• current spreads to a width of 6.5 μm at a
depth of 6 μm
• current travels a distance of 3 μm
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6.7 Power VD-MOSFET Cell Opimization
• It was demonstrated that the JFET and drift region specific resistance
contributions can be reduced by increasing the width of the gate
electrode. Unfortunately, the specific resistance contributions from the
channel and accumulation regions increase when the gate width is
increased. Consequently, it is necessary to optimize the width (WG) of
the gate electrode to obtain the lowest possible specific on-resistance
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UNIVERSITY. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE LAB.
6.7.1 Optimization of Gate Electrode Width
•
•
analytical model predicts a minimum in the
total specific on-resistance for a gate
electrode width of 9.5 μm with a value of
1.54 mΩ cm2
All the major components of the internal
resistance within the power VDMOSFET
structure are dependent on the cell pitch.
•
•
drastic increase in the JFET and
drift region contributions at gate
electrode widths of less than 6 μm
minimum specific on-resistance
occurs at a gate width of 9.5 μm.
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6.7.2 Impact of Breakdown Voltage
•
•
it can be seen that the minimum specific onresistance increases and the optimum gate electrode
width shifts to a larger value when the blocking
voltage is increased
channel resistance becomes dominant in the low
voltage power VD-MOSFET structure
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6.7.3 Impact of Design Rules
•
•
•
•
•
desirable to reduce the size of the poly silicon
window to improve the current distribution within
the drift region
In addition, a reduction of the polysilicon window
decreases the cell pitch
smaller design rules require investment in
photolithographic technology with higher
resolution
N+source contact large =>poor contact of P-bacs
=> drastically diminish the dynamic performance
of the device due to creation of an open-base N–
P–N transistor
specific onresistance is reduced from 1.54 to 1.36
to 1.21 mΩ cm2 as the polysilicon window is
reduced from 8 to 6 to 4 μm.
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6.7.4 Impact of Cell Topology
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