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Social Cohesion and Roma Minority Integration –
Cross-national analysis of 5 Eastern and Central European Countries
Conceptualization
Participation in
Labor Market
Socio
demographic
factors (age,
gender,
education,
Socio-economic
factors
Income Levels
Use of Social
Welfare
Housing
Area of
location
integrated/s
egregated
area
Social Integration
(Social Cohesion)
Family – women
rights
Cultural Bounds
Family – people
Roma relate to
9social
Tradition
Anomia
Legal and Political
Determinants
Political
Participation
Trust in Roma
political
representation
Attitudes of host
countries
Attitudes towards
economic reforms
Participation in
Labor Market
Attitudes towards
economic reforms
Socioeconomic
factors
Cultural Bounds
Social Integration
(Social Cohesion)
Socio demographic
factors
Family
9social
Trust in Roma
political
representation
Tradition
Area of location
Music
integrated/segrega
ted area
Language
Social
Belonging
Roma History
Legal and Political
Determinants
Anomia
Participation in
Labor Market
Attitudes towards
economic reforms
Socioeconomic
factors
Cultural Bounds
Social Integration
(Social Cohesion)
Socio demographic
factors
Family
9social
Trust in Roma
political
representation
Tradition
Area of location
Music
integrated/segrega
ted area
Language
Social
Belonging
Legal and Political
Determinants
Anomia
Roma History
I. Social Cohesion
The concept of social cohesion is not clearly determined in the research literature, one of the
reasons being that it comprises many concepts: social belonging, social capital, socialization.
According to Stanley (2003: pag.5), social cohesion is defined as “the willingness of members of a
society to cooperate with each other in order to survive and prosper”. The reciprocal relationship
of the members of society is considered of extreme importance by Helly in her research on the
relationship between social cohesion and cultural plurality (Helly: 2003).
Measurement: Index of Social Cohesion
Responses to the question: On whom Roma in your country can rely for support?
Response categories: Rather YES, Rather NO
Rather YES responses across the countries:
Q:66, Var00271-Var00279
Roma Parties
Roma NGOs
Informal Roma leaders
Well-off or Rich Roma individuals
Neighbors and friends from the majority
Roma neighbors and friends
Non-Roma NGOs with human rights profile
The government itself
Foreign donors/institutions
%(n)
Bulgaria Czech Republic Hungary Romania Slovakia
19.9(966)
18.6(1038) 14.0(970) 14.4(966)
35.7(1023)
20.4(963)
24.8(980) 11.9(969) 12.8(963)
12.7(1018)
13.5(955)
34.9(982) 27.3(970)
5.4(965)
29.1(1024)
18.6(966)
18.3(979)
9.0(981)
5.6(970)
12(1022)
35.3(963)
23.3(979) 45.9(984) 33.4(965)
33.4(1023)
46.7(966)
48.2(983) 66.5(986) 31.0(965)
29.4(1025)
11.5(954)
22.3(981) 11.2(968)
18(963) 18.1(1014)
42.7(977)
20.0(983)
6.6(976) 31.6(970)
21.3(1024)
29.6(956)
14.2(973) 15.0(973)
5.9(960)
13.3(985)
The first group of question (1, 2 and 3) regards the extent to which Roma rely on support from
institutions and individuals that identify themselves responsible to represent exclusively Roma’s
interest: parties, Roma NGOs and informal Roma leaders (king, chef). As social cohesion assume
a reciprocal relationship between members of society, the lack of support from representatives
will determine negative cohesive response, and the opposite, an increase in support will meet
positive responses of cohesion.
The social cohesion is also secured by social interactions between individuals: neighbors, friends
or other individuals, no matter the ethnic background. This aspect is surprised in the second
group of questions, 4, 5 and 6.
The third group of 3 questions comprises the relations between individuals and the national
leading institutions which can be also important factors which stimulate social cohesion. As the
transnational institution and movements are striving towards the protection of human rights,
decrease in discrimination, national and international institutions are also involved in providing
programs and policies addressed specifically towards the Roma population. The perceived
positive support also could be determinant to a more cohesive behavior.
II. Cultural Bounds
Researches concerning the importance of cultural bonding in minorities developing attitudes of
social belonging to the country in which they live are part of a new and powerful trend of
contemporary multicultural political theory.
One of the proponents of this new wave of thinking the political theory is Kymlicka, which argues
that current integration policies has a direct and strong impact on minorities culture and
traditions. Official language policies, attempts to create an uniform system of education, as well as
rejection of traditional jobs and cultural activities are just some of the liberal democracies tools of
integration. (Kymlicka: 2003) I argue that closer bounding with the Roma culture and tradition
influence the attitudes of social belonging.
Question:
You most likely have some individual knowledge or skill, which you did not learn in school but
rather from the community. Please select items from the following list for which this is the case.
-Romani language