Content tests Alex III – p4 1. Which year did his Dad Alex II die? – 1881 2. Which year were the serfs emancipated? – 1861 3. What did Alex II launce to emphasize the absolute political power of the Tsar? – A manifesto 4. What did the ‘Statute of State Security’ law establish? – Government controlled courts, suspects could be put on trial without a jury 5. How many major newspapers were banned between 1882-1889? – 14 6. What became more powerful and feared? – Okhrana 7. What were increased and why? – University fees, only wealthy could attend. 8. Which year did Alex II introduce ‘Land captains’? 1889 9. Where did Land captains come from? – landed classes, to join the Zemstva 10. 1890, government set that they had the right to choose what? Juries 11. What was russification? – Russian became official language of empire, all other languages banned. 12. What were attacks on Jews called? – Pogroms 13. Who was Alex III’s finance minister in 1881? – Bunge 14. What two things did Bunge do to help the peasants? – Established peasant land bank, reduced amount of tax paid by peasants 15. When in the 1890s was there a big famine and how many died? 1891-1892 – 1.5-2 million died. Content test – Witte – p6 1. When did Witte become Finance Minister? – 1892 2. What was the name of his plan? ‘The Great Spurt’ 3. What 3 problems did Russia suffer from in the late nineteenth century? 1. Russian needed more foreign investment 2. Russia needed a larger business class 3. Russia needed more peasants to move to the cities to work in the factories. 4. Name 3 parts of his plan – 1. Government more active in economy 2. Greater emphasis on heavy industry 3. Loans from abroad 4. Tax on peasants increased 5. Trans-Siberian railways built to exploit Siberia 6. Witte restricted working day to 11.5 hours 5. Successes – how much did Coal and iron production increase by per year %? – 8% 6. How much investment did Russia receive from 1897-1900? – 144 million roubles 7. By when was the Trans-Siberian railway almost completed? – by 1903 8. How much did St petersburg’s population increase by and between which dates? – 1 million to 2 million from 1890 to 1914 9. Name 3 failures of the plan – 1 – living conditions poor 2- more political opposition emerged 3 – strikes were common - 4 – peasants angry by increased taxes 5 – Russia still lagged behind countries like Germany 10. By 1913 – how many people (%) were living in towns? – still only 18% 11. Russia in more debt than other countries after the plan, but how much debt werew they in? – 8 billion roubles. Reign of Nicholas II – p8 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. When did he come to power? – 1894 What was divine right? – god given right to rule Who did he rely on heavily to maintain security in Russia? – Ohkrana What did he encourage against the Jews? – Pogroms He supported the establishment of what? BH – Black Hundreds Who was this group and what did they do? – group that supported Russian nationalism and anti-semitism. They supported the Tsarist system of government and used violence to intimidate workers. 7. Civil servants were poorly paid which led to … b and c? bribery and corruotion 8. Word to describe the Tsar? – I? Indecisive 9. What nationality was the Tsarina? – German by birth 10. What was her name? – Alexandra 11. What had a very important role in Russian Society? O C? – Orthodox church 12. What message did the church bring to the countryside? – that the Tsar had been chosen by god. Political opposition to the Tsarist system of rule – p10 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Which political group had assassinated Alexander II in 1881? – the People’s Will Whose model did the SD’s follow? – Marx’s What was the final stage in Marx’s model? – communism When was the SD party established? – 1898 Which year did they split? – 1903 Why did they split? – disagreed on how to lead a revolution What was the pamphlet called that Lenin wrote? – ‘What is to be done?’ What does Bolsheviks mean… men of the ________? – ‘men of the majority’ What was the small group of revolutionaries called that Lenin wanted to lead the revolution? ‘vanguard’ 10. Who led the SR’s? – Chernov 11. What was the focus of the party? – on attracting the peasants 12. SRs were the party responsible for the most A____? Assassinations 13. What did the liberals want before 1905? – wanted a more modern western European style of democratic government 14. How did the Liberals split after the 1905 revolution? Kadets – wanted further political reforms after 1905, Octobrists fully accepted the reforms proposed in the October Manifesto and did not campaign for further significant changes. Causes of the 1905 Revolution – p12 1. How much did the population of the country increase by from 1885 to 1905? – from 98 million to 125 million. 2. When was their famine between 1900 and 1905? – 1901 3. Who was assassinated by the SRs in 1905? 4. When was the Russo-Japanese War? 5. What were the Russians forced to surrender in 1905? – Port Arthur 6. At what Battle were the Russian Baltic Fleet defeated? – Battle of Tsushima 1905? 7. Where did Bloody Sunday happen? – St Petersburg 8. What were workers demanding in 1905 when they protested? – an 8 hour day, an elected assembly 9. Who led the protestors? Father Gapon 10. How many marched? 150,000 Key events and consequences of the 1905 revolution – p14 1. How many workers had been on strike by the end of 1905? – 2.7million 2. Who met for the first time in July 1905? – All Russian Peasants Union 3. What was the ‘Union of Unions’? – it united leaders of the Zemsta and professional groups in demanding a new political constitution. 4. Where was the first assembly of workers established? – St Petersburg 5. How many factories did it represent? – 96 6. Why was this Soviet of workers so worrying for the Tsar? – it showed the workers could organise themselves into an opposition group. 7. When was it closed down (which month)? - December 8. In December there was an uprising in Moscow that the Bolsheviks were involved in – how many were killed? – 1000 9. Which navies also saw mutinies in 1905? - Russian Baltic and Pacific Navies 10. What was the October Manifesto? – it promised various political reforms and established the Duma. 11. What other freedoms were given in the October Manifesto? – freedom of speech, assembly and press 12. Who were the ‘union of Russian people’ linked to and what did they do? – linked to Black Hundreds, attacked and killed those who supported reform in the countryside and within the cities 13. What was the main weakness of opposition during 1905? – divided and poorly organised, had different political beliefs and aims. 14. What happened to the leaders of the St Petersburg Soviet? – arrested in December 1905. The Role and Impact of the Dumas, 1906-1914 – p18 1. April 1906, Witte helped the Tsar secure how much of a loan and from where? – 850 million roubles from france 2. Who replaced Witte in 1906? – Stolypin 3. What were the fundamental laws? – created a national parliament – lower house known as Duma (elected) Upper house – appointed by Tsar. 4. What Article of the Fundamental laws allowed the Tsar to rule by decree? – Article 87 5. How long did the first Duma last? – 73 days 6. Why did it not last that long? – too radical demands such as release of political prisoners 7. How long did the second duma last? – 3 months 8. How did the police give the Tsar reason to close them down? – Police claimed that members of the Duma were encouraging mutinies 9. How did the Tsar and Stolypin change elections for the Third Duma? – only the wealthiest 30% could vote 10. How did this change the type of Duma? – more conservative. 11. What reforms did they pass? – Land reforms 12. When was Stolypin assassinated? – 1911 13. When was the Fourth Duma elected? – June 1912 14. What positive impact did the last two Dumas have? – replaced Land Captains with more effective Justices of the Peace. 15. How did they improve primary education? – established universal primary education 16. What did they do to help workers? – Some health and accident insurance programmes were developed to help workers. Why was Stolypin important in the period 1906-1911? 1. In November 1906, what law did Stolypin pass that helped the peasants? No longer needed permission from commune of Mir to leave. 2. What did he encourage the Peasant Land bank to do? – to give more loans to peasants. 3. What was dissolved in 1910? – All Mirs where no land redistribution had taken place after the Emancipation of the Serfs in 1861 4. He increased incentives for the peasants to move where? - Siberia/ 5. In 1905 – 20% of peasants owned land, by 1915 ___%? – 50% 6. Agricultural production increased from ____ in 1906 to ____ in 1913? - 45.9 million tonnes to 61.7 million tonnes. 7. What prevented further improvements initiated before Stolypin’s assassination? – World War One. 8. There was little done about industrial unrest, where was there industrial unrest continuing? – Lena Goldfield massacre 1912 (in Siberia, Police killed strikers) 9. 1906-1914 – what percentrage of peasants had left the Mirs? – 25% The Impact of First World War on the Russian armed forces – p22 1. Which year were there military reforms? – 1908 2. What was the ‘Grand Plan’? – it supported an offensive strategy as demanded by the French. 3. Name two defeats the Russians faced? Battle of Tannenberg and Masurian lakes. 4. Name two reasons they were defeated? – poor planning and co-ordination 5. How many casualties did the Russians suffer? – 230,000 6. What was the name of the inefficient command centre? - Stavka 7. What major problem did the Russians face? – transport 8. How many shells were they limited to per day? – 3 shells 9. Which year did the Tsar make himself Commander in Chief? – 1915 10. By 1916 – Russia still had the largest standing army – how big were they? – 1.7 million. 11. How many were dead and wounded by December 1916? – 1.6 million dead, 3.9 million wounded. The impact of First World War on Russian Politics and Economy 1. When was the ‘Progressive Bloc’ formed and by who? – 1915, by Duma 2. What was their aim? – to get Tsar to establish a Ministry of public Confidence to help run the war 3. What did the Tsar do in response? – saw it as a threat and closed down the Duma 4. What mistakes did Tsarina make? Replaced more liberal/competent ministers, listened to Rasputin. 5. When was Rasputin killed? – December 1916 6. Where did Strikes and protests begin to occur? – Moscow and Petrograd. 7. Who was the leader of the Duma? Rodzianko. 8. How high had inflation reached by 1917? – 200% 9. What mistake did the Tsar make when it came to alcohol? – banned the sale and production which reduced tax the government got 10. As a result, national debt X ____? – X4 11. Peasants began to hoard grain for own use, in 1917 only ____% of total grain harvested was sold on markets? – 10% 12. Not enough food was getting to the cities, how many wagons got to Moscow in Dec 1916 compared to 1914? – 2200 in 1914, 300 in 1916. 13. In January 1917, Petrograd only received ____% of its total grain requirements? – 48% 14. Army was forced to halve its _______ calories per day ration? – 4000 Causes of the Russian Revolution – Feb 1917 – p26 1. How many people took to the streets to commemorate ‘Bloody Sunday’ in January 1917? – 140,000 workers 2. More strikes emerged caused by? – food shortages/poor working conditions. 3. What made the situation worse that the government announced? – rationing of bread. 4. What happened on 23rd Feb that saw a large group of women take to the streets? – Iinternational Women’s day. 5. Which engineering works also went on Strike at the same time? – Putilov Engineering Works. 6. By 25 Feb – how many were on the streets? – 200,000 7. What did the Petrograd soviet establish on the 1st of March? – order no. 1 – demanded that all officers had to be elected by their soldiers. 8. How did the Tsar attempt to regain control? – all newspapers closed down, all public transport topped. 9. Which troops refused to fire on the demonstrators? – Cossack. 10. What happened when the Tsar boarded the train to Petrograd? – stopped by railway strikers, Reps from Duma met with Tsar and requested abdication. 11. When did the Tsar abdicate? – 2 March. February Revolution – p28 1. What was the key reason that the Revolution succeeded? – troops turned against the Tsar. 2. What convinced the Tsar to resign? – it was argued it would help the Russian war effort against Germany. 3. What did the Peasants do once the Tsar abdicated? – seized land 4. What did the Duma become? – The Provisional Government Difficulties facing the Provisional Government – p32 1. What did the PG mainly contain and how popular were they? – kadets and Octobrists, didn’t have popular support. 2. Who were not in the PG? – Bolsheviks or Mensheviks 3. What was the name for the way the Soviets and PG ran? – Dual Power 4. What did the PG allow more of? – Political freedoms, so could criticise government openly. 5. Who dominated the Soviet? – SRs 6. Major decisions had to be decided by both ____ and _____? PG and Soviet. 7. Why did PG decide that Russia should stay in the war? – continue to get loans from Britain and France, believed it was their duty, to gain territory. 8. How did the Soviet feel about war? Would only support a defensive war. 9. Who became the new prime minister of the PG in July and why was it him? – Kerensky, he had connections in both PG and Petrograd Soviet. 10. Where did the PG fail to keep control? – in the countryside. The Impact of Lenin’s return – p34 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Who helped Lenin return and where from? – Germany, returned from Switzerland. When did he return? – April 3rd 1917 What was his document called? – ‘April Theses’ What was his slogan? – ‘Peace, Land, Bread – All Power to the soviets’ What did Lenin demand an end to? – The War What did his slogan do? – highlighted the weaknesses of the PG Why did Lenin argue the soviets should govern Russia? – PG was too influenced by middle classes and wealthy landowners. 8. What was Bolshevik membership before July 1917? – 10,000 9. When did PG have their ill-fated offensive? – June The Significance of the July Days and General Kornilov – p36 What dates were the July Days? – 3rd to 6th of July 1917 Which naval base organised an armed demonstration? – Kronstadt Where did they protest? – Marinsky Palace (headquarters of the PG) How many protesters were there at the height of it? – 50,000 surrounding the tauride palace. 5. Loyal troops were brought in, what was the result? – the demonstration collapsed 6. What was Lenin accused of and what happened to him? – being a German Spy and he was forced to escape to Finland. 7. What was the name of the General who replaced Brusilov? – Kornilov 8. What were the PG worried about with Kornilov? – thought he was attempting a Coup 9. What did the PG do in reaction? – armed the Red Guards and released them from prison. 10. What happened to Kornilov? He lost support and was arrested. 11. What happened to support for the PG and support for the Bolsheviks after this affair? 1. 2. 3. 4. The Key events of the October 1917 Revolution – p38 1. How many Bolshevik newspapers were established across Russia? – 41 2. What were the Red Guards? – Bolshevik soldiers 3. Why did Lenin want to seize power before November? – nervous about Constituent assembly elections 4. Who did Lenin have to persuade to support an armed seizure of power? – Bolshevik Central Committee 5. Which two members of the party opposed this? – Zinoviev and Kamenev 6. Who led the revolution? Trotsky 7. What was he placed in charge of? The Military Revolutionary committee 8. What action by the PG triggered the revolution? – shutting down of two Bolshevik newspapers 9. Where were PG members arrested? – Winter Palace 10. What did Kerensky do? – fled, hoping to gain support of the American Embassy 11. All Russian Soviet met that night (25 Oct) – how many seats did the Bolsheviks get? – 390, Mensheviks 80, SRs – 180. 12. What did the All Russian Soviet support? – the decision to remove the PG Extent of Bolshevik Support in October 1917? 1. By September 1917, how big was Bolshevik membership? – 300,000 2. What was the most popular party among the peasants? – SR 3. Where was Bolshevik support more concentrated? – cities Why did Bolsheviks succeed in Oct 1917? 1. Who played the most important role in Bolshevik success in 1917? – Lenin 2. Who had the PG failed to attract support from? – the workers 3. What did the Mensheviks and SRs never do in contrast to Bolsheviks? – develop a clear strategy to gain power. 4. What crucial mistake did the Mensheviks make? – didn’t support creation of Soviet government during July days, support deteriorated rapidly. 5. Most major mistake by PG? – kornilov affair Establishment of Sovnarkom and closing of Constituent assembly – p46 1. What 5 problems did Lenin face once he had taken power? 1- war with Germany 2 – peasants seizing land 3 – limited support in countryside 4 – state bank refused to provide Bolsheviks with financial support 5 – Lenin know SRs would win in forthcoming elections 2. What 3 decrees did Lenin pass? 1- Land decree redistributing land 2- Peace decree seeking end to the war 3 – decree to establish a new gov organisation. 3. What was the top of the new government called? – Sovnarkom 4. Who was chairman of it? – Lenin 5. Who was below sovnarkom and who dominated it? – All Russia Congress of Soviets, dominated by Bolsheviks. 6. Who was under the All Russia Congress of Soviets? – representatives from cities, local soviets etc. 7. When were the constituent assembly elections due? 12th November 8. How much of the vote did the SRs get? 40.4% - largest party in CA 9. How much did the Bolsheviks get? 24% 10. Where did Bolsheviks have considerable support? – Petrograd and Moscow 11. How many people had voted for them? 10 million 12. When did the CA meet and what did Lenin do? They met 5 Jan, Lenin demanded it should be subservient to sovnarkom. CA rejected this – Lenin used red guards to close it down… hopes for democracy ended. Early measures to secure Communist control and establishment of Police State – p48 1. Who conducted peace negoitations for Lenin? – Trotsky 2. What was the Treaty called that was agreed? Treaty of Brest-Litovsk 3. Which areas did they lose? Baltic states (Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia), Poland and Ukraine 4. How much of their arable land did they lose? – 32% 5. How much of their railways? – 26% 6. When was the treaty signed? – March 1918 7. What did Lenin establish in Dec 1917? – The Cheka 8. What was their role? To end gov strikes, eliminate political opponents, shoot desserters from red army. 9. What was the ‘red terror’? – anyone who criticised the government could be arrested and many people were shot without trial. 10. What did the Bolsheviks do with the banks? Nationalised them. 11. When did the Russian civil war begin? – May 1918 The Causes of the Russian Civil War – p50 1. 2. 3. 4. What signalled the start of the Civil war? – rebellion of Czech legions? What three colours were there in the civil war? Red, white, green How much of Russia did the red army occupy at the start of the civil war? 1/5 Why did Lenin make Moscow russia’s new capital city? As whites threatened Petrograd. 5. Who were the whites? – all opponents of Reds 6. Who was the supreme leader of the Whites? Kolchak 7. What did the Greens represent? – those who supported economic power being transferred to local groups of peasants 8. Why did Britain and france get involved? – wanted Russia to ramin in the war v Germany and didn’t like communism. 9. Who were the Czech legion? – Austro-hungarian prisoners who now fought with the allies in hope to create their own country. 10. How many were there? 40,000 11. Why did different nationalites fight again the reds and give an example? For independence eg Poles 12. How did many Russians feel about Brest Litovsk? Opposed it. Reasons for Communist victory and the importance of war communism – p52 1. Why did the whites lose – 5 reasons? 1 – lacked unified command structure and strategy 2 – spread out geographically 3 – failed to co-ordinate attacks 4 – lacked support from many Russians who identified them with former tsarist supporters 5 – Whites failed to work with Greens. 2. What kind of officers did Trotsky provide and what advantage did this give? Ex tsarist officers - experienced officers 3. What did the red army control? – railways 4. How many white armies remained in 1920? – 1 5. What was war communism? – Economic policies to win the civil war 6. What did the communists also have control of? Industrial centres 7. What did they do with industry? They nationalised it 8. What happened to grain and who was the priority to feed? Requisitioned it – priority was army and workers. 9. Who led the reds? – Lenin 10. Give an example of Trotsky’s excellent military leadership? – sent reinforcements to Petrograd and prevented Yudenich from seizing control of it. 11. By the end of which year had foreign forces left Russia? – 1919 12. What happened in the Russo-Polish war? – Russian army was defeated Causes and impact of NEP – p54 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. By 1921 there was widespread _____ in Russia? – Famine Give an example of a rebellion in the countryside? – Tambov Uprising Who rebelled in march 1921? – Kronstadt sailors Why was this so worrying? They had supported the Bolsheviks in Oct 1917. How did Trotsky put it down and how long did it take? – 50,000 red army, took 3 weeks 6. Why did Lenin introduce the NEP in 1921 and where did he do this? – needed to restore economy in Russia at the 10th party congress 7. What could it be described as TR? Tactical retreat 8. What did it allow peasants to do? Sell their goods for profit. 9. What was the Ban on factions and why was it introduced? Knew many saw it as a betrayal, members of the communist party were not allowed to form groups 10. What was democratic centralism? – all other parties were banned and decisions made by Politburo had to be supported by all communists 11. Impact of NEP? – Food shortages and famine stopped by end of 1921 12. By 1923, how much (%) of companies were owned privately? – 85% 13. What happened to live stock and cultivated land? – it increased 14. By 1926, economy had almost returned to ____ levels? Pre war 1913 15. Negative result of NEP? – Scissor crisis – falling agricultural prices while industrial ones went up 16. What did the NEP see the emergence of? Nepmen 17. What new thing was introduced in 1922? A new currency The establishment of the USSR in 1922 and the Death of Lenin – p56 1. What did Lenin do to secure communist regime after 1921? 1 – only communists could field candidates for elections to soviets 2. What happened to other political parties? - bannded 3. What was the only newspaper allowed? Communist one - Pravda 4. What was the Cheka replaced with in 1922? GPU 5. What did he do with Gulags? He explanded them 6. Who went on show trial? SRs and clergy 7. What happened to universities? - Lost their autonomy 8. When was the USSR established? Dec 1922 9. What did it stand for? Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) 10. What did it do? It brought together parts of the Russian empire 11. Each republic in the USSR had what? Their own government as part of the federal system. 12. National parliament of USSR was made up of what? Reps in a Congress of republics, combined with Congress of Soviets. 13. Which year did Lenin reduce his involvement in the party and why? 1921 as suffering side effects from shooting in 1918. 14. When did Lenin die? 1924 15. What did he say in his testament about Trotsky? – talented but arrogant 16. What did he say about Kamenev and Zinoviev? – criticised for not supporting Oct Rev 17. What did he say about Stalin? – should be removed from top branches of party as ‘too coarse’ 18. What happened to the Testament? It remained a secret.