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Content tests
Alex III – p4
1. Which year did his Dad Alex II die? – 1881
2. Which year were the serfs emancipated? – 1861
3. What did Alex II launce to emphasize the absolute political power of the Tsar? – A
4. What did the ‘Statute of State Security’ law establish? – Government controlled
courts, suspects could be put on trial without a jury
5. How many major newspapers were banned between 1882-1889? – 14
6. What became more powerful and feared? – Okhrana
7. What were increased and why? – University fees, only wealthy could attend.
8. Which year did Alex II introduce ‘Land captains’? 1889
9. Where did Land captains come from? – landed classes, to join the Zemstva
10. 1890, government set that they had the right to choose what? Juries
11. What was russification? – Russian became official language of empire, all other
languages banned.
12. What were attacks on Jews called? – Pogroms
13. Who was Alex III’s finance minister in 1881? – Bunge
14. What two things did Bunge do to help the peasants? – Established peasant land
bank, reduced amount of tax paid by peasants
15. When in the 1890s was there a big famine and how many died? 1891-1892 – 1.5-2
million died.
Content test – Witte – p6
1. When did Witte become Finance Minister? – 1892
2. What was the name of his plan? ‘The Great Spurt’
3. What 3 problems did Russia suffer from in the late nineteenth century? 1. Russian
needed more foreign investment 2. Russia needed a larger business class 3. Russia
needed more peasants to move to the cities to work in the factories.
4. Name 3 parts of his plan – 1. Government more active in economy 2. Greater
emphasis on heavy industry 3. Loans from abroad 4. Tax on peasants increased
5. Trans-Siberian railways built to exploit Siberia 6. Witte restricted working day to
11.5 hours
5. Successes – how much did Coal and iron production increase by per year %? – 8%
6. How much investment did Russia receive from 1897-1900? – 144 million roubles
7. By when was the Trans-Siberian railway almost completed? – by 1903
8. How much did St petersburg’s population increase by and between which dates? – 1
million to 2 million from 1890 to 1914
9. Name 3 failures of the plan – 1 – living conditions poor 2- more political opposition
emerged 3 – strikes were common - 4 – peasants angry by increased taxes 5 –
Russia still lagged behind countries like Germany
10. By 1913 – how many people (%) were living in towns? – still only 18%
11. Russia in more debt than other countries after the plan, but how much debt werew
they in? – 8 billion roubles.
Reign of Nicholas II – p8
When did he come to power? – 1894
What was divine right? – god given right to rule
Who did he rely on heavily to maintain security in Russia? – Ohkrana
What did he encourage against the Jews? – Pogroms
He supported the establishment of what? BH – Black Hundreds
Who was this group and what did they do? – group that supported Russian
nationalism and anti-semitism. They supported the Tsarist system of government
and used violence to intimidate workers.
7. Civil servants were poorly paid which led to … b and c? bribery and corruotion
8. Word to describe the Tsar? – I? Indecisive
9. What nationality was the Tsarina? – German by birth
10. What was her name? – Alexandra
11. What had a very important role in Russian Society? O C? – Orthodox church
12. What message did the church bring to the countryside? – that the Tsar had been
chosen by god.
Political opposition to the Tsarist system of rule – p10
Which political group had assassinated Alexander II in 1881? – the People’s Will
Whose model did the SD’s follow? – Marx’s
What was the final stage in Marx’s model? – communism
When was the SD party established? – 1898
Which year did they split? – 1903
Why did they split? – disagreed on how to lead a revolution
What was the pamphlet called that Lenin wrote? – ‘What is to be done?’
What does Bolsheviks mean… men of the ________? – ‘men of the majority’
What was the small group of revolutionaries called that Lenin wanted to lead the
revolution? ‘vanguard’
10. Who led the SR’s? – Chernov
11. What was the focus of the party? – on attracting the peasants
12. SRs were the party responsible for the most A____? Assassinations
13. What did the liberals want before 1905? – wanted a more modern western
European style of democratic government
14. How did the Liberals split after the 1905 revolution? Kadets – wanted further
political reforms after 1905, Octobrists fully accepted the reforms proposed in the
October Manifesto and did not campaign for further significant changes.
Causes of the 1905 Revolution – p12
1. How much did the population of the country increase by from 1885 to 1905? – from
98 million to 125 million.
2. When was their famine between 1900 and 1905? – 1901
3. Who was assassinated by the SRs in 1905?
4. When was the Russo-Japanese War?
5. What were the Russians forced to surrender in 1905? – Port Arthur
6. At what Battle were the Russian Baltic Fleet defeated? – Battle of Tsushima 1905?
7. Where did Bloody Sunday happen? – St Petersburg
8. What were workers demanding in 1905 when they protested? – an 8 hour day, an
elected assembly
9. Who led the protestors? Father Gapon
10. How many marched? 150,000
Key events and consequences of the 1905 revolution – p14
1. How many workers had been on strike by the end of 1905? – 2.7million
2. Who met for the first time in July 1905? – All Russian Peasants Union
3. What was the ‘Union of Unions’? – it united leaders of the Zemsta and professional
groups in demanding a new political constitution.
4. Where was the first assembly of workers established? – St Petersburg
5. How many factories did it represent? – 96
6. Why was this Soviet of workers so worrying for the Tsar? – it showed the workers
could organise themselves into an opposition group.
7. When was it closed down (which month)? - December
8. In December there was an uprising in Moscow that the Bolsheviks were involved in –
how many were killed? – 1000
9. Which navies also saw mutinies in 1905? - Russian Baltic and Pacific Navies
10. What was the October Manifesto? – it promised various political reforms and
established the Duma.
11. What other freedoms were given in the October Manifesto? – freedom of speech,
assembly and press
12. Who were the ‘union of Russian people’ linked to and what did they do? – linked to
Black Hundreds, attacked and killed those who supported reform in the countryside
and within the cities
13. What was the main weakness of opposition during 1905? – divided and poorly
organised, had different political beliefs and aims.
14. What happened to the leaders of the St Petersburg Soviet? – arrested in December
The Role and Impact of the Dumas, 1906-1914 – p18
1. April 1906, Witte helped the Tsar secure how much of a loan and from where? – 850
million roubles from france
2. Who replaced Witte in 1906? – Stolypin
3. What were the fundamental laws? – created a national parliament – lower house
known as Duma (elected) Upper house – appointed by Tsar.
4. What Article of the Fundamental laws allowed the Tsar to rule by decree? – Article
5. How long did the first Duma last? – 73 days
6. Why did it not last that long? – too radical demands such as release of political
7. How long did the second duma last? – 3 months
8. How did the police give the Tsar reason to close them down? – Police claimed that
members of the Duma were encouraging mutinies
9. How did the Tsar and Stolypin change elections for the Third Duma? – only the
wealthiest 30% could vote
10. How did this change the type of Duma? – more conservative.
11. What reforms did they pass? – Land reforms
12. When was Stolypin assassinated? – 1911
13. When was the Fourth Duma elected? – June 1912
14. What positive impact did the last two Dumas have? – replaced Land Captains with
more effective Justices of the Peace.
15. How did they improve primary education? – established universal primary education
16. What did they do to help workers? – Some health and accident insurance
programmes were developed to help workers.
Why was Stolypin important in the period 1906-1911?
1. In November 1906, what law did Stolypin pass that helped the peasants? No longer
needed permission from commune of Mir to leave.
2. What did he encourage the Peasant Land bank to do? – to give more loans to
3. What was dissolved in 1910? – All Mirs where no land redistribution had taken place
after the Emancipation of the Serfs in 1861
4. He increased incentives for the peasants to move where? - Siberia/
5. In 1905 – 20% of peasants owned land, by 1915 ___%? – 50%
6. Agricultural production increased from ____ in 1906 to ____ in 1913? - 45.9 million
tonnes to 61.7 million tonnes.
7. What prevented further improvements initiated before Stolypin’s assassination? –
World War One.
8. There was little done about industrial unrest, where was there industrial unrest
continuing? – Lena Goldfield massacre 1912 (in Siberia, Police killed strikers)
9. 1906-1914 – what percentrage of peasants had left the Mirs? – 25%
The Impact of First World War on the Russian armed forces – p22
1. Which year were there military reforms? – 1908
2. What was the ‘Grand Plan’? – it supported an offensive strategy as demanded by the
3. Name two defeats the Russians faced? Battle of Tannenberg and Masurian lakes.
4. Name two reasons they were defeated? – poor planning and co-ordination
5. How many casualties did the Russians suffer? – 230,000
6. What was the name of the inefficient command centre? - Stavka
7. What major problem did the Russians face? – transport
8. How many shells were they limited to per day? – 3 shells
9. Which year did the Tsar make himself Commander in Chief? – 1915
10. By 1916 – Russia still had the largest standing army – how big were they? – 1.7
11. How many were dead and wounded by December 1916? – 1.6 million dead, 3.9
million wounded.
The impact of First World War on Russian Politics and Economy
1. When was the ‘Progressive Bloc’ formed and by who? – 1915, by Duma
2. What was their aim? – to get Tsar to establish a Ministry of public Confidence to help
run the war
3. What did the Tsar do in response? – saw it as a threat and closed down the Duma
4. What mistakes did Tsarina make? Replaced more liberal/competent ministers,
listened to Rasputin.
5. When was Rasputin killed? – December 1916
6. Where did Strikes and protests begin to occur? – Moscow and Petrograd.
7. Who was the leader of the Duma? Rodzianko.
8. How high had inflation reached by 1917? – 200%
9. What mistake did the Tsar make when it came to alcohol? – banned the sale and
production which reduced tax the government got
10. As a result, national debt X ____? – X4
11. Peasants began to hoard grain for own use, in 1917 only ____% of total grain
harvested was sold on markets? – 10%
12. Not enough food was getting to the cities, how many wagons got to Moscow in Dec
1916 compared to 1914? – 2200 in 1914, 300 in 1916.
13. In January 1917, Petrograd only received ____% of its total grain requirements? –
14. Army was forced to halve its _______ calories per day ration? – 4000
Causes of the Russian Revolution – Feb 1917 – p26
1. How many people took to the streets to commemorate ‘Bloody Sunday’ in January
1917? – 140,000 workers
2. More strikes emerged caused by? – food shortages/poor working conditions.
3. What made the situation worse that the government announced? – rationing of
4. What happened on 23rd Feb that saw a large group of women take to the streets? –
Iinternational Women’s day.
5. Which engineering works also went on Strike at the same time? – Putilov
Engineering Works.
6. By 25 Feb – how many were on the streets? – 200,000
7. What did the Petrograd soviet establish on the 1st of March? – order no. 1 –
demanded that all officers had to be elected by their soldiers.
8. How did the Tsar attempt to regain control? – all newspapers closed down, all public
transport topped.
9. Which troops refused to fire on the demonstrators? – Cossack.
10. What happened when the Tsar boarded the train to Petrograd? – stopped by railway
strikers, Reps from Duma met with Tsar and requested abdication.
11. When did the Tsar abdicate? – 2 March.
February Revolution – p28
1. What was the key reason that the Revolution succeeded? – troops turned against
the Tsar.
2. What convinced the Tsar to resign? – it was argued it would help the Russian war
effort against Germany.
3. What did the Peasants do once the Tsar abdicated? – seized land
4. What did the Duma become? – The Provisional Government
Difficulties facing the Provisional Government – p32
1. What did the PG mainly contain and how popular were they? – kadets and
Octobrists, didn’t have popular support.
2. Who were not in the PG? – Bolsheviks or Mensheviks
3. What was the name for the way the Soviets and PG ran? – Dual Power
4. What did the PG allow more of? – Political freedoms, so could criticise government
5. Who dominated the Soviet? – SRs
6. Major decisions had to be decided by both ____ and _____? PG and Soviet.
7. Why did PG decide that Russia should stay in the war? – continue to get loans from
Britain and France, believed it was their duty, to gain territory.
8. How did the Soviet feel about war? Would only support a defensive war.
9. Who became the new prime minister of the PG in July and why was it him? –
Kerensky, he had connections in both PG and Petrograd Soviet.
10. Where did the PG fail to keep control? – in the countryside.
The Impact of Lenin’s return – p34
Who helped Lenin return and where from? – Germany, returned from Switzerland.
When did he return? – April 3rd 1917
What was his document called? – ‘April Theses’
What was his slogan? – ‘Peace, Land, Bread – All Power to the soviets’
What did Lenin demand an end to? – The War
What did his slogan do? – highlighted the weaknesses of the PG
Why did Lenin argue the soviets should govern Russia? – PG was too influenced by
middle classes and wealthy landowners.
8. What was Bolshevik membership before July 1917? – 10,000
9. When did PG have their ill-fated offensive? – June
The Significance of the July Days and General Kornilov – p36
What dates were the July Days? – 3rd to 6th of July 1917
Which naval base organised an armed demonstration? – Kronstadt
Where did they protest? – Marinsky Palace (headquarters of the PG)
How many protesters were there at the height of it? – 50,000 surrounding the
tauride palace.
5. Loyal troops were brought in, what was the result? – the demonstration collapsed
6. What was Lenin accused of and what happened to him? – being a German Spy and
he was forced to escape to Finland.
7. What was the name of the General who replaced Brusilov? – Kornilov
8. What were the PG worried about with Kornilov? – thought he was attempting a
9. What did the PG do in reaction? – armed the Red Guards and released them from
10. What happened to Kornilov? He lost support and was arrested.
11. What happened to support for the PG and support for the Bolsheviks after this
The Key events of the October 1917 Revolution – p38
1. How many Bolshevik newspapers were established across Russia? – 41
2. What were the Red Guards? – Bolshevik soldiers
3. Why did Lenin want to seize power before November? – nervous about Constituent
assembly elections
4. Who did Lenin have to persuade to support an armed seizure of power? – Bolshevik
Central Committee
5. Which two members of the party opposed this? – Zinoviev and Kamenev
6. Who led the revolution? Trotsky
7. What was he placed in charge of? The Military Revolutionary committee
8. What action by the PG triggered the revolution? – shutting down of two Bolshevik
9. Where were PG members arrested? – Winter Palace
10. What did Kerensky do? – fled, hoping to gain support of the American Embassy
11. All Russian Soviet met that night (25 Oct) – how many seats did the Bolsheviks get? –
390, Mensheviks 80, SRs – 180.
12. What did the All Russian Soviet support? – the decision to remove the PG
Extent of Bolshevik Support in October 1917?
1. By September 1917, how big was Bolshevik membership? – 300,000
2. What was the most popular party among the peasants? – SR
3. Where was Bolshevik support more concentrated? – cities
Why did Bolsheviks succeed in Oct 1917?
1. Who played the most important role in Bolshevik success in 1917? – Lenin
2. Who had the PG failed to attract support from? – the workers
3. What did the Mensheviks and SRs never do in contrast to Bolsheviks? – develop a
clear strategy to gain power.
4. What crucial mistake did the Mensheviks make? – didn’t support creation of Soviet
government during July days, support deteriorated rapidly.
5. Most major mistake by PG? – kornilov affair
Establishment of Sovnarkom and closing of Constituent assembly – p46
1. What 5 problems did Lenin face once he had taken power? 1- war with Germany 2
– peasants seizing land 3 – limited support in countryside 4 – state bank refused to
provide Bolsheviks with financial support 5 – Lenin know SRs would win in
forthcoming elections
2. What 3 decrees did Lenin pass? 1- Land decree redistributing land 2- Peace decree
seeking end to the war 3 – decree to establish a new gov organisation.
3. What was the top of the new government called? – Sovnarkom
4. Who was chairman of it? – Lenin
5. Who was below sovnarkom and who dominated it? – All Russia Congress of Soviets,
dominated by Bolsheviks.
6. Who was under the All Russia Congress of Soviets? – representatives from cities,
local soviets etc.
7. When were the constituent assembly elections due? 12th November
8. How much of the vote did the SRs get? 40.4% - largest party in CA
9. How much did the Bolsheviks get? 24%
10. Where did Bolsheviks have considerable support? – Petrograd and Moscow
11. How many people had voted for them? 10 million
12. When did the CA meet and what did Lenin do? They met 5 Jan, Lenin demanded it
should be subservient to sovnarkom. CA rejected this – Lenin used red guards to
close it down… hopes for democracy ended.
Early measures to secure Communist control and establishment of Police State – p48
1. Who conducted peace negoitations for Lenin? – Trotsky
2. What was the Treaty called that was agreed? Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
3. Which areas did they lose? Baltic states (Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia), Poland and
4. How much of their arable land did they lose? – 32%
5. How much of their railways? – 26%
6. When was the treaty signed? – March 1918
7. What did Lenin establish in Dec 1917? – The Cheka
8. What was their role? To end gov strikes, eliminate political opponents, shoot
desserters from red army.
9. What was the ‘red terror’? – anyone who criticised the government could be
arrested and many people were shot without trial.
10. What did the Bolsheviks do with the banks? Nationalised them.
11. When did the Russian civil war begin? – May 1918
The Causes of the Russian Civil War – p50
What signalled the start of the Civil war? – rebellion of Czech legions?
What three colours were there in the civil war? Red, white, green
How much of Russia did the red army occupy at the start of the civil war? 1/5
Why did Lenin make Moscow russia’s new capital city? As whites threatened
5. Who were the whites? – all opponents of Reds
6. Who was the supreme leader of the Whites? Kolchak
7. What did the Greens represent? – those who supported economic power being
transferred to local groups of peasants
8. Why did Britain and france get involved? – wanted Russia to ramin in the war v
Germany and didn’t like communism.
9. Who were the Czech legion? – Austro-hungarian prisoners who now fought with the
allies in hope to create their own country.
10. How many were there? 40,000
11. Why did different nationalites fight again the reds and give an example? For
independence eg Poles
12. How did many Russians feel about Brest Litovsk? Opposed it.
Reasons for Communist victory and the importance of war communism – p52
1. Why did the whites lose – 5 reasons? 1 – lacked unified command structure and
strategy 2 – spread out geographically 3 – failed to co-ordinate attacks 4 – lacked
support from many Russians who identified them with former tsarist supporters 5 –
Whites failed to work with Greens.
2. What kind of officers did Trotsky provide and what advantage did this give? Ex
tsarist officers - experienced officers
3. What did the red army control? – railways
4. How many white armies remained in 1920? – 1
5. What was war communism? – Economic policies to win the civil war
6. What did the communists also have control of? Industrial centres
7. What did they do with industry? They nationalised it
8. What happened to grain and who was the priority to feed? Requisitioned it – priority
was army and workers.
9. Who led the reds? – Lenin
10. Give an example of Trotsky’s excellent military leadership? – sent reinforcements to
Petrograd and prevented Yudenich from seizing control of it.
11. By the end of which year had foreign forces left Russia? – 1919
12. What happened in the Russo-Polish war? – Russian army was defeated
Causes and impact of NEP – p54
By 1921 there was widespread _____ in Russia? – Famine
Give an example of a rebellion in the countryside? – Tambov Uprising
Who rebelled in march 1921? – Kronstadt sailors
Why was this so worrying? They had supported the Bolsheviks in Oct 1917.
How did Trotsky put it down and how long did it take? – 50,000 red army, took 3
6. Why did Lenin introduce the NEP in 1921 and where did he do this? – needed to
restore economy in Russia at the 10th party congress
7. What could it be described as TR? Tactical retreat
8. What did it allow peasants to do? Sell their goods for profit.
9. What was the Ban on factions and why was it introduced? Knew many saw it as a
betrayal, members of the communist party were not allowed to form groups
10. What was democratic centralism? – all other parties were banned and decisions
made by Politburo had to be supported by all communists
11. Impact of NEP? – Food shortages and famine stopped by end of 1921
12. By 1923, how much (%) of companies were owned privately? – 85%
13. What happened to live stock and cultivated land? – it increased
14. By 1926, economy had almost returned to ____ levels? Pre war 1913
15. Negative result of NEP? – Scissor crisis – falling agricultural prices while industrial
ones went up
16. What did the NEP see the emergence of? Nepmen
17. What new thing was introduced in 1922? A new currency
The establishment of the USSR in 1922 and the Death of Lenin – p56
1. What did Lenin do to secure communist regime after 1921? 1 – only communists
could field candidates for elections to soviets
2. What happened to other political parties? - bannded
3. What was the only newspaper allowed? Communist one - Pravda
4. What was the Cheka replaced with in 1922? GPU
5. What did he do with Gulags? He explanded them
6. Who went on show trial? SRs and clergy
7. What happened to universities? - Lost their autonomy
8. When was the USSR established? Dec 1922
9. What did it stand for? Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
10. What did it do? It brought together parts of the Russian empire
11. Each republic in the USSR had what? Their own government as part of the federal
12. National parliament of USSR was made up of what? Reps in a Congress of republics,
combined with Congress of Soviets.
13. Which year did Lenin reduce his involvement in the party and why? 1921 as
suffering side effects from shooting in 1918.
14. When did Lenin die? 1924
15. What did he say in his testament about Trotsky? – talented but arrogant
16. What did he say about Kamenev and Zinoviev? – criticised for not supporting Oct Rev
17. What did he say about Stalin? – should be removed from top branches of party as
‘too coarse’
18. What happened to the Testament? It remained a secret.