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Caput VIII Review
Third Conjugation: Present Infinitive, Imperative,
Present System in the Indicative
* Present system includes the present, imperfect and future tenses.
The 3rd conjugation is distinguished from the rest by the short –ere in the infinitive.
Ex.
Third Conjugation gerō, gerere, gessī, gestum
• be careful not to confuse the 3rd conjugation verbs with the 2nd
Second Conjugation moneō, monēre, monuī, monitum
Present Tense
To find the stem of the verb, follow the same rules for the 1st and 2nd conjugations:
drop the –re from the infinitive
gerere – re = gere
gere is the stem
To form the present tense, change the stem vowel, –e– , to an –i– and then add the personal endings.
Exception:
In the 3rd person plural the stem vowel changes to an –u–.
Sing
Plural
1st
gerō
gerimus
nd
2
geris
geritis
3rd
gerit
gerunt
Imperfect Tense
The formation of the imperfect tense is the same for all conjugations:
–ba + personal endings are added to the stem
For the 3rd conjugation, the stem vowel lengthens from a short –e– to a long –ē–.
Sing
Plural
1st
gerēbam
gerēbāmus
nd
2
gerēbās
gerēbātis
3rd
gerēbat
gerēbant
Future Tense
The tense indicator –bi– is NOT used to indicate the future for the 3rd conjugation. To form the present,
the stem vowel lengthens from a short –e– to a long –ē– and the personal endings are added.
Exception:
1st person singular has an –a– instead of an –ē–
Sing
Plural
st
1
geram
gerēmus
2nd
gerēs
gerētis
rd
3
geret
gerent
Present Imperative
The 2nd person singular present active imperative is formed just as the 1st and 2nd conjugations, the stem
of the verb.
gere manage!
To form the plural, change the stem vowel to an –i– and add –te.
gerite! (you all) manage!
There are a few verbs whose singular imperatives are irregular (the plural forms are regular):
dīc (dicō), dūc (dūcō), fac (faciō), fer (ferō)