G. Thomas Goodnight ASC Core Course Fall 2012 Humanities and Social Science Approaches to Human Communication II Syllabus: Communication 525 READINGS: Meenakshi Gigi Durham and Douglas M. Kellner, Media and Cultural Studies: Key Works. Blackwell, 2006. B. J. Fogg, Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do. Kauffman: 2002. (MCS) Books must be ordered. Additional readings are posted on Black Board (BB), available through the library at Communication & Media Complete, or through Google Scholar. SOURCES: The course will take up core views of communication. Select readings are provided. You may wish to try through Alibris or other used book sites to find: Floyd W. Matson and Ashley Montagu, eds. The Human Dialogue: Perspectives on Communication, New York: Free Press, 1967; Lee Thayer, ed. Communication: Concepts and Perspectives, London: MacMillan, 1967; Stephen W. Littlejohn, Theories of Human Communication, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1983; C. David Mortensen, Problematic Communication: The Construction of Invisible Walls, Westport, CT: Praeger, 1994; Robert T. Craig and Heidi L. Muller, Theorizing Communication: Readings Across Traditions, Los Angeles: Sage, 2004; Kenneth K. Sereno and C. David Mortensen, Foundations of Communication Theory, New York: Harper and Row, 1970; Julia T. Wood, Communication Mosaics: An Introduction to the Field of Communication. GOALS: The objectives of this course are several. First, the course introduces key thinkers and organizes theoretical spaces within the field of Communication. Second, the course identifies critical communication inquiry at the individual, group, public and collective levels of theory and practice. Third, the course discusses strategies of engagement or thinking that could extend, modify, or overturn standing theoretical positions and initiate new inquiry. Critique and criticism are developed. Fourth, the course engages development and reflection on digital age communication study. The course is taught from the position of Critical Communication Inquiry, namely that theories and practices of communication are constructed with various strengths and weaknesses, insights and blind spots. Study will equip students to explore how we moved (and continue to accelerate) from modern traditions of inquiry dominated by concerns with modern, mass media to the evolving contexts of a twenty-first century communications revolution. REQUIREMENTS: Requirements will be discussed at the opening seminar. As a strategy, the seminar is composed of many short readings, clustered around key topics and authors in the formation of the discipline. Supplemental readings are provided in some cases. Reading and participation is expected for all A level grades. OFFICE: Mr. Goodnight occupies 206A ASC West Wing. Phone 213-821-5384. The course subscribes to the Graduate School rules on academic integrity. Tentative Syllabus 1. T Aug 28 Introduction: Critical Communication Inquiry What is to become of the area, field, or discipline of communication? Christopher Simpson, “World War and Early Modern Communication Research,” Science of Coercion, pp. 15-30, Oxford Univ. Press, 1994. BB Steven Chafee & Everett Rogers, “Institutionalization of Advanced Communication Study at American Universities,” in The Begininnings of Communication Study in America, pp. 155-180, Sage Publications, 1997. BB Herbert Laswell, “The Emerging Discipline of Communications,” 6 (1958), 245-254. Gordon A. Sabine, “The Emerging Discipline of Communications,” Journal of the University Film Producers Association 11 (1958), 3-5, 13-15. Craig Calhoun, “Communication as Social Science (and More),” IJOC 4 (2011), 1479-1496. Thomas A. Discenna, “Academic Labor and the Literature of Discontent in Communication,” International Journal of Communication 5 (2011), 1843-1852. Cheryl L. Coyle and Heather Vaughn, “Social Networking: Communication Revolution or Evolution?” Bell Labs Technical Journal 13:2 (2008), 13-18. Cathy Davidson, “Let’s Talk about MOOC (online) Education—And Also About Massively Outdated Traditional Education (MOTEs),” Hastac.org, 2012. Supplement Bibliography, The Human Dialogue. Stephen Littlejohn, “The Status of Human Communication Theory,” Theories of Human Communication, 299-309. 2. T Sep 4 Communication Theories How do communication models constitute or regulate inquiry? Wayne E. Brockriede, “Dimensions of the Concept of Rhetoric,” Foundations of Communication Theory, 25-39. Dean C. Barnlund, “A Transactional Model of Communication,” Foundations of Communication Theory, 83-102. Frank Dance, “The Concept of Communication,” The Journal of Communication 20 (1970), 201-210. Thomas R. Nilsen, “On Defining Communication,” Foundations of Communication Theory, 15-24. Frank E. X Dance, “A Helical Model of Communication,” Theories of Human Communication, 103-107. Robert T. Craig and Heidi L. Muller, “Communication Theory as a Field,” Theorizing Communication, 6392. Richard McKeon, “The Uses of Rhetoric in a Technological Age: Architectonic Productive Arts,” in M. Bachman (ed.), Rhetoric: Essays in Invention and Discovery, 1971, 1-24. Julia Wood, “Communication as a Field of Study,” in Communication Theories in Action, pp. 11-40, Wadsworth, 1997. BB Supplement Stephen Littlejohn, “Theory in the Process of Inquiry,” Theories of Human Communication, 2nd ed. Wadsworth, 9-25. Gerard A. Hauser & Donald P. Cushman, “McKeon’s Philosophy of Communication: The Architectonic and Interdisciplinary Arts,” Philosophy & Rhetoric, 1973, 6, 211-234. David Depew, “Revisiting Richard McKeon’s Architectonic Rhetoric: A Response…”, 2010. 3. T Sep 11 The Library & the Archive: Spaces for Communication Inquiry Of what use are the archeological and anthropological approaches to communication study? Hanah Arendt, “Society and Culture,” The Human Dialogue, 346-354. Leo Lowenthal, “Communication and Humanitas,” The Human Dialogue, 335-345. Ernst Cassirer, “The Power of Metaphor,” Myth and Language, S. Langer, trans. Dover: 1946, 83-99. Dell Hymes, “The Anthropology of Communication,” Human Communication Theory, 1-39. Hans Blumenberg, “An Anthropological Approach to the Contemporary Significance of Rhetoric,” After Philosophy, K. Baynes, J. Bohman, and T McCarthy, eds., MIT Press, 1987: 429-57. BB Michel Foucault, “Discourse Formation,” Archeology of Knowledge Tavistock, 1978, 21-39. BB Gary R. Radford, “A Foucauldian Perspective of the Relationship between Communication and Information,” Between Communication and Information, Schement and Ruben eds., Transaction, 1993, 105-114. BB Raymie E. McKerrow, “Critical Rhetoric: Theory and Praxis,” Communication Monographs 56 (1989), 91111. BB Barbara Beisecker, “Of Historicity, Rhetoric: The Archive as Scene of Invention, Rhetoric and Public Affairs 9 (2006), 124-131. BB Supplement G. Thomas Goodnight, “The Nuclear Age,” Dubrovnik Yugoslavia, 1987. BB 4. T Sep 18 Phenomenology & the Life World What is it to experience communication or not? William Ernest Hocking, “Knowledge of Other Minds,” The Human Dialogue, 539-547. Gabriel Marcel, “Intersubjectivity,” The Human Dialogue, 118-127. Rita Felski, “The Invention of Everyday Life,” New Formations, 59, 15-31, 1999. BB Alfred Schutz, The Phenomenology of the Social World, G. Walsh and F Lehnert, trans., 1967. C. David Mortensen, “The Construction of Interpersonal Boundaries,” Problematic Communication, Praeger, 1994, 109-132. BB Robert L. Scott, “Dialectical Tensions of Speaking and Silence,” Quarterly Journal of Speech 79 (1993), 118. C. David Mortensen, “Silence, Discourse and Dialogue,” Problematic Communication, Praeger, 1994, 73108. BB Abraham H. Maslow, “Isomorphic Interrelationships Between Knower and Known,” The Human Dialogue, 195-206. Carl R. Rogers, “The Therapeutic Relationship: Recent Theory and Research,” The Human Dialogue, 246259. Supplement Maurice Natanson, “The Privileged Moment: A Study in the Rhetoric of Thomas Wolfe,” Quarterly Journal of Speech 2:43 (1957), 143-151. BB 5. T Sep 25 Social Theory and Symbolic Action: Self, Society & Existence Why does communication generate symbolic worlds? Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. “Free Trade in Ideas,” The Human Dialogue, 295-300. BB George Herbert Mead, “Thought, Communication and the Significant Symbol,” The Human Dialogue, 397-403. BB Peter L. Berger & Thomas Luckmann, “The Foundations of Knowledge in Everyday Life,” in The Social Construction of Reality, 1968, 19-46. Julia Wood, “Theories about Symbolic Action,” in Communication Theories in Action, pp. 125-157, Wadsworth, 1997. BB Kenneth Burke, “Dramatism,” International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. D. L. Sills, pp. 445447, 1968. BB Hans H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills, “Symbol Spheres in Society,” The Human Dialogue, 404-410. Hugh Duncan, “Communication and Social Oder,” The Human Dialogue, 383-396. Herbert Blumer, “Social Problems as Collective Behavior,” Social Problems, 3:18 (1971), 298-306. BB Herbert Blumer, “Fashion: From Class Differentiation to Collective Selection,” Sociological Quarterly 3:10 (1969), 275-291. BB David Cratis Williams, “Educational Trajectories for Open and Democratic Societies: Kenneth Burke's 'Linguistic Approach,' in Smudde (ed.) Humanistic Critique of Education: Teaching and Learning as Symbolic Action, pp. 208-231. BB Supplement: Stephen Littlejohn, “Symbolic Interaction and Rules Theory,” Theories of Human Communication, 45-73. Kenneth Burke, “The Rhetoric of Hitler’s Battle,” The Philosophy of Literary Form, pp. 191-220, 1973. BB Thomas B. Farrell, “Knowledge, Consensus, and Rhetorical Theory,” Quarterly Journal of Speech, 1976, 6 1-14. Susanne K Langer, “On a New Definition of ‘Symbol,” The Human Dialogue, 548-554. 6. T Oct 2 Systems World: Cybernetics How does autonomic communication shape and position the system world? Ludwig von Bertanlanffy, “The Mind-Body Problem: A New View,” Human Dialogue, 224-245. Anthony Giddens, “The Orthodox Consensus and the Emerging Synthesis,”in Rethinking Communication, Vol. 1, Paradigm Issues, Sage Publications, 1989, pp. 53-65. BB Paul Dell, “Understanding Bateson and Maturana—Toward a Biological Foundation for the Social Sciences,” Journal of Marital and Fmaily Therapy, 1985, 1, 1-20 Nicolas Luhman, “What is Communication?” Communication Theory, 2 (1992), 251-259. BB Nicolas Luhman, “On the Scientific Context of the Concept of Communication,” Social Science Information 35 (1996) 257-267. Norbert Weiner, “Cybernetics and Society,” The Human Dialogue, 15-23. BB Leah Ceccarelli, “Manufactured Scientific Controversy: Science, Rhetoric and Public Debate,” Rhetoric and Public Affairs 14:2 (2011). BB Lee Thayer, “Deconstructing Information,” Between Communication and Information, Schement and Ruben eds, Transaction, 1993, 105-114. BB Paul Weiss, “Love in a Machine Age,” The Human Dialogue, 67-70.BB Supplement Stephen W. Littlejohn, “General Systems Theory and Cybernetics,” Theories of Human Communication, 2nd ed. Wadsworth, 29-43. 7. T Oct 9 Institutions, Risk & Reflexivity How do state of the art institutional practices of communication embed and change? Peter L. Berger & Thomas Luckmann, “Institutionalization,” The Social Construction of Reality, 1968, 4792. Peter L. Berger & Thomas Luckman, “Legitimation,” The Social Construction of Reality, 1968, 92-128. F. A. Hayek “Rules, Perception, and Intelligibility,” The Human Dialogue, 555-578. Jack Knight, “Spontaneous Emergence of Social Institutions,” Institutions and Social Conflict, Cambridge University Press, 123-170. Anthony Giddens, Consequences of Modernity, Polity Press, 1990. pp. 1-55; 79-111. BB. Ulrich Beck, “Living in a World Risk Society,” Economy & Society, 35(3), 329-345: 2006. BB Alan Scott, “Risk Society or Angst Society? Two Views of Risk, Consciousness, and Community,”in The risk society and beyond: Critical issues for social theory, pp. 33-46, Sage Publications, 2000. Scott Lash, “Risk Culture,” in The risk society and beyond: Critical issues for social theory, pp. 47-62, Sage Publications, 2000. Hilary Rose, “Risk, Trust, and Skepticism in the Age of New Genetics,” in The risk society and beyond: Critical issues for social theory, pp. 63-77, Sage Publications, 2000. Friedericke Shultz & Juliana Raupp, “The social construction of crises in governmental and corporate communications: An inter-organizational and inter systemic analysis,” Public Relations Review, 36, 112119: 2010. BB Supplement Lee Thayer, Communication and Organization Theory,” Human Communication Theory, 70-115. 8. T Oct 16 Culture, Ideology and Hegemony What powers drive class, consciousness and communication? Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, “The Ruling Class and the Ruling Ideas,” MCS, 9-12. Antonio Gramsci, “(1) History of the Subaltern Classes; (ii The Concept of ‘Ideology’; (iii) Cultural Themes: Ideological material,” MCS 13-18. Walter Benjamin, “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction,” MCS, 18-40. Jurgen Habermas, “The Public Sphere: An Encyclopedia Article,” MCS 73-78. Jurgen Habermas, Theory of Communicative Action, Volume I, 1-43. BB Stuart Hall, “Ideology & Communication Theory,” in Rethinking Communication, Vol. 1, Paradigm Issues, Sage Publications, 1989, pp. 40-52. BB Louis Althusser, “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses,” MCS 79-89. Michael C. McGee, “The Ideograph: A Link Between Rhetoric and Ideology,” Quarterly Journal of Speech 66 (1980), 1-16. BB 9. T Oct 23 The Masses, Social Life & Critical Inquiry What is media to the masses and to its forerunners? Roland Barthes, “(1) Operation Margarine; (ii) Myth Today,” MCS, 99-106. Marshall McLuhan, “The Medium is the Message,” MCS, 107, MCS 107-117. Raymond Williams, “Base and Superstructure in Marxist Cultural Theory,” MCS 130-143. Dick Hebdige, “(1) From Culture to Hegemony; (ii)_ Subculture: The Unnatural Brea,” MCS, 163-173 Ien Ang, “On the Politics of Empirical Audience Research,” MCS, 174-194. Maurice Charland, “Constitutive Rhetoric: The Case of the Peuple Québécois,” Quarterly Journal of Speech 2:73 (1987), 133-150. BB Kurt Lang, Gladys Engel Lang, “Mass Society, Mass Culture, and Mass Communication: The Meanings of Mass,” IJOC 3 (2009), 998-1024. BB C. David Mortensen and Carter Morgan Ayres, “Symbolic Violence,” Problematic Communication, 178220. BB Supplement Stephen Littlejohn, “The Mediated Context: Theories of Mass Communication,” Theories of Human Communication, 263-295. BB George Gerbner, “Mass Media and Human Communication Theory,” Human Communication Theory, 4060. 10. T Oct 30 Practice & Political Economy of Communication What is the role of communication in political economic formations? Nicholas Garnham, “Contribution to a Political Economy of Mass-Communication,” MCS 201-229. Dallas W. Smythe, “On the Audience Commodity and its Work,” MCS, 230-256. Edward Herman and Noam Chomsky, “A Propaganda Model,” MCS, 257-294. Herbert I Schiller, “The Not Yet Post-Imperialist Era,” MCS, 295-310. Elieen R. Meehan, “Gendering the Commodity Audience,” MCS, 311-321. Pierre Bourdieu, “(1) Introduction; (ii) The Aristocracy of Culture,” MCS 322-328. Luc Boltanski and Laurent Thevenot, “The Six Worlds,” On Justification: Economies of Worth, C Porter trans. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 159-203. BB G. Thomas Goodnight and Sandy Green, “The Dot-Com Bubble,” Quarterly Journal of Speech (2010). BB Ron Greene, “Rhetorical Capital: Communicative Labor, Money/Speech, and Neo-Liberal Governances, Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies 4 (2007), 327-331. Tiziana Terranova, “Communication Beyond Meaning: On the Cultural Politics of Information,” Social Text, 80, 51-73: 2004. BB Supplement Luc Boltanski & Eve Chiapello, “The New Spirit of Capitalism,” International Journal of Politics, Culture, & Society, 18, 161-188: 2005. BB Fiona Allon, “Speculating on Everyday Life: The Cultural Economy of the Quotidian,” Journal of Communication Inquiry, 34, 366-381: 2010. BB 11. T Nov 6 Communication 2.0: Captology and Digital Rhetorics What are the characteristic communicative projects and practices of the digital age? B. J. Fogg, Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do. Kauffman: 2002. Selections Bernadine Atkinson, “Captology: A Critical Review,” Persuasive Technology, 3972, 171-182: 2006. BB Per F. V. Hasle, “The Persuasive Expansion, Rhetoric, Information Architecture, and Conceptual Structure,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4068, 2-21. BB Adami, “The Rhetoric of the Implicit and the Politics of Representation in the age of Copy-andpaste, Learning, Media and Technology, 2, 131-144: 2012. BB Fransman & Andrews, “Rhetoric and the Politics of Representation and Communication in the Digital Age,” Learning, Media, and Technology, 37, 125-130: 2012. BB James P. Zappen, “Digital Rhetoric: Toward an Integrated Theory,” Technical Communication Quarterly, 14, 319-325: 2005. BB 12. T Nov 13 Communication Work, Labor & Play What is communicative work, labor and play? Hannah Arendt, “Labor,” The Human Condition, 1958, 79-135. BB Hannah Arendt, “Work,” The Human Condition, 1958, 136-174. BB Tiziana Terranova, “Free Labor: Producing Culture for the Digital Economy,” 2003. http://www.electronicbookreview.com/thread/technocapitalism/voluntary Trebort Scholz and Paul Hartzg. “Toward a Critique of the Social Web,” http://www.republic.gr/en/?p=201> Julian Kucklich, “Precarious Plabour: Modders and the Digital Games Industry, 2005. <http://five.fibreculturejournal.org/fcj-025-precarious-playbour-modders-and-the-digital-gamesindustry/> Michel Bauwens, “the Social Web and Its Social Contracts: Some Notes on Social Antagonism in Netarchical capitalistm.” Re-Public, (2003). Re-Public Re-Imagining Democracy, 2009. <http://www.re-public.gr/en/?p=261>. Leopalidina Fortunati, “Immaterial Labor and its Machinations,” Ephemera: Theory & Politics in Organization, 7, 1473-2866: 2007. BB Michael Hardt, “Affective Labor,” Boundary 2, 26(2), 89-100: 1999. BB 13. T Nov 20 Digital Public Sphere What unfolds a digital public sphere? Lincoln Dahlbeg, “The Internet, Deliberative Democracy, and Power: Radicalizing the Public Sphere,” MCP, 2007, 3, 47-64. Michal Froomkin, “HabermasDiscourse.net: Toward a Critical Theory of Cyberspace,” Harvard Law Review, 116, pp. 751-873: 2003. BB Ruiz et al., “Public Sphere 2.0?” The International Journal of Press/Politics, 2011, 16, 463-487. BB Clay Shirky, “The Political Power of Social Media Subtitle: Technology, the Public Sphere, and Political Change,” Foreign Affairs, 90, pp.28-35: 2011. BB Maria A. Simone, “Deliberative Democracy Online: Bridging Networks with Digital Technologies,” The Communication Review, 13, 120-139: 2010. BB. Peter Dahlgren, “Internet Public Spheres and Political Communication,” Political Communication, 22, 147-162: 2005. BB Jodi Dean, “Why the net is Not a Public Sphere,” Constellations, 10, 95-112: 2003. BB Gary Hall, “Antipolitics and the Internet,” in Digitize This Book: The Politics of New Media or Why We Need Open Access Now, Univ. of Minnesota Press, 2008, pp.105-150. BB Gary Hall, “HyperCyberDemocracy,” in Digitize This Book: The Politics of New Media or Why We Need Open Access Now, Univ. of Minnesota Press, 2008, pp.167-186. BB Laura McKenna, “Getting the Word Out: Policy Bloggers Use their Soap Box to Make Change,” Review of Policy Research, 24, 209-229: 2007. BB Bjarki Valtysson, “Review—the Digital Public Sphere: Challenges for Media Policy,” International Journal of Cultural Policy, 2012, 18, 255-257. BB Supplement Todd Davies and Seeta Pena Gangadharan, “Online Deliberation: Design, Research and Practice,” 2009. BB Michael Xenos, “New Mediated Deliberation: Blog and Press Coverage of the Alito Nomination,” Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 13, 485-503: 2008. BB 14. T Dec 4 Critical Geography & Urban Communication What are the socioaesthetic relations among space, territory, time and circulation? Nicolas Blomley, “The Spaces of Critical Geography,” Progress in Human Geography, 2007, 1-9. Lawrence D. Berg, “Scaling Knowledge: Towards a Critical Geography of Critical Geographies,” Geoforum 35, 2004, 553-558. BB Kenneth Zagacki & Victoria Gallagher, “Rhetoric and Materiality in the Museum Park in the North Carolina Museum of Art,” 2009, Quarterly Journal of Speech, 95, 171-191. BB David Pinder, “Arts of Urban Exploration,” Cultural Geographies, 2005, 12, 383-411. BB Rita Felski, “Everday Aesthetics,” The Minnesota Review, 2008, pp. 171-179. BB Jeff Rice, “Urban Mappings: A rhetoric of the network,” Rhetoric Society Quarterly, 38, 198-218. BB Margaret Laware, “Encountering Visions of Aztlan—Arguments for Ethnic Pride, Community Activism, and Cultural Revitalization in Chicano Murals,” Argumentation & Advocacy, 34, 140-153. BB Jeremy Crampton, “Maps as Social Constructions: Power, Commu8nication, and Visualization,” Human Geography, 2001, 25, 235-252. Nicholas Blomley, “Critical Geography: Anger and Hope,” Progress in Human Geography, 31, 53-65. Nancy Ettlinger, “Toward a Critical Theory of Untidy Geographies: The Spatiality of Emotions in Consumption and Production,” Feminist Economics, 10(3), 21-54: 2004. BB William J. Mitchell, “Designing the Digital City,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2000, 1765, 1-6. Carole Blair, “Reflections on Criticism and Bodies: Parables from Public Places,” Western Journal of Communication, 65, 271-294: 2001. BB 15. T Dec 11 Diaspora, Globalization & Critical Cosmopolitanism Is a global field of critical communication inquiry possible, and if so, who must we become to appreciate and critique it? Arjun Appadurai, “Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy, MCS, 584-603. Annabelle Srenberny, “The Global and the Local in International Communications,” MCS, 604-620. J. Martin-Barbero, “The Processes: From Nationalisms to Transnationalism,” MCS, 658-680. Joseph Staubhaar, “(Re)Asserting National Television…,” MCS, 681-702. Richard Kahn and Douglas M. Kellner, “Oppositional Politics and the Internet,” MCS, 703-726. Chandra Talpade Mohanty, “Under Western Eyes: Feminist Scholarship and Colonial Discourses,” MCS, 396-421. Roza Tsagarousianou, “Rethinking the Concept of Diaspora: Mobility, Connectivity and Communication in a Globalised World,” Westminster Papers in Communication and Culture 1 (2004), 52-65. George Delanty, “The Cosmopolitan Imagination: Critical Cosmopolitanism and Social Theory,” The British Journal of Sociology 57: 1 (2006), 25-53. BB Ulrich Beck, “The Cosmopolitan Society and its Enemies,” Theory, Culture and Society 19 (1-2): 17-40. BB J. Habermas, “Equal Treatment of Cultures and the Limits of Postmodern Liberalism,” the Journal of Political Philosophy 13(1): 1-28. BB Seyla Benhabib, “The Philosophical Foundations of Cosmopolitan Norms,” Another Cosmopolitanism, Robert Post, ed. New York: Oxford, 2005. ASSIGNMENT Reports DUE SEPTEMBER 15. EVERYONE. SEND PRECISE AS ATTACHED FILE TO LAURA ALBERTI. The precise should follow the format of the samples placed on Blackboard under Paul Strait. Good precise will cover the readings assigned, be clear, define terms, select important quotations, identify key concepts and influences, as well as briefly bio the author(s). The test of an A level precise is whether it appears as a keeper—an adequate study guide for qualifying examinations. DUE SEPTEMBER 18-OCTOBER 23. FIRST ROUND OF REPORTS. Reports should summarize materials on the precise, but extend beyond the precise to include cases, examples, other publications that give the class an idea of why the subject is important. The test of an A level report is whether it is well timed, carefully crafted, presented in memorable fashion (connecting key concepts with important examples), and fresh— including spot research. Reports should be coordinated across the members presenting on a given day. DUE OCTOBER 26. EVERYONE. SEND PRECISE AS ATTACHED FILE TO LAURA ALBERTI. The precise should follow the format of the samples placed on Blackboard under Paul Strait. Good precise will cover the readings assigned, be clear, define terms, select important quotations, identify key concepts and influences, as well as briefly bio the author(s). The test of an A level precise is whether it appears as a keeper—an adequate study guide for qualifying examinations. The second report should show improvement over the first, adding new strategies, thoughtfulness, commenting on class developments. DUE OCTOBER 30-december 11. SECOND ROUND OF REPORTS. Reports should summarize materials on the precise, but extend beyond the precise to include cases, examples, other publications that give the class an idea of why the subject is important. The test of an A level report is whether it is well timed, carefully crafted, presented in memorable fashion (connecting key concepts with important examples), and fresh— including spot research. Reports should be coordinated across the members presenting on a given day. The second presentation should very early techniques, create a product, open spaces for discussion—in short, do more as one learns about the field, classmates, and areas of common interest. CLASS PREPARATION: Students are expected to come prepared to discuss, having read the articles and the precise. Questions should be directed at those giving reports. An A will not be awarded to anyone who goes through the semester making no contribution to discussion or simply not showing up to class 2 to 3 times or more.