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CHAPTER 5 (104-127)
 Navigation
 Circumnavigate
 expansionism
 Indigenous
 Compass
 Astrolabe
 Geographia
 Cross-Staff
 Back-Staff
CHAPTER 5 (104-127)
 Navigation - the science of determining the course, position, and distance travelled,
especially of a ship
 Circumnavigate - travel completely around something, as in circumnavigate the
 expansionism the actions and attitudes of a state or country whose goal is to
expand its power and territory
 Indigenous someone born in a country; the first inhabitants of an area
 Compass – an instrument used for finding the direction a ship is travelling – origin
China about 1700 yrs ago – used by Muslim travellers
 Astrolabe - used the North Star or Sun to calculate latitude, the distance north
or south of the Equator – probably the Ancient Greeks, further developed by Arab
mathematicians and astronomers
 Geographia – manuscript written by the ancient geographer and astronomer
Ptolemy – rediscovered before the Renaissance
 Cross-Staff - used to measure the altitude of the Pole star above the horizon to
determine latitude invented around 1342 for astronomy and first used around 1514
for navigation
 Back-Staff - used to measure the altitude of the Sun to determine latitude developed in 1594 as an improvement over the cross-staff
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