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Name ___________________________________
Period ___________
Name: _________________________
Per. ________
John Gast’s “Progress”
Directions: John Gast titled this painting “Progress.” Circle and label at least 5 things from the chart that you see in his picture
that show the progress & growth of the nation.
extending the telegraph cables to the Native Americans traveling westward
with their families
the Pony Express
the California gold miners
the railroad extending west
the settlers moving west
the buffalo thunder across the plain
the stagecoach moves west
farmers plowing the land acquired
from the Native Americans
using rivers/canals for transportation
Extending the telegraph
cables to the West
Name: __________________________
Per. __________
SHORT ANSWER: Please answer the following questions in full sentences.
1. As the nation expanded west, name two of the benefits that progress would have provided.
2. Who would have benefited the most from the advances of progress and why?
3. Who would have perceived the advances of progress as a negative and why?
EXTRA CREDIT: Historians write of the rise and fall of civilizations as inevitable. How would you apply this
statement to the painting?
Stellar Example: _YES
Name: _________________________
Per. ________
Step 1: Read the statements and choose true or false for each (BY PLACING A LARGE CIRCLE IN THE BOX) showing your educated
Step 2: Watch the video(s) on Manifest Destiny and then check Chapter 12 (on the pages listed) and determine if those statements
are actually true or false. Mark the correct/actual answer by placing an X in the box.
Page #
1. The Oregon Territory, which included 5 different states and parts of British
Columbia, was claimed by Russia, Spain, Great Britain, and the United States.
p. 359
2. Mountain men played a key role in trade and eventually settlement in the West.
p. 361
3. Manifest Destiny is the belief that God has given Americans the right to extend the
country’s western boundaries.
pp. 363
4. Americans received land grants from Mexico to settle Texas.
p. 367
5. Texas colonists had to agree to learn Spanish, become Mexican citizens, convert to
Catholicism, and obey Mexican laws in exchange for land at low prices.
p. 367
6. The Republic of Texas declared its independence from Mexico in 1836.
p. 369
7. Spanish explorers and Mexican missionaries settled California in the 1700’s.
p. 374
8. The United States went to war with Mexico over California and New Mexico;
American troops marched from Veracruz to Mexico City and captured it.
p. 377
9. American officers from this war much later fought in the Civil War. Think of the
p. 375
year(s) of the Mexican/American War…if soldiers were 18 in that war, could they have fought
in the Civil War, which was in 1861-1865?
10. The first Chinese immigrants arrived in California during the Gold Rush of 1849.
p. 379
11. A boomtown is a surround sound center in the early settlements of the West.
p. 379
12. The first Levis (blue jeans) were sold in California during the Gold Rush.
p. 380
13. Utah was settled by Mormons, a religious group which had started in New York,
moved to Illinois and then fled farther west to escape persecution.
p. 382
14. California and New Mexico were once the northern-most states of Mexico.
p. 375
Name: __________________________
Per. __________
Step 3: Explain only the number you were assigned on the lines below.
1. If true: why did each think they should own it?
2. If true: who were the mountain men? Why did they
eventually move west?
3. If true: what had changed in America’s “purpose”
since 1800?
4. If true: why did Spain want to offer these land
5. If true: where did Mexican leaders hope to get
settlers from? Where did most actually come from?
6. If true: what happened “at the Alamo?”
If false: who did claim it?
If false: what was their important role?
7. If true: what was their purpose for settling there?
If false: who did settle it? Why?
8. If true: what was Polk’s argument over this land?
If false: what capital did they actually take? what were
they fighting over?
If false: what age would those soldiers have been in 1861?
Why wouldn’t they have fought in the Civil War?
9. If true: what age would those soldiers have been in
1861? Would they have been
10. If true: why did they come here?
If false: what does it mean?
If false: what were these grants for?
If false: what were the requirements for land
If false: was the Alamo important? Why or why not?
If false: when did the first Chinese come?
11. If true: why did they have surround sound?
If false: what actually is a boomtown? What caused them?
12. If true: why were Levis so important? Why not buy
other jeans?
13. If true: why were they not accepted (persecuted)?
If false: when were they sold? Why?
14. If true: what president wanted that land? How
much was he willing to pay?
If false: what was the northernmost border of Mexico?
If false: who was their leader?
Stellar Example: _YES
Primary & Secondary Sources
Name: _________________________
Per. ________
Comparing Primary & Secondary Sources
Directions: Answer the following questions after reading “Manifest Destiny” in your textbook on p. 363 and
Gallatin’s & O’Sullivan’s opinions on p. 364-365.
1. According to the textbook (p. 363), by the 1800s the mission of the U.S. was to:
a) to gain more land
b) to spread freedom by taking over the whole continent
c) to dominate the globe
2. In the textbook (p. 363), John O’Sullivan thinks Manifest Destiny was to:
a) spread out and control the land which God has given us
b) to create great Providence
c) to dominate the globe
3. In the textbook p. (p. 364), Albert Gallatin thinks the motivation of Manifest Destiny
a) because Americans have a racial superiority over Mexicans
b) to justify the Americans taking land of the Native Americans
c) to justify the Americans taking land of the Mexicans
4. In the textbook (p. 365) how does John O’Sullivan view those who oppose our Manifest
a) they’re intruders on our land
b) they are limiting our greatness, stopping God’s wishes
c) as signs of our nationality
Name: __________________________
Per. __________
Text Evidence
It is campaign time prior to the 1844 Presidential Election. You are one of the
presidential candidates. You attend a debate, where you are asked the following
“What are you feelings regarding Manifest Destiny?”
Directions: Write your response to the question asked. Keep your answer short & sweet, but be sure to include at
least three examples of text evidence from Chapter 12, section 1 (pp. 358-365) to support your stance on the
Stellar Example: _YES
Name: _________________________
Per. ________
After viewing the Discovery video segments on the Revolution in Texas, use not only the following
timeline on the movement towards the independence of Texas but also the letters on pages 9 and
10 to complete the questions on p. 11.
Mexico declares its independence from Spain
Anglos immigrate into the sparsely populated territory of Texas at the invitation
of the government of Mexico
Americans agree to uphold the Mexican Constitution of 1824
Mexico outlaws slavery in 1829
Alarmed by the growing American influence in Texas, Mexican government
issues a decree that stops all immigration from the U.S., but encourages the
immigration of European and Mexican families
General Antonio López de Santa Anna overthrows the Constitution of 1824 and
names himself dictator
1833-1834 War in Texas begins as a Civil War between Federalists (Mexicans and
Americans who wanted the Constitution of 1824 reinstated) and Santa Anna
While a small group of Texans valiantly defend the Alamo against Santa Anna’s
army, Texas declares its independence. Texans no longer want the Constitution
of 1824—they want their own country, so they establish the Republic of Texas.
Texans eventually win and Texas becomes its own country or republic in 1836. In
1845, the U.S. annexes Texas and it becomes the 28th state.
This causes major problems with Mexico and starts the Mexican-American War.
The U.S. wins that war and annexes a huge swath of land.
 Is the U.S. free to annex Texas once it wins its independence? Why would Mexico
object to the American annexation of Texas?
Name: __________________________
Per. __________
Document A (modified)
Texas Declaration of Independence (March 2, 1836) [Adapted]
When a government has ceased to protect the lives, liberty and property of the
people . . . it is the right of the people to abolish such government, and create another
one that will secure their future welfare and happiness.
General Santa Anna, has overturned the constitution of his country, and now offers
us the cruel option either to abandon our homes, or submit to the most intolerable of all
The Mexican government has failed to establish any public system of education…
It denies us the right of worshipping the Almighty as we want to…
It has demanded that we give up our arms, which are essential to our defense…
It has invaded our country both by sea and by land, with intent to lay waste our
territory, and drive us from our homes…
It has encouraged the merciless Indians to massacre the inhabitants of our
defenseless frontiers….
We, therefore, do hereby resolve and declare, that our political connection with the
Mexican nation has forever ended, and that the people of Texas do now constitute a free,
Sovereign, and independent republic…
Document B (Modified)
We cannot trust the Anglo-American colonists because they are continually
demonstrating that they refuse to follow our laws, unless it is convenient for them. We
will have many problems if we do not stop their disrespectful behavior by stationing
soldiers and a Mexican judge in each settlement. They have been using their own
colonists as judges and practicing their own laws, forgetting that they swore to obey the
laws of Mexico.
Source: The letter above was written by Rafael Antonio Manchola, a Tejano (Mexican living in
Texas). He wrote this letter about the Anglo-Americans in 1826 to a military commander.
Stellar Example: _YES
Name: _________________________
Per. ________
Document C (Modified)
Colonel Juan Seguin's
Alamo Defenders' Burial Speech, April 4, 1837
Companions in Arms!! These remains which we have the honor of carrying on our
shoulders are those of the brave heroes who died in the Alamo. Yes, my friends, they
preferred to die a thousand times rather than submit themselves to the tyrant's yoke. Yes,
soldiers and fellow citizens, these are the worthy beings who, by the twists of fate,
delivered their bodies to the ferocity of their enemies. I invite you to declare to the entire
world, "Texas shall be free and independent or we shall perish in glorious combat."
Source: Colonel Juan Seguin's Alamo Defenders' Burial Speech, April 4, 1837. Seguin was a Mexican
who supported the Texas Revolution and fought with the American settlers against General Santa Anna.
This speech was given at the burial of the men who died at the Alamo.
Document D (Modified)
We have been asked to believe that the inhabitants of Texas have been fighting to
maintain the sacred principles of Liberty, and the natural, inalienable Rights of Man:--whereas, their motives have been exactly the opposite. The immediate cause and main
goal of this war—led by the slaveholders of this country, (with land speculators and
slave traders)---has been to grab the large and valuable territory of Texas from the
Mexican Republic, in order to re- establish the SYSTEM OF SLAVERY; to open a vast
and profitable SLAVEMARKET; and, ultimately, to annex it to the United States.
Source: Benjamin Lundy became active in the antislavery movement in the 1820s. He organized
abolitionist societies, lectured extensively, and contributed to many abolitionist publications. He wrote this
pamphlet called The War in Texas in 1836. Lundy argued that the Texas revolution was a slaveholders'
plot to take Texas from Mexico and to add slave territory to the United States.
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Name: __________________________
Per. __________
Purpose of
Justified in
Yes/No because
Character of Texans
fighting for freedom
Greedy? Etc.)
Text evidence
supporting position
taken above
Document you find
11 | P a g e
Stellar Example: _YES
Name: _________________________
Per. ________
Complete the 7 steps of this mapping activity. Grading will be based on location accuracy, neatness, and correct
1. IN GREEN Draw the boundaries of the United States after the Revolution.
a) Trace the Canadian boundary from about 95⁰ W longitude to the Atlantic Ocean.
b) Trace the Mississippi River north from the Gulf of Mexico to Lake Itasca in Minnesota. Draw a wavy line from the lake
north to the Canadian boundary.
c) Trace Florida’s northern boundary and then continue the line west to the Mississippi.
d) Write U.S. 1783 inside this area.
2. IN RED Draw the boundaries of the Louisiana Territory.
Trace the Eastern boundary of Texas.
Extend the line west along the Red River to 100⁰ west longitude.
Go north along the 100⁰ line to the Arkansas River, then follow the river west into the Rocky Mountains.
From there draw a wavy line northwest to Glacier National Park in Montana. (The line is wavy to show that this part of
the boundary was roughly drawn.
e) Continue the line east along the Canadian boundary until it meets the boundary for the U.S. in 1783.
f) The northern boundary of the territory was not settled as you drew it until 1818. North of that boundary, write TREATY
LINE 1818.
g) Write LOUSIANA PURCHASE 1803 inside the territory.
3. IN ORANGE Underline Florida’s name on the map and write 1819 below it.
4. IN BLUE mark the boundaries of what was then the Texas Territory.
Trace the Rio Grande from the Gulf of Mexico to its source in the Jan Juan Mountains in Colorado.
Continue the line west to the A in Mountains (Rocky Mountains).
Go directly north to the boundary of the Louisiana Purchase.
Underline Texas’s name on the map and write 1845 below it.
5. IN PURPLE Label the area called the Oregon Country.
a) Trace the rest of the Canadian boundary west to the Pacific.
b) Trace the southern boundaries of Oregon and Idaho, and extend this line east to the other territories.
c) Label the area OREGON COUNTRY 1846.
6. IN YELLOW Label the land that Mexico ceded (gave up) in the Southwest.
a) Mark an X where the western boundary of the Texas Territory crosses the southern boundary of New Mexico. Draw a line straight
west from your X to just beyond the western boundary of New Mexico.
b) Next go north to the Gila River. Then trace the river to the California boundary and follow that line to the Pacific.
c) Label the area north of this line MEXICO CESSION 1848.
7. IN PINK Label the land that the U.S. bought from Mexico.
a) Trace Mexico’s boundary from El Paso to Southern California.
b) Label this region GADSEN PURCHASE 1853.
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1 pt per blank
Name: __________________________
Per. __________
DIRECTIONS: Read Ch. 12.3 (pp. 373-377) and fill in the blanks using the words in the box. Some words might
not be used.
Guadalupe Hidalgo
James K. Polk
New Mexico
Rio Grande
Mexican Cession
Bear Flag
Santa Fe Trail
John C. Frémont
Stephen Watts Kearny
Zachary Taylor
Mexico City
The (1) __________________________ Territory was inherited by Mexico from Spain. American
trader William Becknell established the (2) ___________________________________ as the major route
into the territory. Mexico also owned (3) _______________________ , where settlers established huge
estates called (4) ________________________________ .
President (5) ______________________ wanted to obtain these lands from Mexico through war.
He ordered General (6) ___________________________ to enter disputed land to provoke a Mexican
attack, which resulted in a declaration of war.
General (7) ____________________________ captured Santa Fe while (8) _______________ ___
____________________ set out to conquer California . This angered the (9) ____________________ ,
Mexicans who lived in the newly proclaimed (10) ________________________ Republic. Their revolt
was put down, and California was under full American control.
General Winfield Scott captured (11) ___________________________ , and the Mexican
government surrendered . In the Treaty of (12) ________________________________ , Mexico gave up
Texas and agreed to the (13) ______________________ as the border between them. The United
States gained California and New Mexico through the (14) ___________________________ .
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Stellar Example: _YES
Name: _________________________
Per. ________
Directions: Complete the 5 steps of this mapping activity. Grading will be based on location accuracy,
neatness, and correct color usage. YOU WILL NEED PURPLE, GREEN, BLUE, RED, AND ORANGE.
1. Trace the Santa Fe Trail IN PURPLE.
a) The trail began in Independence, Missouri. Show its location with an X just east of Kansas City, Missouri. Print INDEPENDENCE to
the right of your X.
b) From there draw a line to where the Arkansas River reaches farthest north in central Kansas.
c) Trace the river southwest to Dodge City, Kansas.
d) Extend the line southwest to Santa Fe, New Mexico, and circle that city’s name.
e) Print SANTA FE TRAIL just north of your line.
2. Trace the Spanish Trail IN GREEN.
Draw a line from Santa Fe northwest to Durango, Colorado.
Continue northwest to Grand Junction, Colorado.
From there go southwest to Lake Mead, between Nevada and Arizona.
From Lake Mead, extend the line southwest to Los Angeles, California.
Print SPANISH TRAIL just north of the line.
3. Trace the Oregon Trail IN BLUE.
Start the Oregon Trail at Independence. Draw a line from there northwest as far as the Platte River in Nebraska.
Continue west along the Platte and its northern branch as far as Casper, Wyoming.
Extend the line from there to the southwestern corner of Wyoming.
Now go northwest until you reach the Snake River in Idaho.
Follow the Snake River west to the line at 115⁰ west longitude.
From there go straight northwest to where the Snake River meets the Columbia River in Washington.
Finally, continue west along the Columbia River to Vancouver, Washington.
Print OREGON TRAIL just north of the line in Idaho and Wyoming.
4. Trace the Mormon Trail IN RED.
a) The Mormon Trail began at Nauvoo, Illinois. Show Nauvoo’s location with an X along the Mississippi River just north of Missouri
and Iowa border.
b) Print NAUVOO to the right of your X.
c) From Nauvoo draw a dashed line west to the Oregon Trail.
d) Continue the dashed line along the Oregon Trail to the southwest corner of Wyoming. Draw the dashed line a little south of the
Oregon Trail.
e) Continue the line southwest to Salt Lake City and circle that city’s name.
f) Print MORMON TRAIL along the dashed line in Nebraska and Iowa.
5. Trace the California Trail IN ORANGE.
a) Start the California Trail at the point where the Oregon Trail first hits the Snake River in Idaho. Draw a line from there southwest
to Reno, Nevada.
b) Now extend the line southwest to Carson City, Nevada,
c) Extend the line southwest to Sacramento, California.
d) Label the line CALIFORNIA TRAIL.
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Name: __________________________
Per. __________
Main Idea
Directions: Read the following passage, and then answer the questions that follow.
The area of North America west of the Rocky Mountains remained remote in the early 1800s. Up until the
1830s, there were few people other than mountain men and fur traders in the Oregon country. Oregon was
also disputed territory in the early 1800s, with claims by the United States, Britain, Spain, and Russia.
In 1818 the United States and Britain arranged for joint occupation of Oregon. In 1819 Spain gave up its
claim to Oregon. Russia, concentrating on Alaska, gave up its claim to Oregon in 1824. Lured by stories of
abundant, fertile land, the emigration of United States citizens to Oregon increased during the 1830s and
1840s. By the mid-1840s, the population of United States citizens in Oregon had increased to 5,000, whereas
the British population was only about 700. Most United States citizens came over the 2,000-mile long
Oregon Trail, from Independence, Missouri, to the mouth of the Columbia River. Portland was the gateway to
the wet, fertile Willamette River valley where most people settled. By 1846 Britain and the United States
resolved the dispute over Oregon.
_____1. Which of the following was a consequence of the many early European explorations of Oregon?
a. Maps of Oregon were not very accurate
b. Many countries claimed land in Oregon
c. No one ever returned to Oregon
d. Americans were interested in Oregon
_____2. What might have happened if Britain had not been willing to settle its dispute with the United States
over Oregon in 1846?
a. The U.S. would have given up its claim
b. The Oregon Trail would have been closed
c. The U.S. and Britain could have gone to war
d. Britain would have gone to war with France
_____3. How do you think the arrival of new American settlers in Oregon would affect the local Native
American populations?
a. The new settlements would not affect them
b. The population of Native Am. would increase
c. Other Native Am. would move to Oregon
d. The population of Native Am. would decrease
Raft-Journal Entry on your experience as a teenager on the Oregon Trail (3 facts and content vocabulary)
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Stellar Example: _YES