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ISBN: 9780300099133
Lavinia Fontana
A Painter and Her Patrons in Sixteenth-century Bologna
By Caroline P. Murphy
Bolognese painter Lavinia Fontana was the most significant and prolific woman artist of Renaissance Europe.
Her large and renowned body of work encompasses several genres, including altarpieces, history paintings, and
portraits. This extensively illustrated book is the first comprehensive study of Fontana in the English language.
Caroline P. Murphy assesses the relation of Fontana’s native city Bologna to the artist’s work and career,
proposing that the unique attributes of the city, its religious and social climate, and the citizens who became
Fontana’s patrons contributed importantly to her success as an artist.
The book discusses sixteenth-century Bologna’s economics and emergent artistic culture, how and why Fontana
became an artist, her crucial relationship with the noblewomen who became her most loyal patrons, both as
married women and as widows, and the portraits and religious works she created for Bolognese children.
Employing an especially varied set of source materials, from personal letters and property inventories to
scientific treatises, the volume focuses bright new light on the Italian Renaissance world in which Lavinia
Fontana lived and worked.
Caroline P. Murphy is assistant professor of art history at the University of California, Riverside.
Female Painters of the Italian Renaissance
Posted 26th July 2011 by Carol Hendricks
Due to a variety of factors there were far fewer female artists than male in Italy during the Renaissance, but there
were definitely several important women painters. As most artists in the Renaissance were trained as part of an
apprenticeship living with the master, it wouldn't have been a suitable atmosphere for a very young woman to live
and train in. Most young artist began an apprenticeship between the ages of 12-14 and typically female artists were
trained by their fathers, husbands or other family members.
Unfortunately today their names aren’t often well known and I would like to briefly introduce the work and lives of
three such important Italian female painters to my blog readers, we will look at them in chronological order
The Chess Game, Sofonisba Anguissola, 1555, Museum Navrodwe, Poznan, Poland
Sofonisba Anguissola (1532–1625) was born and raised in the Lombardy region and was
predominantly a portrait painter, during her life she lived at the court in Spain. Anguissola was
unusual in that she wasn't trained by a family member. Instead her wealthy and well educated
father wanted each of his seven children to be fully educated. They were trained in painting,
music, foreign language and literature and Anguissola was recognized right away to have a
natural talent for painting. Her father even had some correspondence with Michelangelo
regarding her art.
She traveled to Sicily (both Lombardy and Sicily were under Spanish rule at the time) before
being appointed to the Spanish Royal Court. Anguissola appears to be the first artist who
created a group portrait (such as the one above) where the sitters were shown immersed in daily
activity. Observe her clever take on the self-portrait (below) called Bernardino Campi Painting
Sofonisba Anguissola from the late 1550's. This both showed her own self-portrait and showed
the fact that a well known artist had painted her.
Sofonisba Anguissola lived to the age of 97.
Bernardino Campi Painting Sofonisba Anguissola, Anguissola, late 1550's,
Pinacoteca Nationale, Siena
Portrait of a Noblewoman, Lavinia Fontana, 1580, National Museum of Women in the Arts,
Lavinia Fontana (1552–1614) was a Bolognese painter, and the city of Bologna provided unique
opportunities for women. The University of Bologna was one of the first in Europe and women
were able to study a variety of subjects there. Lavinia Fontana trained with her father, Prospero
Fontana, among his other students was the famous Ludovico Caracci. Later the Caracci family
opened the Accademia degli Incamminati in 1580, which was one of the first art schools and
helped secure a new fame for Bolognese artists. Fontana married and had many children,
however in a reversal of typical roles her husband became her studio assistant and was the main
caretaker for their children.
Fontana was a successful and highly sought after painter in Bologna and her art supported the
family with numerous commissions. After a prominent Cardinal from Bologna was made Pope,
she and her family moved to Rome and she continued a successful painting practice there.
As a painter Fontana was known for her use of Venetian coloring, and dramatic and naturalistic
subjects, she painted both portraits and large-scale religious scenes.
Still-Life with Apples and Peaches, Fede Galizia, 1607, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Fede Galizia (1578–1630) was a Milanese still-life painter. After the Reformation of the church, many painters in
Northern, Protestant countries turned away from religious painting and some of the less important subcategories of
painting such as still-live and landscape became more popular. This then had an effect on all painting as Catholic
countries such as Italy and Spain also developed a tradition of still-life painting. Moving away from narrative and
figurative work gave women more of a chance to practice art. As it was, women would not be permitted to practice
drawing from a male nude model in a life drawing class, thus making it much harder to paint accurate looking figures.
Galizia's father was a well known miniaturist painter, and from him Galizia learned to paint a variety of subjects and
genres, including also painting miniatures and portraits. However Galizia was best known for her extremely realistic
still-lives which are composed using a very strong light source and vibrant coloring such as the two examples seen
White Ceramic Bowl with Peaches and Red and Blue Plums, Fede Galizia, 1610
Silvano Lodi Collection, Campione, Italy