THE ROMANS By Ruby Street-Worne The romans invaded The Romans came to Britain nearly 2000 years ago and changed our country. Even today, evidence of the Romans being here, can be seen in the ruins of Roman buildings, forts, roads, and baths can be found all over Britain. Roman Invasion First invasion - Caesar's first raid In August 55 B.C. (55 years before Jesus was born) the Roman general, Emperor Julius Caesar invaded Britain. He took with him two Roman legions. After winning several battles against the Celtic tribes (Britons) in south-east England he returned to France. Second invasion - Caesar's second raid The following summer (in 54 B.C.) Caesar came to Britain again landing at Walmer near Deal in Kent. This time he brought with him no fewer than five legions (30,000 foot soldiers) and 2,000 cavalrymen (horse riders). This time the Romans crossed the River Thames. After more fighting, the British tribes promised to pay tribute to Rome and were then left in peace for nearly a century. rd 3 INVASION Nearly one hundred years later, in 43 A.D. Emperor Claudius organised the final and successful Roman invasion of Britain. General Aulus Plautius led four legions with 25,000 men, plus an equal number of auxiliary soldiers. They crossed the Channel in three divisions, landing at Richborough, Dover, and Lympne. Roman Weapons Pilum- throwing spear A soldier carried two spears to throw at the enemy. The spears were just over two metres* long and they were designed to bend and stick in the enemy's shield so he cannot use it to protect himself. They were difficult to pull out and will bend on impact, so they couldn't be thrown back at the attacking Roman soldiers. Gladius- sword The sword was very important. It was light and short (no more than 50 cm) so soldiers can use it for stabbing quickly. Pugio - dagger The pugio was a small dagger used by Roman soldiers as a sidearm. It was worn on left side. Jupiter GODS Apollo Mars Neptune Cupid Roman clothes Rich women wore long tunics made from expensive cotton or silk. They also wore lots of jewelry and make-up, strong scent and elaborate hairstyles. They had specially trained slaves to help them dress. arrange their hair and put make up on their faces. Roman armour Metal Jacket This flexible armour was made up of metal strips held together with metal ties. They were so heavy that soldiers had to help each other to put them on. Tunic The tunic was worn underneath the armour. This was made of rough wool and reached down to the middle of the thigh. It was not until later that short trousers were worn down below! Sandals (caligae) These sandals were designed to help the Romans march for long distances. They were strong, well ventilated and allowed the soldiers to march very quickly. The sandals often had metal studs at the bottom to make them last longer. ROMAN BATHS Every town had its own bath complex (like a large swimming pool). There were 170 baths in Rome during the reign of Augustus and by 300 A.D that number had increased to over 900 baths. Roman towns Most towns would also have shops as well as the forum. At one end of the forum was a large building called the basilica. There were temples too where the Roman gods were worshipped. Some towns had public baths, an open-air theatre and huge monumental arches. Gladiators The word 'gladiator comes from the Latin word for sword, gladius, so it literally means a swordsman. The best way to get a man to fight to the death is to use a man who has nothing to lose, which is why slaves, criminals, and prisoners-of-war were ideal for the job. If a man was really good, he might keep winning and get his freedom.