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THE ROMANS
By Ruby
Street-Worne
The romans invaded
The Romans came to Britain nearly 2000 years ago and
changed our country. Even today, evidence of the Romans
being here, can be seen in the ruins of Roman buildings, forts,
roads, and baths can be found all over Britain.
Roman Invasion
First invasion - Caesar's first raid
In August 55 B.C. (55 years before Jesus was
born) the Roman general, Emperor Julius
Caesar invaded Britain. He took with him two
Roman legions. After winning several battles
against the Celtic tribes (Britons) in south-east
England he returned to France.
Second invasion - Caesar's second raid
The following summer (in 54 B.C.) Caesar came
to Britain again landing at Walmer near Deal in
Kent. This time he brought with him no fewer
than five legions (30,000 foot soldiers) and
2,000 cavalrymen (horse riders). This time the
Romans crossed the River Thames. After more
fighting, the British tribes promised to pay
tribute to Rome and were then left in peace
for nearly a century.
rd
3
INVASION
Nearly one hundred years later, in 43 A.D.
Emperor Claudius organised the final and
successful Roman invasion of Britain. General
Aulus Plautius led four legions with 25,000
men, plus an equal number of auxiliary
soldiers. They crossed the Channel in three
divisions, landing at Richborough, Dover, and
Lympne.
Roman Weapons
Pilum- throwing spear
A soldier carried two spears to throw at the
enemy. The spears were just over two metres*
long and they were designed to bend and stick
in the enemy's shield so he cannot use it to
protect himself. They were difficult to pull out
and will bend on impact, so they couldn't be
thrown back at the attacking Roman soldiers.
Gladius- sword
The sword was very important. It was light and
short (no more than 50 cm) so soldiers can use
it for stabbing quickly.
Pugio - dagger
The pugio was a small dagger used by Roman
soldiers as a sidearm. It was worn on left side.
Jupiter
GODS
Apollo
Mars
Neptune
Cupid
Roman clothes
Rich women wore long tunics made from
expensive cotton or silk. They also wore lots of
jewelry and make-up, strong scent and
elaborate hairstyles. They had specially trained
slaves to help them dress. arrange their hair
and put make up on their faces.
Roman armour
Metal Jacket
This flexible armour was made up of metal
strips held together with metal ties. They were
so heavy that soldiers had to help each other
to put them on.
Tunic
The tunic was worn underneath the armour.
This was made of rough wool and reached
down to the middle of the thigh. It was not
until later that short trousers were worn down
below!
Sandals (caligae)
These sandals were designed to help the
Romans march for long distances. They were
strong, well ventilated and allowed the soldiers
to march very quickly. The sandals often had
metal studs at the bottom to make them last
longer.
ROMAN BATHS
Every town had its own bath complex (like a
large swimming pool). There were 170 baths in
Rome during the reign of Augustus and by 300
A.D that number had increased to over 900
baths.
Roman towns
Most towns would also have shops as well as
the forum. At one end of the forum was a large
building called the basilica. There were
temples too where the Roman gods were
worshipped. Some towns had public baths, an
open-air theatre and huge monumental
arches.
Gladiators
The word 'gladiator comes from the Latin word
for sword, gladius, so it literally means a
swordsman.
The best way to get a man to fight to the death
is to use a man who has nothing to lose, which
is why slaves, criminals, and prisoners-of-war
were ideal for the job. If a man was really
good, he might keep winning and get his
freedom.